A Timeline of Architecture

by Piero Scaruffi
Back to the Art page | Painters | Museums | Timeline of Painting | Sculpture
Structurae | Great Buildings

TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
Masterworks of Ancient Architecture
Egypt
2599 BC: Huni becomes pharaoh and builds the step pyramid of Maidun (completed by his successor Sneferu)
2575 BC: Sneferu founds the 4th dynasty ("old kingdom") and builds in Dahshur the first pyramid with straight sides ("red pyramid")
2550 BC: architect Hemon builds the "great pyramid" at Giza (146m tall) for pharoah Khufu/Cheops
2515 BC: the Sphinx is built for pharaoh Khephren
2040 BC: Mentuhotep II wins the civil war, reunites Egypt, makes Thebes the capital of all Egypt, establishes the 11th dynasty ("middle kingdom") and builds the mortuary complex of Deir el Bahri
1391 BC: Amenhotep III becomes pharaoh and builds the palace complex at Malkata (near Thebes) and the temple of Amon at Luxor
1290 BC: Seti I dies, having built the largest tomb in the "Valley of the Kings" and the largest monument at Abydos, and his son Ramesses II succeeds him, married to Nefertari
1250 BC: Ramesses II transfers the capital to Pi-Ramesse in the delta, builds two temples at Abu Simbel, the Colossus at Memphis, the Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak temple at Luxor, and a huge tomb at Thebes
Ancient Near East
2125 BC: Gudea becomes king of Lagash and builds the monumental sanctuary of Eninnu
2112 BC: Ur-Nammu of Uruk recreats the Sumerian empire and rebuilds Ur, including the temple of Nanna and the three-terraced ziggurat
1932 BC: Gungunum becomes king of the Amorites with capital at Larsa, builds the E-Babbar temple and conquers Ur and Elam
1250 BC: the Elamites build the ziggurat at Choga Zambil, the largest of all times
1237 BC: Hittite king Hattusili III dies and is succeeded by his son Tudhaliya IV, who builds a palace on the acropolis of the capital, Hattusa
950 BC: the first temple is built in Jerusalem
950 BC: the Phoenicians build the fortified city of Tyre
879 BC: king Ashurnazirpal II of Assyria moves the capital from Nineveh to Nimrud (Kalhu), for which a citadel and a seven-km wall are built
705 BC: Sargon II of Assyria dies and is succeeded by his son Sennacherib, who moves the capital back to Nineveh and builds a royal palace
580 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II builds eight monumental gates, the Esagila complex, the seven-storey ziggurat, and the Hanging Gardens in Babylonia
560: the Sassanid king Khusro I builds the Palace of the Great Arch in Ctsiphon
Ancient Greece
1900 BC: palace of Knossos in Crete
1600 BC: royal tombs of Mycenae
1250 BC: walls and palaces of Mycenae
650 BC: Terrace of the lions at Dilos
560 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is built
510 BC: The temple of Ceres at Paestum (in Italy) is built
505 BC: a temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
450 BC: Temple of Zeus at Olympia
438 BC: the Parthenon is inaugurated in Athens
430 BC: the temple of Concord is built at Agrigento (in Sicily)
410 BC: the temple of the Erechtheion is built at the Athens acropolis
356 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is rebuilt
354 BC: a tomb for King Mausolus is built at Halicarnassus
350 BC: the theatre at Epidavros
350 BC: the theatre is built at Delphi
329 BC: a new temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
290 BC: the Colossus of Rhodos is built
TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
Etruscans and Roman
600 BC: Etruscans build the colossal tombs of Cerveteri
600 BC: the Forum is built
326 BC: the Circus Maximus is built
179 BC: the Porticus Aemilia is completed
2nd c. BC: the sanctuary at Fortuna is remodeled in Praeneste (Palestrina)
80 BC: Temple of Fortuna Primigenia
55 AD: Pompej erects the first permanent theater in Rome
64 AD: Nero's Domus Aurelia
79 AD: the Colosseum is completed
81 AD: the Arch of Titus
107: architect Apollodorus of Damascus begins work at the Forum of Trajano
110: the Basilica of Trajano is completed
118: the Villa of Adriano is begun, comprising 30 buildins
121AD: Agrippa builds the Pantheon, a circular temple made of brick and concrete
Marcus Aurelius' column (176 AD)
Castel S. Angelo/ Mausoleum of Hadrian (193 AD)
217: the Baths of Caracalla are inaugurated
313: a cathedral is built in Edessa
313: the Basilica of Maxentius is completed
323: Constantine builds a church to the apostle Peter on the Roman cemetery where the martyr is buried
Middle Ages
459: St Simeon's church in Aleppo
537: Justinian builds the church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople
1075: the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is built, the third most popoular pilgrimage site after Jerusalem and Rome
1137: Benedictine monk Suger builds the cathedral of Saint-Denis in a new style, the gothic style
1506: Pope Julius II decides to rebuild the Basilica of St Peter
1564: Michelangelo builds the dome of St. Peter's Church in Rome

