Timeline of Art and Culture in the 20th and 21st Century

A list of major events selected by piero scaruffi

An Appendix to the Visual History of the Visual Arts


See also:

1864: Matthew Arnold's essay "The Function of Criticism in the Present Time"
1884: The French writer Joris Huysmans publishes the novel "Against the Grain"
1885: The French writer Emile Zola publishes the novel "Germinal"
1885: Arthur Sullivan and William Gilbert create the operetta "The Mikado"
1885: William Burroughs develops an adding machine
1885: William Le Baron Jenney builds a ten-story building in Chicago
1885: Benjamin Keith and Edward Albee set up a nation-wide chain of vaudeville theaters, the first infusion of capitalism into mass entertainment
1886: Friedrich Nietzsche publishes "Beyond Good and Evil"
1886: German engineer Karl Benz builds a gasoline-powered car
1887: Emile Berliner builds the first gramophone, that plays sound recorded at 78 RPM on a flat record
1888: George Eastman introduces the first consumer camera, the "Kodak"
1888: The Nicaraguan poet Ruben Dario writes "Azul"
1888: The Swedish playwright August Strindberg stages "Miss Julie"
1889: French engineer Gustave Eiffel builds an iron tower as the entrance arch for the World's Fair in Paris
1889: Giuseppe Peano publishes "Arithmetices Principia Nova Methodo Exposita"
1889: Henri Bergson publishes "Time And Free Will"
1889: The Italian writer Giovanni Verga publishes the novel "Mastro don Gesualdo"
1889: Vincent VanGogh paints "Starry Night"
1889: Charles Zidler and Joseph Oller open the "Moulin Rouge"
1889: Auguste Rodin sculpts "The Gates of Hell"
1890: The Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen stages "Hedda Gabler"
1890: Marius Petipa choreographs Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's ballet "The Sleeping Beauty"
1890: William James publishes "The Principles of Psychology"
1891: Georges Seurat paints "Le Cirque", a masterpiece of "Pointillism"
1892: Petr Tchaikovsky composes "The Nutcracker"
1892: The German playwright Gerhart Hauptmann stages "The Weavers"
1892: The Neuschwanstein Castle, designed by Christian Jank, is completed in Germany
1893: Antonin Dvorak composes "Symphony 9"
1893: Edvard Munch paints "The Scream"
1893: Ragtime pianists are a sensation at the Chicago World Fair
1894: Claude Debussy composes "Prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune"
1894: The Norwegian writer Knut the novel "Hamsun" Pedersen publishes the novel "Pan"
1895: The "Art Nouveau" movement is started in Paris by Czech artist Alfons Mucha's poster advertising Victorien Sardou's play "Gismonda"
1895: The British playwright Oscar Wilde stages "The Importance of Being Ernest"
1895: The Czech poet Vaclav Jebavy "Otokar Brezina" writes "Mysterious Distances"
1895: The German writer Theodor Fontane publishes the novel "Effi Briest"
1895: The first Biennale is held in Venezia/Venice
1896: The French playwright Alfred Jarry stages "Ubu Roi" and founds Pataphysics, "the science of imaginary solutions"
1896: Giacomo Puccini composes the opera "La Boheme"
1896: Richard Strauss composes "Also Sprach Zarathustra"
1896: The Austrian playwright Arthur Schnitzler stages "Hands Around"
1896: The comic strip "Yellow Kid" by Richard Outcault debuts
1896: USA architect Louis Sullivan proclaims that "form follows function"
1897: Henri Rousseau paints "Sleeping Gypsy"
1898: A group of photographers in Munich exhibit their work under the title of "Secessionists"
1898: Konstantin Stanislavsky's Moscow Art Theater stages Anton Chekhov's play "The Seagull"
1899: The Brazilian writer Machado de Assis publishes the novel "Don Casmurro"
1900: Edmund Husserl publishes "Logical Investigations"
1900: Sergej Rachmaninov composes "Piano Concerto 2"
1900: Sigmund Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"
1901: The German writer Thomas Mann publishes the novel "Buddenbrooks"
1901: The first Nobel Prize is awarded
1902: Georges Melies creates the short film "Voyage to the Moon"
1902: Gustav Klimt paints the "Beethovenfries"
1902: The Croatian playwright Ivo Vojnovic stages "The Dubrovnic Trilogy"
1902: USA architect Daniel Burnham designs the "Flatiron" in New York
1903: Edwin Porter directs the film "The Great Train Robbery"
1903: Frantz Jourdain and others found the Salon d'Automne (Autumn Salon), an annual art exhibition in Paris
1904: The British writer Joseph Conrad publishes the novel "Nostromo"
1904: The German playwright Frank Wedekind stages "The Book of Pandora"
1904: The biologist Ernst Haeckel publishes "Art Forms of Nature"
1904: The Italian writer Luigi Pirandello publishes the novel "The Late Mattia Pascal"
1904: The USA writer Henry James publishes the novel "The Golden Bowl"
1905: Alfred Stieglitz founds the art gallery "Little Galleries of the Photo-Secession", later renamed "291"
1905: Expressionism is born in Dresden with the group "Die Bruecke"
1905: The comic strip "Little Nemo" by Winsor Mccay debuts
1906: Ferdinand de Saussure begins teaching the "Course of General Linguistics" in which he pioneers "structuralism"
1906: 1906: Thaddeus Cahill builds the first electronic instrument
1906: Vsevolod Meyerhold produces Aleksandr Blok's play "Balaganchik"
1906: Henri Matisse paints "Joy of Life", a masterpiece of "Fauvism"
1906: Paul Cezanne paints "Mont Saint Victoire"
1906: Ernst Jentsch publishes "On the Psychology of the Uncanny"
1907: Alfred Stieglitz takes the photograph "The Steerage"
1907: Florenz Ziegfeld's "Ziegfeld Follies" debut
1907: Pablo Picasso paints "The Yound Women of Avignon", a painting with multiple simultaneous perspectives
1907: The Irish playwright John Synge stages "The Playboy of The Western World"
1908: Georges Braque's paintings launch Cubism in Paris
1908: Wilhelm Worringer pubishes "Abstraction and Empathy"
1908: The Austrian architect Adolf Loos proclaims that architectural ornament is criminal
1908: The Austrian writer Arthur Schnitzler publishes the novel "The Road Into the Open"
1909: Filippo Marinetti publishes the "Futurist Manifest" in Paris
1909: Isadora Duncan in Paris inaugurates a style of solo improvisational dance
1909: Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev revives ballet in Paris with the establishment of the "Ballets Russes"
1909: The Metlife tower in Madison Square is the tallest building in the world
1910: Aleksander Skryabin composes "Prometheus" featuring an instrument projecting light instead of playing sound
1910: August Sander begins the project "Man of the Twentieth Century" of photographs of ordinary Germans
1910: David-Ward Griffith directs the film "Old California" in the little village of Hollywood, north of Los Angeles
1910: Gustav Mahler composes his "Symphony 9"
1910: The British writer Edward-Morgan Forster publishes the novel "Howards End"
1910: The Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore writes "Song Offerings"
1911: Igor Stravinsky composes the ballet "Petrushka", choreographed by Mikhail Fokine for Diaghilev with Vaslav Nijinsky as lead dancer
1911: Jan Sibelius composes "Symphony 4"
1911: Marc Chagall paints "I and the Village"
1911: Sonia Terk, Robert Delaunay and Frantisek Kupka begin painting in the "Orphic" style
1911: Success of the "Amazons", female avantgarde painters (Alexandra Exter, Natalia Goncharova, Liubov Popova, Olga Rozanova, Varvara Stepanova, and Nadezhda Udaltsov)
1912: Carl Jung publishes "Psychology of the Unconscious"
1912: Picasso and Braque produce the first collages
1912: Gabrielle "Coco" Chanel opens a boutique of fashion design
1912: Mack Sennett founds the "Keystone Studios" to produce "slapstick" films
1912: Marcel Duchamp paints "Nude Descending a Staircase #2"
1912: The Russian writer Boris Bugayev the novel "undrey Bely" publishes the novel "Petersburg"
1912: The Spanish poet Antonio Machado-y-Ruiz writes "Fields of Castilla"
1913: Aleksei Kruchenykh writes a libretto in zaum language and Kazimir Malevich designs the stage for Mikhail Matyushin cubist-futurist opera "Victory Over the Sun"
1913: Walt Kuhn and Arthur Davies organize an exhibition of international avantgarde art, the "Armory Show"
1913: The "Ziegfeld Follies" launch the first "dance crazy", the "foxtrot"
1913: Danish architect Peter-Jensen Klint designs the Gruntvig Church in Copenhagen
1913: Indian poet Tagore becomes the first Nobel laureate of Asia
1913: Louis Feuillade directs the film "Fantomas"
1913: Marcel Duchamp realizes the first kinetic sculpture, "Bicycle Wheel"
1913: The French poet Guillaume Apollinaire writes "Alcools"
1913: The Italian "futurist" Luigi Russolo publishes "L'Arte dei Rumori", proclaiming noise to be the sound of the 20th century
1913: USA architect Cass Gilbert designs the Woolworth Building in New York
1913: Vasilij Kandinskij paints "Composition VII"
1914: The Portuguese poet Fernando Pessoa writes "Triumphal Ode"
1914: Jerome Kern invents the "musical" by integrating music, drama and ballet
1914: Marie Wiegmann (Mary Wigman) performs the solo ballet "Hexentanz/ Witch Dance" pioneering the expressionist dance form of "Ausdruckstanz"
1915: David-Ward Griffith directs the film "The Birth of a Nation"
1915: Man Ray launches the Dadaist magazine "Ridgefield Gazook" in New York
1915: Egon Schiele paints "Death and the Maiden"
1915: Kazimir Malevich's "Black Square" (1915) and the "0.10" exhibition in St Petersburg launch "Suprematism" in Russia
1915: Oskar Kokoshka paints "Der Irrende Ritter"
1915: The Austrian writer Franz Kafka publishes the novel "The Trial"
1915: The majority of USA films are made in the Los Angeles area
1915: The Panama-Pacific International Exposition is held in San Francisco, for which Bernard Maybeck builds the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco
1915: Vladimir Tatlin's art launches "Constructivism" in Russia
1916: Charles Ives composes his "Symphony 4"
1916: Roman Jakobson and others establish Opoyaz (Society of Poetical Language) and found "formalism"
1916: Russian painter Vladimir Baranoff Rossine premieres an instrument that generates both sounds and images, the "optophonic piano"
1916: Constantin Brancusi sculpts three memorials at Targu Jiu
1916: Hugo Ball founds the nightclub "Cabaret Voltaire" in Zurich, the epicenter of the Dada movement
1916: Paul Strand holds the first exhibition of his photographs at the "291" art gallery
1916: A Brazilian record is advertised as "samba"
1917: Giorgio DeChirico paints "Il Grande Metafisico"
1917: Manuel de Falla composes the ballet "The Three-Cornered Hat", produced by Serge Diaghilev with set design and costumes by Pablo Picasso
1917: Theo van Doesburg founds the art magazine "De Stijl" in Belgium
1917: The French poet Paul Valery writes "Le Jeune Parque"
1917: The Original Dixieland Jass Band makes the first recording of "dixieland jazz"
1917: Columbia University establishes the Pulitzer Prize
1917: Amedee Ozenfant's and Le Corbusier's book "After Cubism" launches Purism
1918: Mary Elizabeth Hallock-Greenewalt performs visual music on her invention, the color organ "sarabet"
1919: Andre Breton experiments with "automatic writing" in his "Magnetic Fields"
1919: Hannah Hoch creates the photomontage "Cut with the Kitchen Knife through the Beer-Belly of the Weimar Republic "
1919: Nadia Boulanger begins teaching composition at the Ecole Normale de Musique
1919: Barnum and Bailey's circus merges with the Ringling Brothers to form the "Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus"
1919: Walter Gropius founds the Bauhaus school in Weimar
1919: Mario Broglio's magazine "Valori Plastici #3" is devoted to the Italian metaphysical painters
1920: Erik Satie composes "furniture music", music that is meant not to be listened to
1920: Charles Sheeler inaugurates Precisionism, the first indigenous art movement of the USA
1920: Mamie Smith makes the first blues recording
1920: The Polish poet Boleslaw Lesmian writes "Meadow"
1920: The Berlin Dada Fair
1921: Alban Berg composes the opera "Wozzeck"
1921: The end of the civil war inaugurates the Mexican renaissance, Jose Vasconcelos commissions murals for government buildings, and David Alfaro Siqueiros writes a manifesto in Vida Americana
1921: Ansel Adams publishes his first photographs of Yosemite
1921: Fernand Leger paints "Grand Lunch"
1921: Ludwig Wittgenstein publishes "Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus"
1921: Sergej Prokofev composes the opera "The Love of Three Oranges"
1921: The German playwright Ernst Toller stages "Masses Man"
1921: The Italian playwright Luigi Pirandello stages "Six Characters in Search of an Author"
1922: Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau directs the film "Nosferatu"
1922: The trilingual magazine Veshch and the First Russian Exhibition in Berlin divulge the Russian avantgarde in Western Europe
1922: Le Corbusier designs a futuristic city, the "Contemporary City"
1922: The French writer Marcel Proust publishes the novel "In Search of Lost Time"
1922: Theo van Doesburg organizes the Constructivist-Dadaist Congress at Weimar
1922: The Irish writer James Joyce publishes the novel "Ulysses" (video)
1922: The Russian playwright Velemir Khlebnikov stages "Zangezi"
1922: The USA poet Thomas-Stearns Eliot writes "The Waste Land"
1922: Hans Prinzhorn publishes a collectin of works by mentally insane people, "Artistry of the Mentally Ill"
1923: Arnold Schoenberg completes a 12-tone system of composition, "dodekaphonie", the first form of "serialism"
1923: The "Cotton Club" opens in Harlem, featuring only black entertainers but catering to a white-only audience
1923: James Johnson's musical "Runnin' Wild" launches the dance craze of the "charleston"
1923: Kurt Schwitters begins building the vast architectural/sculptural project "Merzbau"
1923: German architect Walther Bauersfeld builds the "Zeiss I Planetarium" in Jena, the first projection planetarium and the first geodesic dome
1923: Jean Piaget publishes "Le Langage et la Pensee Chez l'Enfant"
1923: The German poet Rainer Maria Rilke writes "Duineser Elegien"
1923: The Italian writer Italo Svevo publishes the novel "Zeno's Conscience"
1923: The Russian poet Maximilian Voloshin writes "The Ways Of Cain"
1924: Andre Breton publishes the "Surrealism Manifesto"
1924: Joan Miro` paints "The Tilled Field"
1925: The art exhibition "La Peinture Surrealiste" is held in Paris
1925: Erwin Piscator produces "Trotz Alledem", a multi-stage multi-media event
1925: A Paris exhibition of decorative art, "Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs" launches "Art Deco"
1925: Gustav Hartlaub organizes the art exhibition "Neue Sachlichkeit" (New Objectivity)
1925: The "Revue Negre" in Paris introduces African-American entertainer Josephine Baker dancing the "charleston"
1925: George Antheil composes the "Ballet Mecanique"
1925: John Watson publishes "Behaviorism"
1925: Louis Armstrong forms the Hot Five in Chicago
1925: Sergei Eisenstein directs the film "Bronenossets Potyomkin/ Battleship Potemkin "
1925: The "International Exposition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Art" in Paris launches "art deco"
1925: The French writer Andre' Gide publishes the novel "The Counterfeiters"
1925: The USA writer Francis-Scott Fitzgerald publishes the novel "The Great Gatsby"
1926: Alexander Calder creates the kinetic sculpture "Cirque Calder"
1926: Claude Monet paints the "Nimphees"
1926: Films with synchronized voice and music are introduced
1926: Fritz Lang directs the film "Metropolis"
1926: Ivan Pavlov publishes "Conditioned Reflexes"
1926: Leos Janacek composes "Glagolitic Mass"
1926: Man Ray photographs "Kiki and the Mask"
1926: Spanish architect Antoni Gaudi dies without having finished the "Sagrada Familia" in Barcelona
1926: Vladimir Vernadsky publishes "The Biosphere"
1927: Martin Heidegger publishes "Being and Time"
1927: Jerome Kern and Oscar Hammerstein create the musical "Show Boat"
1927: The Soviet Union establishes the State University of Circus and Variety Arts to train performers for the Moscow Circus
1927: The British writer Virginia Woolf publishes the novel "To the Lighthouse"
1927: The Estonian poet Marie Under writes "Voice from the Shadows"
1927: The first talking movie is "The Jazz Singer"
1927: The French writer Julien Green publishes the novel "Adrienne Mesurat"
1927: The German playwright Bertold Brecht stages "The Threepenny Opera"
1927: The Spanish poet Federico Garcia-Lorca writes "Romancero Gitano"
1927: Russian composer Leon Termen performs the first concerto with the "theremin"
1928: Albert Renger-Patzsch publishes the photograph series "The World is Beautiful"
1928: A group of 28 European architects founds the Congres International d'Architecture Moderne (CIAM)
1928: David Hilbert publishes "The Principles of Theoretical Logic"
1928: Karl Blossfeldt publishes the photograph series "Art Forms in Nature"
1928: Kurt Weill composes the opera "The Three-Penny Opera"
1928: Rene' Magritte paints "False Mirror"
1928: The French playwright Paul Claudel stages "The Satin Slipper"
1928: The Irish poet William-Butler Yeats writes "The Tower"
1928: The Romanian writer Mihail Sadoveanu publishes the novel "Ancuta's Inn"
1929: Kazimierz Podsadecki creates the photomontage "City Mill of Life"
1929: Georges Bataille publishes the article "L'informe/ Formless"
1929: Gustav Stotz organizes the "Film and Photo" exhibition in Stuttgart that presents 200 phoographers from all over the world
1929: Noel Coward scores the musical "Bitter Sweet"
1929: The comic strip "Buck Rogers" by Phil Nowlan & Dick Calkins debuts