Paleochristian architecture

  • Constantine's churches (326-337):
    • S. Pietro, Roma
    • S. Giovanni in Laterano, Roma
    • S. Maria Maggiore, Roma
    • St Sophia, Constantinople
    • Nativity, Bethlehem (330-)
    • Holy Sepulchre, Jerusalem (330-)
  • Paleochristian architecture in Italy
    • S. Paolo fuori le mura, Roma (480)
    • S. Costanza, Roma (IV)
    • S. Lorenzo, Milano (370)
    • S. Sabina, Roma (425)
    • S. Stefano Rotondo, Roma (V)
    • S. Giovanni Evangelista, Ravenna (430, destroyed)
    • Galla Placida's Mausoleum, Ravenna (V)
  • Paleochristian architecture in the Eastern Roman Empire
    • Qalat Siman, Syria (470)
    • St John of Studion, Constantinople (463)
    • St Demetrius, Salonika (490)
    • Justinian architecture (527-565)
      • Hagia Sophia, Constantinople (532)
      • SS. Sergius and Bacchus, Constantinople (530)
      • S. Vitale, Ravenna (547)
      • Giuliano Argentario: S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna (549)
      • S. Apollinare Nuovo, Ravenna (VI)
      • Battistero Neoniano, Ravenna (VI)
      • St John, Ephesus (565)
      • Holy Apostles, Constantinople
      • S. Agnese, Roma (638, destroyed)

    Late Byzantine architecture

  • Zwartnots, Armenia (VII)
  • Cathedral of Ani, Armenia (X)
  • Mt Athos monastery, Greece
  • Hagia Sophia, Kiev (1037)
  • Cathedral of the Transfiguration, Chernigov
  • Vladimir cathedral, Novgorod (XI)
  • Nezeri, Yugoslavia (XII)
  • Gracanica, Serbia (XIV)
  • Hodeghetria, Mistra (XIV)
  • Cathedral of the Dormition, Moskow (XV)
  • St Basil, Moskow (1553)

    Islamic architecture

  • Dome of the Rock, Jerusalem (692)
  • Amr in al-Fustat mosque, Cairo (641)
  • Karouan, Tunisia: Minaret (8th c)
  • Ibn Tulun mosque, Cairo (???)
  • al-Azhar mosque, Cairo (X)
  • Koca Sinan (1500: Sehzade Mehmed mosque, Istanbul (1548)
  • Koca Sinan (1500: Suleymaniye mosque, Istanbul (1555)
  • Taj Mahal, Agra (1648)
  • Kalyan minaret, Bukhara (1127)
  • Miri-Arab madrasah, Bukhara (1535)
  • Ismail Samani mausoleum, Bukhara (907)
  • Kalta minar, Khiva (1855)
  • Ulug Beg madrasah, Samarkand (1420)
  • Bib Khanym mosque, Samarkand (1404)
  • Gur Emir, Samarkand (1403)
  • Jema mosque, Isfahan (XI)
  • Imam mosque, Isfahan (XVII)
  • Amir Chakhmaq portal, Yazd (XIV)
  • Humayun's Tomb, Delhi
  • Qutb Minar, Delhi (1193)
  • Meherangarh Fort, Johdpur
  • Patwon Ki Haveli, Jaisalmer
  • Medersa Ibn Youssef, Marrakesch
  • Hassan tower, Rabat (1200)
  • Bab Mansour, Meknes
  • Bab Jdid, Meknes (1200)
  • Dar El Makhaen, Fez
  • Medersa Bou Inania, Fez (1350 AD)
  • Alhambra, Granada (1250)
  • Mosque of Kait Bey, Cairo (1471)