1929: The comic strip "Popeye" by Elzie Crisler Segar debuts
1929: The comic strip "Tintin" by Herge` debuts
1929: The Museum of Modern Art is founded in New York
1929: The Spanish poet Rafael Alberti writes "Concerning the Angels"
1929: Martha Graham choreographs the ballet "Heretic"
1930: John Maynard Keynes publishes his "Treatise" of Economics
1930: Grant Wood paints "American Gothic"
1930: Mental-asylum patient Adolf Wolfli dies leaving behind an unfinished imaginary autobiography of 25,000 pages, 1,600 illustrations, 1,500 collages and hundreds of songs
1930: Josef von Sternberg directs the film "The Blue Angel"
1930: Maurice Ravel composes "Concerto for the Left Hand", influenced by jazz
1930: Paul Klee paints "Ad Marginen"
1930: Ronald Fisher publishes "The Genetic Theory of Natural Selection" that heralds the synthesis of Darwin and Mendel
1930: The comic strip "Mickey Mouse" by 1930, Walt Disney & Ub Iwerks debuts
1930: The Polish writer Stanislaw Witkiewicz publishes the novel "Insatiability"
1930: The USA poet Hart Crane writes "The Bridge"
1930: USA architect William van Alen designs the Chrysler Building in New York
1931: Duke Ellington's "Creole Rhapsody" takes both sides of a 7" record
1931: Edgar Varese composes "Ionisation" for percussion instruments
1931: Kurt Goedel proves that all logical systems contain a statement that cannot be proven
1931: The comic strip "Dick Tracy" by 1931, Chester Gould debuts
1931: The Czech writer Vladislav Vancura publishes the novel "Marketa Lazarova"
1931: The Empire State Building, the tallest building in the world of all times, opens in New York
1931: Artists form the collective "Abstraction-Creation" to promote abstract art, mostly geometrical abstraction
1932: A Duke Ellington hit features the word "swing" in the title
1932: Frederic Bartlett publishes "Remembering", a study on human memory
1932: John Von Neumann argues that, according to Quantum Mechanics, classical reality does not exist until the conscious observer observes it
1932: The French writer Louis-Ferdinand Celine publishes the novel "Journey to the End of the Night"
1932: The USA writer William Faulkner publishes the novel "Light in August"
1932: Thomas Dorsey's "Precious Lord" launches "gospel music"
1932: The "International Style" exhibition is held in New York
1933: Andre Kertesz creates the photograph series "Distortion"
1933: Leonid Myasin ("Massine") choreographs the ballet "Les Presages" using Tchaikovsky's "Symphony No. 5", the world's first symphonic ballet
1933: Gyula Halasz "Brassai" publishes the photograph series "Paris After Dark"
1933: The Austrian writer Robert Musil publishes the novel "The Man Without Qualities"
1933: The comic strip "Brick Bradford" by 1933, Clarence Gray & William Ritt debuts
1933: The Danish poet Gustaf Munch-Petersen writes "The Lowest Country"
1933: The experimental university Black Mountain College is founded in North Carolina with an interdisciplinary approach
1933: The Marx Brothers make the film "Duck Soup"
1933: The Spanish writer Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo publishes the novel "San Manuel Bueno Martir"
1933: Cuban bandleader Ignacio Pineiro releases Echale Salsita, the song that gives the name "salsa" to Cuba's dance music
1934: George-Herbert Mead publishes "Mind, Self and Society"
1934: John Dewey's essay "Art and Experience"
1934: Lev Vygotsky publishes "Thought and Language"
1934: The "Apollo" night-club opens in Harlem
1934: The comic strip "Flash Gordon" by Alex Raymond debuts
1934: The comic strip "Li'l Abner" by Al Capp debuts
1934: The comic strip "Secret Agent X-9" by Dashiell Hammett & Alex Raymond debuts
1934: The Czech writer Karel Capek publishes the novel "An Ordinary Life"
1934: The Dutch poet Martinus Nijhoff writes "Awater"
1934: The Spanish poet Pedro Salinas writes "My Voice Because of You"
1934: George Balanchine founds the School of American Ballet
1934: Andrei Zhdanov inaugurates Social Realism in the Soviet Union, causing the demise of the Russian avantgarde
1935: A concert by the Benny Goodman's jazz orchestra is broadcast live
1935: Mauk Escher draws "Hand with Reflecting Sphere"
1935: George Gershwin composes the folk opera "Porgy And Bess", influenced by black music
1935: Paul Hindemith composes the opera "Mathis der Maler"
1935: The Eastman Kodak Company introduces the "Kodachrome", the first color film
1935: The German writer Elias Canetti publishes the novel "Auto Da Fe"
1935: The Greek poet George Seferis writes "Legend"
1935: The Spanish poet Vicente Aleixandre writes "Destruction or Love"
1936: Bela Bartok composes composes "Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta"
1936: The Museum of Modern Art in New York shows Edward Steichen's hybrid delphiniums, the first bioart ever displayed in a museum
1936: The Museum of Modern Art in New York holds an exhibition titled "Cubism and Abstract Art" that presents a vast sample of the European avantgarde
1936: The "Dimensionist Manifesto", published by the Hungarian poet Karoly Sirato vouches for four-dimensional sculpture
1936: Max Bill publishes "Konkrete Gestaltung"in Zurich, the manifesto of "concrete art"
1936: Walter Benjamin publishes the essay "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"
1936: The "Surrealist Exhibition of Objects" in Paris and the "International Surrealist Exhibition" in London
1936: Charles Chaplin directs the film "Modern Times"
1936: Georgia O'Keeffe paints "Summer Days"
1936: The Polish poet Czeslaw Milosz writes "Three Winters"
1936: The Spanish poet Juan-Ramon Jimenez writes "The Total Season"
1936: Max Bill launches Concrete Art in Zurich
1937: Carl Orff composes "Carmina Burana"
1937: Henri Cartier-Bresson publishes his first photojournalist photographs
1937: Jean Renoir directs the film "La Grande Illusion"
1937: Salvador Dali paints "Metamorphose de Narcisse"
1937: Nazist Germany stages the exhibition "Degenerate Art" to expose Jewish and Russian modernism
1937: The French playwright Jean Giraudoux stages "Electra"
1938: Charles Morris publishes "Foundations of the Theory of Signs"
1938: Howard Hawks directs the film "Bringing Up Baby"
1938: Leon Trotsky and Andre Breton publish the manifesto "Towards a Free Revolutionary Art" appealing to both Marx and Freud
1938: The comic strip "Mandrake" by Lee Falk and Phil Davis debuts
1938: The comic strip "Superman" by Jerome Siegel and Joe Shuster debuts
1938: The International Exhibition of Surrealism is held in Paris
1938: The French writer Jean-Paul Sartre publishes the novel "Nausea"
1938: The world's first major film festival is held in Venezia/Venice
1939: Horst Horst takes the photograph "The Mainbocher Corset"
1939: Norbert Schultze composes and Lale Andersen sings the song "Lili Marlene"
1939: Clement Greenberg publishes the article "Avant-Garde and Kitsch"
1939: John Cage composes "Imaginary Landscape N.1" for magnetic tape
1939: John Ford directs the film "Stagecoach"
1939: The Austrian writer Joseph Roth publishes the novel "The Legend of the Holy Drinker"
1939: The comic strip "Batman" by Bill Finger and Bob Kane debuts
1939: The Irish writer Flann O'Brien publishes the novel "At Swim-two-birds"
1939: The Mexican poet Jose Gorostiza writes "Endless Death"
1939: Yves Tanguy paints "Furniture of Time"
1940: Friz Freleng's cartoon "You Ought to Be in Pictures" combines live action and animation
1940: Olivier Messiaen composes the "Quartet for the End of Time"
1940: The comic strip "Spirit" by Will Eisner debuts
1940: The Russian writer Mikhail Bulgakov publishes the novel "The Master and Margarita"
1941: Dizzy Gillespie, Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk and Kenny Clarke jam in a new jazz style, "bebop"
1941: The Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges publishes the short story "The Library of Babel"
1941: Goffredo Petrassi composes "Coro di Morti"
1941: Surrealist painters relocate to New York
1941: Michael Tippett composes "A Child Of Our Time"
1941: Orson Welles directs the film "Citizen Kane "
1941: Walker Evans publishes the photograph series "Let Us Now Praise Famous Men"
1942: Albert Camus and JeanPaul Sartre establish existentialism
1942: Peggy Guggenheim opens in New York the art gallery "Art of this Century" specializing in avantgarde art
1942: Max Ernst paints "Europa After the Rain II"
1942: Marcel Duchamp designs the exhibition "First Papers of Surrealism" in New York
1942: The French writer Albert Camus publishes the novel "The Stranger"
1942: The USA poet Wallace Stevens writes "Notes Towards A Supreme Fiction"
1943: The first "New York Fashion Week" or "Press Week" is held in New York, the world's first fashion show
1944: Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein create the musical "Oklahoma", choreographed by Agnes de Mille
1944: Gyorgy Kepes publishes "Language of Vision" on design
1945: Diego Rivera finishes painting the mural "Mexico a Traves de los Siglos" at the National Palace in Ciudad de Mexico
1945: Marcel Carne` directs the film "Les Enfants du Paradis/ Children of Paradise"
1945: Mark Rothko paints "Slow Swirl at Edge of Sea"
1945: Roberto Rossellini's film "Roma Citta` Aperta" inaugurates "Neorealism"
1945: The Austrian writer Hermann Broch publishes the novel "The Death of Virgil"
1945: The French writer Julien Gracq publishes the novel "A Dark Stranger"
1945: Wiliam de Kooning paints "Pink Angels"
1946: Christian Dior opens a boutique of fashion design in Paris
1946: Betty Parsons opens a gallery that specialized in "Abstract Expressionism" publicizing the art of Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Robert Rauschenberg, etc
1946: Irving Berlin scores the musical "Annie Get Your Gun"
1946: Francis Bacon paints "Painting"
1946: Frank Capra directs the film "It's A Wonderful Life "
1946: Ralph Vaughan Williams composes "Symphony 6"
1946: RCA Victor releases the first vinyl record
1946: The Cannes Film Festival debuts
1946: The city of Damstadt in Germany opens a school for avantgarde music
1946: Paul Rand publishes "Thoughts on Design" on design
1946: The comic strip "Lucky Luke" by Maurice De Bevere debuts
1946: Lucio Fontana founds "Spatialism" aimed at promoting co-operation between sculptors and scientists
1946: Muddy Waters cuts the first records of "rhythm and blues"
1947: The British writer Malcolm Lowry publishes the novel "Under the Volcano"
1947: Andre Malraux in Paris begins to assemble an "imaginary museum", a collections of photographs of art from all over the world
1947: Jackson Pollock paints his first "drip" painting
1947: The USA playwright Tennessee Williams stages "A Streetcar Named Desire"
1947: French mime Marcel Marceau creates the character of "Bip" the clown
1947: Laszlo Moholy-Nagy publishes "Vision in Motion" on design
1947: The Edinburgh Festival Fringe (or "Fringe Festival") is founded, soon to become the largest arts festival in the world
1948: French composer Pierre Schaeffer sets up a laboratory for "musique concrete"
1948: Jean Dubuffet curates a collection of art works by mental-asylum inmates or "Art Brut"
1948: Dutch painter Karel Appel and others form the COBRA movement that pioneers abstract painting
1948: Cole Porter scores the musical "Kiss Me Kate"
1948: The Japanese writer Tanizaki Junichiro publishes the novel "Makioka Sisters"
1949: Frida Kahlo paints "The Love Embrace of the Universe, the Earth, Myself, Diego and Senor Xolotl"
1949: Alberto Giacometti sculpts "Three Men Walking"
1949: Ghose Aurobindo publishes "The Human Cycle"
1949: Henry Moore sculpts "Family Group"
1949: Miles Davis' nonet inaugurates "cool jazz"
1949: The Brazilian poet Cecilia Meireles writes "Natural Portrait"
1949: The Mexican poet Octavio Paz writes "Sun Stone"
1949: The USA playwright Arthur Miller stages "Death of a Salesman"
1950: Akira Kurosawa directs the film "Rashomon "
1950: Billy Wilder directs the film "Sunset Boulevard "
1950: The Chilean poet Pablo Neruda writes "Canto General"
1950: The comic strip "Charlie Brown" by Charles Schulz debuts
1950: The Italian writer Cesare Pavese publishes the novel "The Moon and the Bonfire"
1951: Andre Bazin founds the film magazine "Cahiers du Cinema"
1951: French painters such as Jean Dubuffet pioneer "tachisme", the European version of Abstract Expressionism
1951: The comic strip "Mighty Atom", featuring Astro Boy, by Osamu Tezuka debuts in Japan, the first "manga" to spread abroad
1951: John Huston directs the film "The African Queen"
1951: Karlheinz Stockhausen begins composing "electronic music"
1951: The cinema magazine "Cahiers du Cinema" is founded by critic Andre Bazin
1951: The first "rock and roll" record, Ike Turner's "Rocket 88", is released
1951: USA architect Philip Johnson designs the Lever House in New York
1952: A concert of electronic music by Otto Luening and Vladimir Ussachevsky at New York's Museum Of Modern Art is broadcasted live
1952: Art critic Harold Rosenberg coins the term "action painting"
1952: French architect LeCorbusier designs the Chandigarh High Court in India
1952: The British poet David Jones writes "The Anathemata"
1952: The German poet Paul Celan writes "Poppy and Memory"
1952: John Cage organizes the first happening at Black Mountain College in North Carolina, "Theater Piece No. 1"
1952: The Irish playwright Samuel Beckett stages "Waiting for Godot"
1953: Lev Rudnev designs the Lomonosov University in Moscow
1953: European architects found "Team 10"
1953: Merce Cunningham at the Black Mountain College forms the Merce Cunningham Dance Company, that uses chance operations to choreograph ballets and set designs by painter Robert Rauschenberg
1953: The Cuban writer Alejo Carpentier publishes the novel "The Lost Steps"
1953: The USA playwright Eugene O'Neill stages "Long Day's Journey"
1954: Art Blakey and Horace Silver form the Jazz Messengers and coin "hard bop"
1954: Rudolf Arnheim publishes "Art and Visual Perception" on design
1954: Benjamin Britten composes the opera "Turn Of The Screw"
1954: Elia Kazan directs the film "On the Waterfront"
1954: Iannis Xenakis composes "Metastasis" to translate shapes into music, with independent parts for every musician of the orchestra
1954: Jiro Yoshihara founds the "Gutai Group" in Japan that pioneers performance art
1954: Pierre Boulez composes "Le Marteau Sans Maitre"
1954: Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac and William Burroughs meet in New York, the beginning of "beat poetry"
1955: Allen Ginsberg's recitation of his poem "Howl" transplants the "Beat" aesthetic to San Francisco
1955: The first Documenta exhibition is held in Germany
1955: Arnold Bode founds the "Documenta" exhibition of art in Germany
1955: Chuck Berry cuts his first rock and roll records, the first ones to have the guitar as the main instrument
1955: Disneyland opens in Los Angeles
1955: Harry Olson and Herbert Belar at RCA's Princeton Labs unveil the first "electronic music synthesizer"
1955: The Spanish writer Rafael Sanchez-Ferlosio publishes the novel "The River El Jarama"
1955: The USA writer William Gaddis publishes the novel "The Recognitions"
1955: Maurice Bejart choreographs the ballet "Symphonie pour un Homme Seul" to the electronic music of Pierre Henry
1955: Ray Charles invents "soul music"
1955: Edward Steichen organizes the exhibition of travel photography "The Family of Man" in New York Georges Bataille
1956: Atsuko Tanaka's "Electric Dress" pioneers performance-art
1956: Gyorgy Kepes' book "The New Landscape in Art and Science "
1956: Indian sitar player Ravi Shankar tours the West
1956: Frederick Loewe scores the musical "My Fair Lady
1956: Don Siegel directs the film "Invasion of the Body Snatchers "
1956: Luigi Nono composes "Canto Sospeso"
1956: The Czech poet Vladimir Holan writes "A Night with Hamlet"
1956: The Hungarian poet Sandor Weores writes "The Tower of Silence"
1956: The Italian poet Eugenio Montale writes "The Storm"
1956: The Swiss playwright Friedrich Duerrenmatt stages "The Visit"
1956: USA architect Frank Lloyd Wright designs the Guggenheim Museum in New York
1956: Alwin Nikolais choreographs the ballet "Kaleidoscope", pioneering abstract and total dance theatre
1956: Richard Hamilton's "Just what is it that makes today's homes so different, so appealing?" pioneers Pop Art
1956: Nicolas Schoffer creates the first cybernetic sculpture, "CYSP 1"
1956: Gyorgy Kepes publishes "The New Landscape in Art and Science" n which pictures of modern art coexist with images obtained from x-ray machines, stroboscopic photography, electron microscopes, sonar, radar, high-powered telescopes, infrared sensors
1957: A computer composes the Illiac Suite, using software created by Lejaren Hiller
1957: Jerome Robbins choreographs Leonard Bernstein's musical "West Side Story"
1957: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon develop the "General Problem Solver"
1957: Asger Jorn and Guy Debord lead the "Situationist International" in Italy, an international group of intellectuals and artists inspired by Marxism and Surrealism to encourage the construction of situations that inspire alternative lifestyles
1957: Bruno Maderna's "Musica su Due Dimensioni" is the first "electro-acoustic" composition, mixing traditional instruments and electronic tape
1957: German architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe builds the Seagram Building in New York
1957: Ingmar Bergman directs the film "Wild Strawberries"
1957: LaMonte Young composes music for sustained tones
1957: Max Mathews begins composing computer music at Bell Laboratories