    Jain architecture

  • Jain temples, Jaisalmer
  • Delwara temples, Mount Abu (1143)

    Buddhist/Indian architecture

  • Kailasa temple, Ellora
  • Ellora caves, India
  • Ajanta caves, India
  • Sanchi sanctuary, India
  • Lakshman, Khajuraho (950)
  • Sun temple, Konark (1255)
  • Palace, Wadi Dahr
  • Longmen caves, Luoyang (500-750)
  • Datong caves, China
  • Hanging monastery, Yingxian
  • Forbidden City, Beijing (1420)
  • Pashupatinath, Katmandu
  • Swayambhunath, Katmandu
  • Sakya monastery, Tibet
  • Gyangtse stupa , Tibet
  • Jokhang, Lhasa
  • Potala, Lhasa
  • Ganden monastery, Lhasa
  • Samyen monastery, Tibet
  • Mogao caves, Dunhuang
  • Mingun Paya (XVIII)
  • Kaunghmudo` Paya, Sagaing (XIV)
  • Thanboddi, Monywa (XIV)
  • Schwemado` Paya, Bagan
  • Shwedagon, Yangoon (VI)
  • Shenando` monastery, Mandalay
  • Wat Phra Kaeo, Bangkok
  • Angkor, Seam Reap
  • Preah Vihear, Cambodia
  • Wat Chamdevi, Lumpun
  • Phanum Rung, Thailand
  • Prambanan, Java
  • Borobudur, Java (9th c)
  • Gunung Kawi, Bali
  • Bekasih, Bali
  • Kratoh, Yogyakarta
  • My Son, Vietnam
  • Wat Phu, Laos
  • Vat Xieng Thong, Luang Prabang
  • Bamiyan Buddhas of 6th c AD, Afghanistan (destroyed by Islamic fanatics in 2001)

    Romanesque architecture

  • Carolingian renaissance
    • Centula, St Riquier, France (789, destroyed)
    • Aachen cathedral (792) modeled after St Vitale
    • Germigny-des-Pres, France (806)
    • Lorsch (800)
    • Klosterkirche Niederzell, Reichenau (799)
    • Klosterkirche Mittelzell, Reichenau (888)
    • Klosterkirche Oberzell, Reichenau (900)
    • Corvey, France (880)
    • Quedlinburg (920)
    • Gernrode (960)
    • St Benigne, Dijon, France (1001)
    • St Philibert, Tournus, France (1009)
    • St Michael, Hildesheim (1010-33)
  • Imperial cathedrals (Kaiserdome)
    • Speyer cathedral (1030-60)
    • Mainz cathedral (975-1137)
    • Worms cathedral (XI-XIII)
  • Romanesque in Germany
    • Maria Laach (1093)
    • Tournai cathedral, Belgium (1110)
    • Limburg (1215)
    • Bamberg (1237)
  • France
    • St-Michele-de-Cuxa (970)
    • Ste Foyes at Conques (1050)
    • St Sernin at Toulouse (1080)
    • Cluny III (1088-1121, destroyed)
    • Pontigny (1114)
    • Fontenay (1139)
    • Paray-le-Monial (1100)
    • Autun (1120-1135)
    • Vezelay (1104)
    • Orcival
    • La Trinite`, Caen (1062)
    • St Etienne, Caen (1068)
    • Jumieges, Rouen (1052)
    • Cluny III (1088)
  • England 1066-1200
    • Canterbury cathedral
    • Winchester cathedral (1079)
    • Durham cathedral (1093)
    • Chichester cathedral
    • Worcester cathedral
    • Lincoln cathedral
    • Old St Paul's cathedral, London (destroyed 17th c)
    • Norwich cathedral
    • Rochester cathedral
    • Gloucester cathedral
    • York cathedral
    • Westminster Abbey (1065)
    • Castle Hedingham, Essex (1140)
  • Spain
    • Santiago de Penalba (919)
    • S. Maria de Lebena (924)
    • Ripoll (1032)
    • San Vicente de Cardona (1040)
    • Santiago de Campostela (1078)
    • Seo de Urgel (1131)
    • Tarragona cathedral (1171)
    • Lerida cathedral (1203)
    • Jaca cathedral (1054)
    • St Vicente, Avila (1109)
    • Zamora cathedral (1150)
    • Salamanca cathedral (1150)
    • Tomar, Portugal (1162)
  • Italy
    • S. Miniato al Monte, Firenze (1062)
    • S. Ambrogio, Milano (1080)
    • S. Sigismondi, Rivolta d'Adda (1089)
    • S. Marco, Venezia (1094-XVII)
    • Duomo, Modena (1099-1323)
    • S. Zeno, Verona (1123-1398)
    • Campanile, Pomposa
    • Battistero, Firenze (XII)
    • Leaning Tower, Pisa (1173-XIV)
    • Duomo, Pisa (1013-1180)
    • S. Clemente, Roma (1100)
    • Benedetto Antelami (1150, Italy): Battistero, Parma (1196)
    • S. Francesco, Assisi (1228-XIV)
    • Duono, Firenze (1296-1436)
    • Campanile, Firenze (1334-59)
    • Pisa, Assisi (1228), Firenze, Trani (1250), Amalfi (1203)
    • Fondaco Turchi, Venezia (XIII)
  • Kiev: Kyiv-Pechersk Lavra (1051)
  • Kiev: St Sophia Cathedral/ Sofiysky Sobor (1031)
  • Ethiopia: St George, Labilela (XII)

    TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

    Gothic architecture

  • France
    • St Denis abbey (1140)
    • Sens cathedral (1143)
    • Noyon (1145)
    • Chartres cathedral (1146-94)
    • Laon cathedral (1160)
    • Notre Dame (1163)
    • Bourges (1192)
    • Reims (1211-25)
    • Sainte-Chapelle (1242)
    • Chartreuse de Champmol (1385)
    • Strasbourg cathedral (1439)
    • Amiens cathedral (1220-66)
    • Coutances (1235)
    • Beauvais (1247)
    • St Urban, Troyes (1262)
    • Palace of the Popes, Avignon (1334)
  • Germany
    • Bamberg cathedral (1225)
    • Naumburg cathedral (1255)
    • St Elizabeth, Marburg (1257)
    • St Stephen, Vienna (1300)
    • St Vitus, Prague (1356-1929)
    • St Sebald, Nuremberg (1361)
    • Our Lady Before Tyn, Prague (1365) -> architec
    • Ulm cathedral (1377)
    • Cologne cathedral (1248)
    • Limburg cathedral (1235)
    • Marienkirche, Luebeck (1260)
    • Regensburg cathedral (1270)
  • England
    • Canterbury cathedral (1174-1379)
    • Wells (1180)
    • Lincoln (1192)
    • Salisbury (1220)
    • Westminster Abbey (1246-1503)
    • Albi (1282)
    • Bristol (1306)
    • Lichfield (1325)
    • St Exeter (1328)
  • Italy
    • Duomo, Siena (1200-89)
    • Castel del Monte (1240)
    • SS. Giovanni e Paolo, Venezia (1260)
    • Santa Maria Novella, Firenze (1268)
    • Palazzo Vecchio, Firenze (1299)
    • Duomo, Firenze (1334)
    • Palazzo dei Dogi, Venezia (1343-1424)
    • Duomo di Milano (1385-1965)
    • Ca d'Oro, Venezia (1423)
  • Spain
    • Toledo cathedral (1226)
    • Leon cathedral (1255)
    • Palma de Mallorca cathedral (1306)
    • Sevilla cathedral (1402-1518)
    • Alcazar, Segovia (1410-55)
    • Burgos cathedral (1440)
  • Others
    • Krak de Chevaliers, Syria (XII)
    • Marienburg/Malbork castle, Poland (1309-1457)
    • New Kremlin, Moskow (1485-1516)
    • Utrecht cathedral, Flanders, (1265)
    • Antwerp cathedral, Flanders, (1352)
    • Town Hall, Tallinn, Estonia (15th)
    • Church of the Holy Ghost, Tallinn, Estonia (13th)
    • Catholic basilica Sveta Jekaba, Riga, Latvia (1225)
    • Rigas Birza, Riga, Latvia
    • Meingalvju Nams, Riga, Latvia (1334)
    • Lutheran Basilica, Riga, Latvia (13th c)