1957: Noam Chomsky speculates that humans have an innate universal grammar that is a based on logical rules
1957: The Australian writer Patrick White publishes the novel "Voss"
1957: The Italian poet Pierpaolo Pasolini writes "The Ashes of Gramsci"
1957: The Italian writer Elsa Morante publishes the novel "Arthur's Island"
1958: Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer designs the Congress Complex in Brasilia
1958: Edgar Varese premieres his Poeme Electronique in a special pavilion designed by architect Le Corbusier, where the music reacts with the environment
1958: Yves Klein pioneers "conceptual art" with an exhibition consisting of an empty room, "Le Vide"
1958: Taiji Yabushita directs the first "anime", "Hakujaden/ The Tale of the White Serpent"
1958: Claude Chabrol's film "Le Beau Serge" inaugurates the "Nouvelle Vague" of French cinema
1958: Robert Frank publishes the photograph series "The Americans"
1958: The Swiss playwright Max Frisch stages "Biedermann"
1958: The USA poet William-Carlos Williams writes "Paterson"
1958: Wolf Vostell creates the first "Decollage" happening in Paris
1959: Alfred Hitchcock directs the film "North By Northwest"
1959: Allan Kaprow launches the vogue of "happenings" (performance art) with "18 Happenings in 6 Parts"
1959: Dancer and mime Ron Davis founds the San Francisco Mime Troupe as an experimental project of the now-legendary Actors' Workshop
1959: Giacinto Scelsi composes "Quattro Pezzi per Una Nota Sola", micro-music for only one note
1959: John Cage performs "live electronic music"
1959: Louis Kahn designs the Salk Institute in La Jolla
1959: Ornette Coleman's "The Shape of Jazz to Come" debuts free-jazz
1959: Tatsumi Hijikata's "Forbidden Colours" launches "butoh" dance
1959: The British playwright John Arden stages "Serjeant Musgrave's Dance"
1959: The comic strip "Asterix" by Rene' Goscinny and Albert Uderzo debuts
1959: The French playwright Eugene Ionesco stages "Rhinoceros"
1959: The French writer Raymond Queneau publishes the novel "Zazie in the Metro"
1959: The Greek poet Odysseus Elytis writes "Worthy It Is"
1959: The Paraguayan writer Augusto Roa-Bastos publishes the novel "Son of Man"
1959: USA writer William Burroughs and British painter Brion Gysin develop the "cut-up" technique
1959: Erwin Eisch pioneers the "Studio Glass Movement" with his sculptures in glass
1959: Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck formulates the "Aesthetics of Number" (structuralism)
1960: Federico Fellini directs the film "La Dolce Vita"
1960: Jean Arp sculpts "Demeter"
1960: Jean Tinguely creates a kinetic sculpture, "Homage to New York", that destroys itself
1960: John Whitney pioneers computer animation
1960: The Guyanese writer Wilson Harris publishes the novel "Palace of the Peacock"
1960: The word "reggae" is coined in Jamaica to identify a "ragged" style of dance music
1960: The Swedish poet Gunnar Ekeloef writes "A Molna Elegy"
1960: Yves Klein's "Anthropometries of the Blue Period" inaugurates Body Art
1960: Vera Molnar founds the art movement "Groupe de Recherche d'Art Visuel" (GRAV)
1961: James Tenney composes the computer music of "Noise Study"
1961: Lou Harrison composes "Concerto in Slendro"
1961: Roger Reynolds, Robert Ashley and Gordon Mumma organize the first "ONCE" festival of avantgarde music at Ann Arbor in Michigan
1961: Roy Lichtenstein paints "Look Mickey"
1961: The Argentinian writer Ernesto Sabato publishes the novel "Of Heroes and Tombs"
1961: The Austrian performance artists Hermann Nitsch, Gunter Brus and Otto Muehl found "Aktionismus"
1961: The Czech poet Zbigniew Herbert writes "Study of the Object"
1961: The magazine "Mersey Beat" is founded in Liverpool to cover the local rock scene
1961: The Polish poet Tadeusz Rozewicz writes "The Nameless Voice"
1961: Yves Saint Laurent opens a boutique of fashion design in Paris
1961: Indian musician Ravi Shankar records with jazz musicians
1962: Lithuanian-born artist George Maciunas organizes the "Fluxus" art movement in New York, inspired by Dada
1962: The "New Realists" exhibition including at the Sidney Janis Gallery of New York, Andy Warhol's "Marilyn Diptych", launches Pop Art
1962: Harvey Littleton organizes the first glassblowing workshop for artists at the Toledo Museum of Art
1962: Helen Gurley Brown publishes "Sex and the Single Girl"
1962: Finnish architect Eero Saarinen builds the TWA terminal in New York
1962: Helen Gurley Brown publishes "Sex and the single girl"
1962: The comic book "Spiderman" by Stan Lee debuts
1962: The comic strip "Barbarella" by Jean-Claude Forest debuts
1962: The Dutch writer Hugo Claus publishes the novel "Amazement"
1962: The Russian poet Anna Akhmatova writes "Poem Without A Hero"
1962: The San Francisco Tape Music Center for avantgarde music is established by composers Morton Subotnick and and Ramon Sender
1963: "Beatlemania" sweeps the world
1963: Yayoi Kusama creates her first "Mirror/Infinity room" installation
1963: The first public showing of computer art, organized by Joan Shogren is held at San Jose State University
1963: Bob Dylan releases "Blowin' In The Wind"
1963: Edward Zajac of Bell Labs creates a computer-generated film
1963: Lukas Foss composes "Echoi", that employs improvisation
1963: The Albanian writer Ismail Kadare publishes the novel "The General of the Dead Army"
1963: The Argentinian writer Julio Cortazar publishes the novel "Hopscotch"
1963: The Italian writer Beppe Fenoglio publishes the novel "A Private Question"
1963: The Italian writer CarloEmilio Gadda publishes the novel "Acquainted with Grief"
1963: Nam June Paik pioneers video art with his "Participation TV", an interactive video installation
1963: The New Zealand writer Janet Frame publishes the novel "Scented Gardens For The Blind"
1963: Wolf Vostell pioneers video art with "6 TV De-coll/age"
1964: Charles Csuri creates his first computer art
1964: Gerhard Richter exhibits his photo-based paintings
1964: Engineer Michael Callahan, painter Stephen Durkee and poet Gerd Stern found USCO ("The Company of Us")
1964: Ennio Morricone composes the film soundtrack "Per Un Pugno di Dollari"
1964: Herbert Marcuse publishes "The One-dimensional Man"
1964: Marshall McLuhan describes how the medium affects the communication ("the medium is the message") and talks about a "global village"
1964: Milton Babbitt composes "Ensembles For Synthesizer"
1964: Robert Moog begins selling his synthesizer
1964: Roland Barthes publishes "Elements of Semiology"
1964: Sonia Terk becomes the first living woman to have a retrospective at the Louvre
1964: Stan Vanderbeek and Ken Knowlto of Bell Labs create the computer-generated animation "Poem Field"
1964: The German playwright Peter Weiss stages "Marat Sade"
1964: The Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes publishes the novel "The Death of Artemio Cruz"
1964: The USA writer Saul Bellow publishes the novel "Herzog"
1965: Alan Hovhaness composes "Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints"
1965: Joseph Kosuth creates "One and Three Chairs", an work of "conceptual art"
1965: Richard Wollheim coins the term "Minimal Art"
1965: Dutch anarchists found the countercultural movement "Provo"
1965: George Hunter of the Charlatans introduces the "light show" in rock concerts
1965: Gyorgy Ligeti composes "Requiem", an example of almost total chromaticism
1965: Joseph Beuys creates the art-performance or social sculpture "How to Explain Pictures to a Dead Hare"
1965: Krysztof Penderecki composes "Saint Luke Passion", a religious work that employs avantgarde techniques and that addresses a communist nation
1965: Robert Aldrich directs the film "Hush Hush Sweet Charlotte"
1965: Ron Davis of the San Francisco Mime Troupe publishes the essay "Guerrilla Theatre"
1965: Sylvano Bussotti composes the opera "La Passion Selon Sade", whose score includes graphical notations,
1965: Terry Riley composes "In C", music based on repetition of simple patterns ("minimalism")
1965: The Czech playwright Slawomir Mrozek stages "Tango"
1965: The Family Dog Production organizes the first hippie festival in San Francisco
1965: A computer art exhibition is held in Stuttgart, Germany
1965: The Italian poet Vittorio Sereni writes "The Human Instruments"
1965: The Polish writer Witold Gombrowicz publishes the novel "Cosmos"
1965: The Vienna Action Group is founded to perform Body Art
1966: Donald Buchla develops a voltage-controlled synthesizer for composer Morton Subotnick, the Buchla Modular Electronic Music System
1966: Bell Labs engineers Billy Kluver and Fred Waldhauer and artists Robert Rauschenberg and Robert Whitman found "Experiments in Art and Technology" (EAT) for installations jointly developed by artists and engineers, including video projection, wireless transmissions and fiber-optic videocameras.
1966: Emmett Grogan and members of the Mime Troupe found the "Diggers", a group of improvising actors and activists whose stage was the streets and parks of the Haight-Ashbury and whose utopia was the creation of a Free City
1966: Fluxus member Dick Higgins coins the term "Intermedia" to describe art that straddles multiple genres
1966: Frederic Rzewski, Alvin Curran and Richard Teitelbaum form the ensemble of live electronic music Musica Elettronica Viva in Rome
1966: Michel Foucault publishes "The Order of Things"
1966: Michelangelo Antonioni directs the film "Blow-Up "
1966: The Cuban writer Jose Lezama-Lima publishes the novel "Paradise"
1966: The first "Summer of Love" of the hippies is held in San Francisco
1966: The Irish poet Seamus Heaney writes "Death of a Naturalist"
1966: The Peruvian writer Mario Vargas-Llosa publishes the novel "The Green House"
1966: The Spanish writer Miguel Delibes publishes the novel "Five Hours with Mario"
1966: The USA writer John Barth publishes the novel "Giles Goat Boy"
1966: The USCO artist collective holds a multimedia event at New York's Riverside Museum
1967: "Art et Informatique" is founded at the Institut d'Esthetique et des Sciences de l'Art in Paris
1967: Sony introduces the Video Rover, the first portable videotape recording system (the first "portapak")
1967: Lindsay Kemp choreographs the mime "Pierrot in Turquoise"
1967: Ray Browne founds the "Center for the Study of Popular Culture" at Bowling Green, that popularizes the term "pop culture"
1967: Darryl McCray, or "Cornbread", creates graffiti art in Philadelphia
1967: A "Human Be-In" is held at the Golden Gate Park in San Francisco
1967: Bands such as the Velvet Underground, the Doors and Pink Floyd launch psychedelic-rock
1967: Eikoh Hosoe creates the photograph series "Kamaitachi"
1967: Frank Stella paints "Harran II"
1967: Guy Debord publishes "The Society of the Spectacle"
1967: Gyorgy Kepes founds MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies
1967: Luis Bunuel directs the film "Belle de Jour "
1967: Monterey hosts a rock festival
1967: Raduz Cincera creates "Kinoautomat", the the first interactive film
1967: The Colombian writer Gabriel Garcia-Marquez publishes the novel "One Hundred Years of Solitude"
1967: The Czech writer Milan Kundera publishes the novel "The Joke"
1967: The French playwright Fernando Arrabal stages "The Architect and the Emperor of Assyria"
1967: The German writer Thomas Bernhard publishes the novel "Gargoyles"
1967: USA architect Buckminster Fuller designs a geodesic dome for the USA Pavillion at the Expo in Montreal
1968: Anthony Braxton, a member of the Chicago Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians, releases his improvisations "For Alto Saxophone"
1968: Seth Siegelaub organizes collective exhibitions of "Conceptual Art" in the USA
1968: Evan Parker and Derek Bailey form the Music Improvisation Company
1968: Frank Malina founds Leonardo in Paris, an organization devoted to art/science fusion
1968: Harold Morowitz publishes "Energy FLow in Biology"
1968: Louis Meisel founds the painting movement "Photorealism"
1968: Luciano Berio composes "Sinfonia", that employs quotations
1968: Roman Polanski directs the film "Rosemary's Baby"
1968: Sergio Leone directs the film "Once Upon a Time"
1968: Stanley Kubrick directs the film "2001 A Space Odyssey"
1968: The Italian poet Andrea Zanzotto writes "Beauty"
1968: Jasia Reichardt at the Institute of Contemporary Arts in London organizes "Cybernetic Serendipity", an exhibition of computer art
1968: Bulgarian-born Christo Javacheff wraps the Kunsthalle in Bern
1969: British bands such as King Crimson and Soft Machine launch progressive-rock
1969: Gordon Pask publishes "The architectural relevance of Cybernetics"
1969: Boom of "shojo manga" in Japan, comics drawn by female artists for an audience of girls
1969: The "Monty Python's Flying Circus" comedy show debuts on tv
1969: Charles Wuorinen composes the electronic poem "Time's Encomium"
1969: Claes Oldenburg creates the interactive sculpture "Lipstick (Ascending) on Caterpillar Tracks"
1969: Howard Wise organizes the exhibition "Television As A Creative Medium"
1969: Manfred Eicher founds the ECM record label in Germany
1969: Peter-Maxwell Davies composes the parodistic "Eight Songs For A Mad King"
1969: Sam Peckinpah directs the film "The Wild Bunch "
1969: The Russian writer Vladimir Nabokov publishes the novel "Ada"
1969: The collective Art & Language is conceived to promote "conceptual art"
1969: Harald Szeemann's "When Attitudes Become Form" exhibition at the Kunsthalle Bern in Switzerland launches "Conceptual Art" in Europe
1970: Alvin Lucier composes "I Am Sitting In A Room", that focuses on the role of the room
1970: DeWain Valentine sculpts "Circle Blue"
1970: Frank Zappa composes "Music For Electric Violin And Low Budget Orchestra"
1970: George Crumb composes "Ancient Voices of Children", that employs quotations
1970: Gilbert Proesch and George Passmore create their first "living sculpture"
1970: Mauricio Kagel composes "Staatstheatre", a "ballet for non-dancers"
1970: Pierre Boulez founds the IRCAM (Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique) in Paris
1970: The French writer Michel Tournier publishes the novel "The Ogre"
1970: The USA poet Ezra Pound writes "Cantos"
1970: Witold Lutoslawski composes "Cello Concerto"
1970: King Tubby invents "dub" in Jamaica
1971: Dmitrij Shostakovic composes his "Symphony 15"
1971: Feminist art critic Linda Nochlin publishes the article "Why have there been no great women artists?"
1971: The Experimental Television Center opens in New York state to stimulate live video art
1971: Japanese musician Daisuke Inoue builds the first karaoke machine in Kobe
1971: Art critic Robert Pincus-Witten uses the term "Post-Minimalism" to define the art of sculptor Eva Hesse
1971: Andrew Lloyd Webber scores the musical "Jesus Christ Superstar"
1971: Michael Tracy, or "Tracy 168", creates the "wild style" of graffiti art painting trains in the New York subway
1971: Film director George Lucas founds the film production company Lucasfilm
1971: Finnish architect Alvar Aalto completes the Finlandia Hall in Helsinki
1971: Trisha Brown choreographs the ballet "Walking on the Wall"
1971: Jacques Monod publishes "Chaos and Necessity"
1971: Morton Feldman composes "Rothko Chapel", inspired by abstract painting
1971: Pierluigi Nervi builds St Mary's Cathedral in San Francisco
1971: Steve Reich composes "Drumming", music that develops gradually via "phasing" of repetitive patterns
1971: The Italian poet Attilio Bertolucci writes "Winter Journey"
1971: The Italian poet Mario Luzi writes "On Invisible Foundations"
1971: Woody and Steina Vasulka found the artist collective "The Kitchen" in New York
1971: Michael Hart launches the "Project Gutenberg" to make digital versions of books available for free on the Internet
1971: Herbert Franke publishes "Computer Graphics-Computer Art"
1972: A novel by David Gerrold coins the term "computer virus"
1972: Linda Nochlin's essay "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists?"
1972: The Serbian writer Danilo Kis publishes the novel "Hourglass"
1972: The Sydney Opera House, designed by Danish architect Jorn Utzon, is completed
1972: Cameroon-born musician Manu Dibango invents "disco music"
1973: Gloria Coates composes "Symphony 1 - Music on Open Strings"
1973: British painter Harold Cohen joins Stanford University's Artificial Intelligence Lab to build AARON, a program capable of making art
1973: Stephen Sondheim scores the musical "A Little Night Music"
1973: Lynn Hershman creates the first site-specific installation, "The Dante Hotel"
1973: Meredith Monk composes the extended vocal solo "Education Of The Girlchild"
1973: The Barbados poet Edward-Kamau Brathwaite writes "The Arrivants"
1973: The Trinidad poet Derek Walcott writes "Another Life""
1973: The USA writer Thomas Pynchon publishes the novel "Gravity's Rainbow"
1973: USA architect William Pereira designs the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco
1973: William Pereira builds the Transamerica Pyramid in San Francisco
1973: Xerox PARC coins the term "Ethernet" for a local area network
1974: "New Wave" and "Punk" bands begin performing in New York
1974: Alvin Curran composes "Canti E Vedute Del Giardino Magnetico", a collage for for voice, instruments, electronics and natural sounds
1974: Francis-Ford Coppola directs the film "The Godfather Part II "
1974: Kraftwerk's "Autobahn" becomes the first hit entirely played on electronic instruments
1974: The British playwright Tom Stoppard stages "Travesties"
1974: The first SIGGRAPH conference for computer graphics is held in Colorado
1974: USA architect Bruce Graham builds the Sears Towers in Chicago, the tallest skyscraper in the USA
1974: The Ramones launch "punk-rock"
1975: Pauline Oliveros composes "Horse Sings From Cloud", an example of "deep listening music" for voice and accordion
1975: Bob Fosse scores the musical "Chicago"
1975: Richard O'Brien scores the musical "The Rocky Horror Picture Show"
1975: Robert Altman directs the film "Nashville "
1975: The Greek writer Andreas Embiricos publishes the novel "The Great Eastern"
1975: The Hungarian writer Imre Kertesz publishes the novel "Fateless"
1975: The Italian poet Giorgio Caproni writes "The Wall of the Earth"
1975: The Spanish writer Juan Goytisolo publishes the novel "Juan the Landless"
1975: The USA poet John Ashbery writes "Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror:
1975: Jamaican disc-jockey Clive "Hercules" Campbell invents "hip hop"