    Renaissance

  • Firenze 1420-1450
    • Brunelleschi's dome for the cathedral (1418-38)
    • Brunelleschi's Spedale degli Innocenti (1421-55)
    • Lorenzo Ghiberti's Bronze doors ("Gates of Paradise") of the Battistero (1425-1452)
    • Michelozzo's Palazzo Medici (1444)
    • Palaces for the Medici (1444-64) and the Pitti (Brunelleschi, 1440)
    • Leon Battista Alberti's facade for Santa Maria Novella (1442-1470)
  • Italy
    • Bernardo Rossellino's Pienza (1459-62, cathedral, town hall, papal palace)
    • St Andrea, Mantova (1472-94, Leon Battista Alberti)
    • Laurana's Palazzo di Urbino (1465)
    • Certosa di Pavia (1494)
    • Urbino
  • Architecture of the High Renaissance
    • Donato Bramante (1444, Italy)
      • Tempietto S.Pietro in Montorio (Roma, 1502)
      • S. Pietro cathedral (Roma, 1506)
      • Palazzo Caprini (Roma, 1510)
    • Bramante's influence:
      • Antonio Sangallo il Vecchio: S.Maria della Consolazione (Todi, 1508)
      • Antonio Sangallo il Giovane et al: Palazzo Farnese (Roma, 1514-89)
      • Baldassarre Peruzzi: Villa Farnesina (1522)
      • Sanmicheli: Palazzo Grimani (Venezia, 1556)
      • Sansovino: Ca' Grande (1537)
      • Sansovino: Libreria di San Marco (1536)
    • Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475, Italy)
      • Libreria Laurentana (Roma, 1524)
      • Campidoglio (Roma, 1539)
      • St Peter's dome (Roma, 1546)
    • Andrea Palladio (1508, Italy)
      • Basilica (Vincenza, 1549)
      • Teatro Olimpico (Vicenza, 1580)
      • Villa Rotonda (1550)
    • Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola:
      • Villa Giulia, Roma (1551)
      • Villa Farnese, Caprarola (1559)
      • Chiesa del Gesu`, Roma (1568)
    • Giorgio Vasari (1511, Italy)
      • Palazzo degli Uffizi (Firenze, 1560)
  • Rest of Europe
    • Buda palace, Budapest (1460, destroyed)
    • Topkapi Palace, Istanbul (1459)
    • Cathedral of the Dormition, Moskow (1475-1479)
    • Cathedral of the Annunciation, Moskow (1484-1489)
    • New Kremlin (1485-1516 )
    • Cathedral Frauenkirche/ Our Lady, Munich (1488)
    • Vladislav Hall of Prague Castle (1493)
    • Fioravanti: Cathedral of the Assumption (Moscow, 1479)
    • St Basil (Moscow, 1560)
    • Alevisio Novi: Church of the Archangel Michael (Moscow, 1509)
    • Salamanca cathedral, Spain (1512)
    • Sigismond Chapel, Wawel cathedral, Poland (1521)
    • Segovia cathedral, Spain (1522)
    • Granada cathedral, Spain (1528)
    • Chateaux de Fontainebleau, France (1528-68)
    • St Eustache, Paris (1532)
    • New Louvre, Paris (1546)
    • Juan Bautista de Toledo & Juan de Herrera: Escorial, Madrid (1562-84)
    • Town hall, Antwerp, Flanders28 (1571)
    • Inigo Jones (1573, Britain)
    • Banqueting House (1619-22) in Whitehall, London
    • St Anne, Vilnius, Lithuania (16th c, late gothic)
  • Baroque in Roma
    • Carlo Maderno (1556)
      • S. Susanna (1597)
      • Nave and Facade of St Peter (1614)
      • S. Andrea della Valle (1622)
    • Gianlorenzo Bernini (1598)
      • St Peter's Colonnade
    • Francesco Borromini (1599)
      • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane (1638)
      • S. Ivo della Sapienza (1648)
    • Piazza del Popolo (1662-79)
    • Spanish Steps (1723)
    • Trevi fountain (1732)
  • Baroque in Torino
    • Guarino Guarini (1624)
      • Chapel of the Holy Shroud (1667)
      • S.Lorenzo (1668)
      • Carignano Palace (1680)
    • Filippo Juvarra (1678)
      • Palazzo Madama (1718)
      • Stupinigi castle (1729)
      • Superga (1717)
    • Bernardo Vittone (1705)
      • Santa Maria della Visitazione, Vallinotto (1738)
      • San Bernardino, Chieri (1740)
    • Santa Chiara, Bra (1741)
    • Santa Maria di Piazza, Torino (1750)
    • S. Croce in Villanova di Mondovi` (1755)
    • San Michele, Rivarolo Canavese (1758)
  • Baroque & Rococo in Germany & Austria
    • St Michael, Munich (1597)