1976: British architect Richard Rogers designs the Centre Pompidou in Paris
1976: Ed Catmull and Fred Parke's computer animation in a scene of the film "Futureworld" is the first to use 3D computer graphics
1976: Henryk Gorecki composes "Symphony 3"
1976: Joan LaBarbara composes "Vocal Extensions"
1976: Jon Hassell composes the "fourth-world" music of "Vernal Equinox"
1976: Martin Scorsese directs the film "Taxi Driver "
1976: Philip Glass composes the minimalist opera "Einstein on the Beach"
1976: Richard Dawkins publishes "The Selfish Gene"
1976: The Canadian writer Sasha Sokolov publishes the novel "School For Fools"
1976: William Ackerman launches "new-age music"
1977: George Coates founds his multimedia theater group, Performance Works
1977: Charles Jenkins' "The Language of Modern Architecture"
1977: Charles Jencks publishes "The Language of Post-Modern Architecture"
1977: Marina Abramovic and "Ulay" (Frank Uwe Laysiepen) stage the performance "Imponderabilia"
1977: Arvo Part composes "Tabula Rasa"
1977: Carl Loeffler in San Francisco and Liza Baer and Willouby Sharp in New York organize "Send Receive Satellite Network", the first interactive satellite art show
1977: Cindy Sherman begins the photograph series "Complete Untitled Film Stills"
1977: Dave Smith builds the "Prophet 5", the world's first microprocessor-based musical instrument, the first polyphonic and programmable synthesizer
1977: Elliott Carter composes "Symphony for Three Orchestras"
1977: George Lucas directs the film "Star Wars "
1977: The British writer Barbara Pym publishes the novel "Quartet in Autumn"
1977: The Czech writer Josef Skvorecky publishes the novel "The Engineer of Human Souls"
1977: The film "Saturday Night Fever" starts the disco fever by promoting disco-music beyond gays and blacks
1977: The Russian poet Josif Brodsky writes "A Part of Speech"
1977: Toru Takemitsu composes "A Flock Descends Into The Pentagonal Garden"
1977: Woody Allen directs the film "Manhattan "
1977: Kazuo Ohno choreographs the butoh dance "La Argentina Sho"
1978: Hiroshi Sugimoto begins the photograph series "Theatres"
1978: "Treasures of Tutankhamen" (Metropolitan Museum) draws a record 1.8 million visitors and launches a wave of museum blockbusters
1978: The French writer George Perec publishes the novel "La Vie Mode d'Emploi"
1978: Pina Bausc choreographs the ballet "Orpheus and Eurydice"
1978: Lucia Dlugoszewsky composes "Tender Theatre Flight Nageire"
1978: Mark Pauline founds the Survival Research Laboratories
1978: Toshihiro Nishikado creates the first blockbuster videogame, "Space Invaders"
1978: Throbbing Gristle make "industrial music"
1978: Brian Eno makes "ambient" music
1979: Astor Piazzolla composes the "Concerto For Bandoneon"
1979: Yoshiyuki Tomino creates the tv space-opera anime "Kido Senshi Gandamu/ Mobile Suit Gundam", the first "real-robot anime"
1979: Fernando Botero paints "Los Musicos"
1979: Jean-Francois Lyotard's treatise "The Postmodern Condition" is published
1979: John Zorn "composes" the aleatory strategy of "Archery"
1979: The first Ars Electronica festival for digital art and media is held in Austria
1979: The Italian writer Italo Calvino publishes the novel "If On a Winter's Night a Traveler"
1979: The Southafrican writer Nadine Gordimer publishes the novel "The Burger's Daughter"
1979: The USA writer Cormac McCarthy publishes the novel "Suttree"
1979: Bill Bartlett organizes the computer communications conference "Interplay" via a timesharing network connecting artists in eight cities of the world
1979: Edgar de Oliveira de Fonseca designs the Catedral Metropolitana of Rio de Janeiro
1980: Alvin Toffler discusses the information age in his book "The Third Wave"
1980: Richard Serra completes his site-specific sculpture "St. John's Rotary Arc"
1980: The German writer Elfriede Jelinek publishes the novel "Die Ausgesperrten"
1980: Claude-Michel Schonberg scores the musical "Les Miserables"
1980: Sandy Skoglund creates the staged photograph "Radioactive Cats"
1980: Sonya Rapoport creates the interactive audio/visual installation "Objects on my Dresser"
1980: The first Video Festival of Locarno opens
1980: The Indian writer Salman Rushdie publishes the novel "Midnight's Children"
1981: Eric Fishl paints "Bad Boy"
1981: Jean-Claude Gallotta choreographs "Ulysses"
1981: MTV debuts on US cable television
1981: Ettore Sottsass and an international group of young architects and designers form the postmodernist Memphis Group
1981: Rumiko Takahashi creates the manga "Urusei Yatsura"
1981: Jean Baudrillard's book "Simulacres et Simulation" argues that modern society is replacing reality with a simulated reality
1981: Juan Atkins begins making "techno" records in Detroit
1981: Steven Spielberg directs the film "Raiders of the Lost Ark "
1981: Juan Atkins begins making "techno" records in Detroit
1982: Benoit Mandelbrot publishes "The Fractal Geometry of Nature" tha popularizes chaos theory
1982: Hayao Miyazaki creates the anime "No Nausicaa"
1982: David Rokeby's "Very Nervous System" pioneers interactive art
1982: Diamanda Galas composes "Litanies Of Satan"
1982: Laurie Anderson composes the multimedia opera "United States"
1982: Ridley Scott directs the film "Blade Runner"
1982: Robert Mapplethorpe photographs "Lady Lisa Lyon"
1982: The Colombian writer German Espinosa publishes the novel "The Weaver of Crowns"
1982: The USA poet James Merrill writes "The Changing Light at Sandover
1982: Robert Adrian creastes "The World in 24", a world-wide 24 hour telecommunications project for Artists and groups contributed from 15 cities around the world
1983: Andrei Tarkovsky directs the film "Nostalgia"
1983: The video synthesizer Fairlight CVI fosters the art of vjing in night clubs
1983: The German writer Uwe Johnson publishes the novel "Jahrestage"
1983: Roy Ascott creates the networked artwork "La Plissure du Texte"
1983: The Musical Instrument Digital Interface is introduced, based on an idea by Dave Smith
1983: The art collective Video Pool Media Arts Centre is founded in Canada
1984: "House" music comes out of Chicago
1984: Katsuhiro Otomo creates the cyberpunk anime "Akira"
1984: Telecollaboration artists Kit Galloway and Sherrie Rabinowitz found the "Electronic Cafe", pioneering the cybercafe
1984: The Iranian writer Mahmud Dowlatabadi publishes the novel "Kelidar"
1984: The Portuguese writer Jose Saramago publishes the novel "The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis"
1984: USA architect John Burgee builds the AT&T Building in New York
1984: William Gibson's novel "Neuromancer" popularizes the "cyberpunks"
1984: The "Cirque du Soleil" is founded in Quebec by a group of street performers
1984: "House music" is born in Chicago
1984: Fredric Jameson publishes "Postmodernism or the Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism"
1985: Richard Avedon publishes the photograph series "In the American West"
1985: The Danish writer Peer Hultberg publishes the novel "Requiem"
1985: The Japanese writer Murakami Haruki publishes the novel "Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World"
1985: Stewart Brand and Larry Brilliant create the "Whole Earth Lectronic Link" (or "WELL"), a virtual community
1985: The Nintendo Entertainment System is introduced
1985: Warren Robinett, Scott Fisher and Michael McGreevy of NASA Ames build the "Virtual Environment Workstation" for virtual-reality research, incorporating the first dataglove and the first low-cost head-mounted display
1985: Graham Rust finishes the trompe l'oeil mural "The Temptation"
1985: David Gucwa publishes a book of elephant art
1986: Renzo Piano builds the California Academy of Science in San Francisco
1986: Twyla Tharp choreographs the ballet "In The Upper Room"
1986: Art Spiegelman publishes the graphic novel "Maus"
1986: Wole Soyinka becomes the first Nobel laureate of Africa
1986: Judy Malloy publishes the computer-mediated hyper-novel "Uncle Roger" on the WELL
1986: Luc Tuymans paints "Gaskamer"
1986: Anselm Kiefer paints "Jerusalem"
1987: John Tavener composes "The Protecting Veil"
1987: Matt Groening's "The Simpsons" animated sitcom debuts on television
1987: The USA writer Joseph McElroy publishes the novel "Women and Men"
1987: Tod Machover composes the opera "Valis" with electronically processed voices
1987: USA architect Paul Rudolph designs Hong Kong's Lippo building
1988: The vogue of "acid-house" in Britain creates the "Madchester" phenomenon or the "second summer of love", characterized by all-night parties called "raves"
1988: Carl Loeffler at the Tisch School of Art organizes "Digital Concepts and Expression" for interactive art on personal computer
1988: Pierre Bastien builds an orchestra of musical automata to perform his "Mecanium"
1988: Robert Zemeckis' "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" makes live actors and animated characters interact realistically
1988: The Serbian writer Milorad Pavic publishes the novel "Dictionary of the khazara"
1988: Theo Angelopoulos directs the film "Landscape In The Mist"
1988: Wim Wenders directs the film "Wings of Desire"
1989: Berlin holds the first "Love Parade", a festival of electronic dance music attended by one million people
1989: Osvaldas Balakauskas composes "Ostrobothnian Symphony"
1989: Romanian architect Anca Petrescu builds the Casa Poporului in Bucharest, the second largest building in the world
1989: The Chinese writer Gao Xingjian/Xingjian publishes the novel "Soul Mountain"
1989: ZKM organizes the first "Multimediale" festival in Germany
1989: Shepard Fairey starts the "Andre the Giant Has a Posse" sticker campaign