    • Santa Maria Nova dei Miracoli, Venezia (1489, Pietro Lombardo)
    • Ponte di Rialto, Venezia (XVI)
    • Baldassarre Longhena (1604): S. Maria della Salute, Venezia (1631)
    • Johann Bernard Fisher von Erlach (1656)
      • Karlskirche, Vienna (1716-37)
      • Hofbibliothek, Vienna (1722)
    • Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt
      • Goettweig (1719)
      • Schloss Pommersfelden (1711)
      • Mirabell Palace, Salzburg (1715)
      • Schoenborn Palace, Goellersdorf (1717)
      • Halbthurn Palace (1711)
      • Schlosshof Palace (1729)
      • Rackeve Palace (1701)
      • Lower and Upper Belvedere (1713-1723)
    • Balthasar Neumann (1687)
      • Wuerzburg Residenz (1724-44)
      • Bruchsal (1731)
      • Vierzehnheiligen, Bamberg (1762)
    • House of Nobility/ Riddarhus, Stockholm, Sweden (1641)
    • Jacob Van Campen: Mauritshuis, Hague, Holland (1644)
    • St Nicholas, Prague (1704-1756)
    • Georg Bahr: Frauenkirche, Dresden (1726-)
    • Francois Cuvillies: Amalienburg, Nymphenburg, Munich (1734)
    • Georg Wenceslaus von Knoebelsdorff: Sans Souci, Potsdam (1745)
    • Daniel Mathaeus Poeppelman: Zwinger, Dresden (1711-)
    • Gotthard Hayberger: Admont abbey library, Austria (1742)
    • Jakob Prandtauer: Monastery of Melk, Austria (1702)
    • Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena: Bayreuth theatre (1748)
    • Johann Bernard Fisher von Erlach (1656)
      • Karlskirche, Vienna (1716-37)
      • Hofbibliothek, Vienna (1722)
    • Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt
      • Schloss Pommersfelden (1711)
      • Halbthurn Palace (1711)
      • Lower and Upper Belvedere (1713-1723)
      • Mirabell Palace, Salzburg (1715)
      • Schoenborn Palace, Goellersdorf (1717)
      • Goettweig (1719)
      • Schlosshof Palace (1729)
    • Balthasar Neumann (1687)
      • Wuerzburg Residenz (1724-44)
      • Bruchsal (1731)
    • Jakob Prandtauer: Monastery of Melk, Austria (1702)
    • Daniel Mathaeus Poeppelman: Zwinger, Dresden (1711-)
    • Asman brothers: Welterburg (1718)
    • Georg Bahr: Frauenkirche, Dresden (1726-)
    • Francois Cuvillies: Amalienburg, Nymphenburg, Munich (1734)
    • Gotthard Hayberger: Admont abbey library, Austria (1742)
    • Georg Wenceslaus von Knoebelsdorff: Sans Souci, Potsdam (1745)
    • Dominikus Zimmermann: Die Wies (1746)
    • Giuseppe Galli-Bibiena: Bayreuth theatre (1748)
    • Hildebrandt's Goettweig
  • Slavic Rococo
    • Johann Santini (Bohemia, 1667):
      • Kladruby (1712)
      • Rajhrad (1722)
      • Zdar chapel (1719)
    • Paolo Antonio Fontana: St Anne, Lubartow, Poland (1738)
      • Bartolomeo Rastrelli (1700):
      • Monastery of Smolny, St Petersburg (1748)
      • Winter Palace, St Petersburg (1754)
      • Antonio Rinaldi: Bolshoy Kamenny Theater (St Petersburg, 1783)
      • Osip Bove: Bolshoy Theatre, Moskow (1825)
      • Vladimir Shervud: Russian Museum, Moskow (1872)
  • Spanish Rococo
    • Sacristy of the Charterhouse, Granada (18th)
    • Facade of Santiago de Campostela (1738)
    • Zacatecas cathedral, Mexico (1752)
    • Cordoba cathedral, Argentina (1687)
    • Mafra monastery, Portugal (1717-)
  • French Rococo
    • Francois Mansart: Ste Marie de la Visitation, Paris (1632)
    • Hardouin-Mnasart: Les Invalides (1680)
    • Louis LeVau: Versailles (1669)
    • Guarini?: St Didier, Asfeld (1680)
    • Grand Place, Brussels (1696-)
  • English Rococo
    • Christopher Wren (1632, Britain)
      • St. Paul's Cathedral, London (1675-1710)
      • St Stephen, Walbrook (1672)
      • Royal Naval Hospital, Greenwich (1716)
    • Nicholas Hawksmoor (Britain, 1661)
      • Blenheim Palace, Oxfordshire (1724)
      • Christ Church, at Spitalfields, London (1729)
    • John Vanbrugh:
      • Castle Howard (1699-)
      • Blenheim palace (1705)
    • James Gibbs:
      • St Martin-in-the-fields, London (1721)
      • Radcliff Camera (1739)

    TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

    Neoclassic Architecture

  • Richard Boyle: Chiswick villa, England (1725)
  • Matthew Brettingham: Holkham Hall, England (1734)
  • Luigi Vanvitelli: Palazzo di Caserta (1751)
  • Jacques Soufflot: Pantheon, Paris (1754)
  • Nicodemus Tessin: Royal Palace, Stockholm (1754)
  • Victor Luis: Grande Theatre, Bordeaux (1773)
  • Robert Adam: Home House, London (1775)
  • Giuseppe Piermarini: La Scala, Milano (1776)
  • Charles Cameron: Agate Pavillion (1780)
  • Etienne Boullee (Britain, 1728): Cenotaph for Isaac Newton (1784, never built)
  • Claude Ledoux (France, 1736): Custom Toll House, Paris (1789)
  • William Thornton: Capitol, Washington (1792)
  • Friedrich Gilly: Monument to kaiser Friedrich, Berlin (1797, never built)
  • Madeleine, Paris (1806)
  • Antonio Niccolini: San Carlo theatre, Napoli (1816)
  • Leo von Klenze: Walhalla, Regensburg (1821)
  • Karl Schinkel: Altes Museum, Berlin (1823)
  • Gottfried Semper: Hoftheater, Dresden (1835)
  • Benjamin Latrobe (USA, 1764): Capitol, Washington (1830)
  • Benjamin Latrobe (USA, 1764): Cathedral, Baltimore (1818)
  • Charles Bullfinch (USA, 1763): State House, Boston (1797)
  • Alexander Parris (USA, 1780): Faneuil Market, Boston (1826)

    Neogothic Architecture

  • Augustus Pugin: Houses of Parliament, London (1840)
  • Ralph Adams Cram: St John the Divine, New York (1892)

    Revivalist Architecture

  • Charles Garnier: Opera, Paris (1861)
  • Thomas Walter: Capitol, Washington (1863)
  • Joseph Poalaert: Palais de Justice, Brussels (1866)
  • Christian Jank: Neuschwanstein Castle (1869-92)
  • Henry Richardson: Trinity Church, Boston (1872)
  • Paul Abadie: Sacre Coeur, Paris (1874)
  • Josefa Zitka: Opera, Prague (1883)
  • Giuseppe Sacconi (1854): Vittoriano, Roma (1885-1935)
  • John-Francis Bentley (1839): Westminster Cathedral, London (1895)
  • George Gilbert Scott (1839): Midland Grand/ St Pancras Renaissance (1873)
  • Daniel Burnham (1846): Fuller Building (1902)
  • George Hauberisser: Neues Rathaus, Munich (1909)
  • Alexander Gornostajev: Uspenski Cathedral, Helsinki (1868)
  • CL Engel: Cathedral, Helsinki (1802)
  • Opera, Stockholm, Sweden (Axel Anderberg, 1898)