1990: Digital artist Maurice Benayoun and graphic novelist Francois Schuiten create "Quarxs", a computer-animated television series
1990: German architect Johann Otto von Spreckelsen builds "La Grande Arche" in Paris
1990: Ieoh Ming Pei designs the Bank of China in Hong Kong
1990: The British writer Antonia Byatt publishes the novel "Possession"
1990: The Burning Man festival is held at Black Rock Desert
1991: Digital artists Yvonne Wilhelm, Christian Hubler and Alexander Tuchacek found Knowbotic Research in Germany to create art as explorative data environments
1991: Japanese architect Kenzo Tange designs Tokyo's Metropolitan Government Office Building One
1991: Finnish student Linus Torvalds introduces the Linux operating system, a variant of Unix
1991: John Corigliano composes the opera "Ghosts of Versailles"
1991: The Portuguese writer Augustina Bessa-Luis publishes the novel "Abraham's Valley"
1992: Christa Sommerer and Laurent Mignonneau pioneer "bio art" with their "Interactive Plant Growing"
1992: Joseph Nechvatal creates "The Computer Virus Project", visual art drawn by computer viruses
1992: Richard Baily starts his visual-effects animation company, Image Savant
1992: Sally Mann publishes the photograph series "Immediate Family"
1992: The Electronic Visualization Lab at the University of Illinois Chicago creates a "CAVE" ("Cave Automatic Virtual Environment", a surround-screen and surround-sound virtual-reality environment (graphics projected from behind the walls that surround the user)
1992: The German writer Winfried Georg Sebald publishes the novel "The Emigrants"
1992: The School of Visual Arts in New York launches the "New York Digital Salon"
1993: Sebastiao Salgado publishes the photograph series "Workers"
1993: Stuart Kauffman publishes "The Origins of Order" that popularizes self-organizing system
1993: The Italian poet Elio Pagliarani writes "Rudy's Ballad"
1993: 1993 Zahur Klemath Zapata brings to market the first digital books or "e-books"
1994: Alfred Schnittke composes "Symphony 8"
1994: Deborah Colker choreographs the ballet "Volcano"
1994: Eastern European artists including Vuk Cosic found the "net.art" movement of artists active on the World Wide Web
1994: Krzysztof Kieslowski directs the film "Rouge"
1994: Mark Pesce introduces the "Virtual Reality Modeling Language" or VRML
1994: Oval's "Systemisch" launches "glitch" music
1994: Peter Menzel publishes the photograph series "Material World"
1994: Quentin Tarantino directs the film "Pulp Fiction "
1994: Richard Teitelbaum composes the interactive opera "Golem"
1994: Tan Dun composes the opera "Ghost Opera"
1995: Yoshiyuki Sadamoto creates the manga "Neon Genesis Evangelion"
1995: Danish film-makers Lars von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg found the "Dogme 95" movement
1995: Digital artist Char Davies creates the immersive virtual-reality environment "Osmose (1995)
1995: Emir Kusturica directs the film "Underground"
1995: Jean-Marie Jeunet directs the film "City of Lost Children"
1995: John Lasseter's "Toy Story" is the first feature-length computer-animated film
1995: Mario Botta builds the Modern Museum of Art in San Francisco
1995: The Ebola virus kills entire villages in Congo (Zaire)
1996: Nicolas Bourriaud coins "relational aesthetics"
1996: "Manifesta 1", the first European biennale of contemporary art, opens in the Netherlands
1996: Mark Tribe founds "Rhizome" as a small email list of artists involved in high technology
1996: Agnes Denes in Finland creates the environmental sculpture "Tree Mountain"
1996: Bill Viola creates the video installation "The Crossing"
1996: Jan Svankmajer directs the film "Conspirators of Pleasure"
1996: The first DVD player is introduced by Toshiba
1997: Amazon.com is launched on the web as the "world's largest bookstore", except that it is not a bookstore, it is a website
1997: The success of the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao launches a world-wide wave of museum-building
1997: Australian digital artist Jeffrey Shaw uses the CAVE for his installation "Configuring the CAVE"
1997: British biologist Ian Wilmut clones a sheep, Dolly
1997: David Lynch directs the film "Lost Highway"
1997: Lucien Clergue takes the photograph "Nu Zebre"
1997: Michael Haneke directs the film "Funny Games"
1997: Rob Silvers publishes the photographic collages "Photomosaics"
1997: Sofia Gubaidulina composes "Canticle for the Sun"
1998: Digital artist Mark Amerika creates "Grammatron", a virtual web-based environment
1998: SoftBook Press releases the first e-book reader
1998: The Petronas Towers, designed by Argentine architect Cesar Pelli, are completed in Kuala Lumpur
1998: Uruguayan architec Carlos Ott builds the National Bank in Dubai
1999: Camille Utterback's "Text Rain" pioneers interactive digital art
1999: Louise Bourgeois sculpts "Maman"
1999: Digital artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer creates the Internet environment "Alzado Vectorial"
1999: Eduardo Kac's "Genesis" pioneers the use of genetics as an art medium
1999: Majid Majidi directs the film "Color Of Paradise"
1999: The recording industry sues Shawn Fanning's Napster, a website that allows people to exchange music
1999: Uruguyan architect Rafael Vinoly builds the Jongno Tower in Seoul
2000: Christopher Nolan directs the film "Memento" (2000)
2000: Berlin's "Love Parade" becomes the largest dance event in the world, attended by almost one million people
2000: Oron Catts founds "SymbioticA" in Australia, a research lab for artists involved in Biology
2000: USA architect Hazel Wong builds the Emirates Towers in Dubai
2000: USA architect Tom Wright designs the Burj Al Arab hotel in Dubai
2000: Ron Mueck creates the giant hyperrealist sculpture "Boy"
2001: Pierre Levy publishes "Cyberculture"
2001: Charlie Todd founds the performance art group Improv Everywhere to carry out pranks in public places
2001: The Kingdom Centre, designed by USA architects, opens in Riyadh
2001: Tsai Ming-Liang directs the film "What Time Is It There?" (2001)
2002: Zhang Yimou directs the film "Hero" (2002)
2003: Alejandro-Gonzales Inarritu directs the film "21 Grams" (2003)
2003: Bill Wasik organizes the first "flash mob" in a department store
2003: Dale Chihuly creates the glass sculpture "Millefiori Garden"
2003: British architect Norman Foster builds the Swiss Re building in London
2003: Linden Lab launches "Second Life", a virtual world accessible via the Internet
2003: Miya Masaoka composes "While I Was Walking I Heard A Sound"
2003: Taipei 101 becomes the tallest building in the world
2003: USA architect John Portman builds Tomorrow Square in Shangai
2003: USA photograher Spencer Tunick photographs 7,000 naked people in Barcelona, the first of his massive "nude" installations
2003: Astrid Klein and Mark Dytham hold the first PechaKucha Night in Tokyo
2004: Dubai begins construction of Burj Dubai, the tallest skyscraper in the world, designed by USA architect Adrian Smith
2004: Google launches a project to digitize all the books ever printed
2004: Mark Bradford creates the collage of junk "Los Moscos"
2004: Michel Gondry directs the film "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind" (2004)
2004: Melbourne holds the first stencil-art festival in the world
2004: Pedro Almodovar directs the film "Bad Education" (2004)
2004: Anish Kapoor sculpts "Cloud Gate" in Chicago's Millennium Park, a 110-ton stainless steel sculpture
2004: Pablo Picasso's "Boy with a Pipe" sells for $104.1 million, setting a record for a work of art
2005: Canadian architect Frank Gehry builds the Walt Disney Concert Hall in Los Angeles
2005: YouTube debuts on the World-wide Web
2005: Tadasu Takamine creates the video installation "Kagoshima Esperanto"
2005: Jean Nouvel builds the Angbar Tower in Barcelona
2005: Rineke Dijkstra publishes the photograph series "Portraits"
2005: Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava builds the Turning Torso in Malmo, Sweden
2005: The Letterman Digital Arts Center opens in San Francisco
2005: There are more than 300 skyscrapers in Shangai, up from one in 1985
2006: Takashi Murakami paints the triptych "727-727"
2006: Perry Cook and Dan Trueman found the Princeton Laptop Orchestra using software created by student Ge Wang
2006: Banksy's Los Angeles exhibition creates a market for street art
2007: The Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid designs Abu Dhabi's Performing Arts Centre
2007: The "The Million Book Project" led by Carnegie Mellon University digitizes more than one million books worldwide
2007: Amazon launches "Kindle", a device for reading e-books
2007: Al Farrow uses guns and bullets to sculpt his "Cathedral" (2007)
2008: South Africa establishes the "Joburg Art Fair", the largest art fair of Africa
2008: Piero Scaruffi organizes the first Leonardo Art Science Evening Rendezvous (LASER) in San Francisco on behalf of Leonardo ISAST
2008: The Swiss-based duo of Martin Zimmermann Dimitri de Perrot stages the nouveau cirque show "Oper Opis"
2008: Marisa Olson coins the expression "Post-Internet Art"
2009: Rick DeVos establishes the ArtPrize, an art competition that takes place in multiple cities
2010: A Pablo Picasso painting sells for $106 million, setting a new record for a work of art
2010: Edinburgh's Fringe Festival features over 34,000 performances of 2,098 shows in 265 different venues throughout the city
2014: Piero Scaruffi organizes the first Leonardo Art Science Technology (LAST) festival at Zero1 in San Jose
An Appendix to the Visual History of the Visual Arts
1954: George Balanchine choreographs the ballet