    Art Noveau

  • Antoni Gaudi (1852)
    • Sagrada Familia, Barcelona (1883-XXI)
    • Casa Batllo, Barcelona (1905)
  • Joseph Maria Olbricht
    • Secession Gallery, Vienna (1899)
  • Otto Wagner
    • Steinhof Asylum, Vienna (1905)
  • Louis Sullivan (1856)
    • Auditorium Building, Chicago (1889)
    • Carson Pirie Scott, Chicago (1904)

    Victorian architecture

  • Richard Turner: Palm House, Kew (1845)
  • Joseph Paxton: Crystal Palace, London (1851, burned down)
  • William-Henry Barlow (Britain, 1812): St Pancras Station, London (1868)
  • James Bunning (Britain, 1802): Coal Exchange, London (1846)
  • Giuseppe Mengoni: Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, Milano (1860)
  • Gustave Eiffel (1832): "Tour Eiffel" (1889)
  • Hendrik Berlage: Stock Exchange, Amsterdam (1898)
  • Daniel Burnham: Flatiron, New York (1902)
  • William Kendall: Municipal Building, New York (1906)
  • Giacomo Matte`-Trucco (1869): Fiat Factory, Torino, Italy (1923)
  • Eliel Saarinen (1873): Railway Station (1914, Helsinki)
  • Giles Scott: Anglican Cathedral, Liverpool (1910)
  • Joseph Hoffman (1870): Palais Stoclet, Brussels (1911)
  • Cass Gilbert: Woolworth Building, New York (1913)
  • Cass Gilbert: Alexander Hamilton Custom House, New York (1907)
  • Joze Plecnik (1872): Church of the Holy Spirit/ Heilig-Geist-Kirche, Vienna (1913)
  • Bernard Maybeck (1862): Palace of Fine Arts, San Francisco (1915)
  • Ragnar Ostberg: Stadshuset/ City Hall, Stockholm (1923)
  • Ralph Walker: New York Telephone Building (ex Barclay-Vesey), New York (1927)
  • Hannibal Gonzalez (Spain): Plaza de Espana, Sevilla (1929)
  • Graham, Anderson, Probst & White: Wrigley Building, Chicago (1925)
  • Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker: Irving Trust Company Building, New York (1932), 1 Wall Street
  • Tatsuno Kingo (Japan, 1854): Bank of Japan, Tokyo (1896) and Tokyo Station (1914)
  • Sone Tatsuzo (Japan, 1853): Memorial Library (1912) of Keio University in Minato and Nihon Yusen building (1923)
  • Okada Shinichiro (Japan, 1883): Kabukiza/ Kabuki Theater (1924)

    Expressionism

  • Peter Behrens (1868): Turbine Hall, Berlin (1909)
  • JM Van der Meij: Scheepvaarthuis, Amsterdam (1912)
  • Max Berg: Jahrhunderthalle, Breslau (1913, destroyed)
  • Peter Jensen Klint (1853): Grundtvig Church, Copenhagen (1913)
  • Henry van de Velde (1863): Werkbund Theatre, Cologne (1914, destroyed)
  • Hans Poelzig (1869): Grosses Schauspielhaus, Berlin (1918, destroyed)
  • Erich Mendelsohn (1887, Germany): Einstein Observatory, Potsdam, Germany (1921)
  • Bruno Taut (1880): Glass House, Koeln/Cologne (1914)

    Pre-modernism

  • Frank Lloyd Wright (1867):
    • Fallingwater House, Pennsylvania (1937)
    • Guggenheim Museum, New York (1956)
  • Adolf Loos (1870): Chicago Tribune tower (1920-22)
  • Albert von Huffell: Church of the Sacred Heart, Brussells (1922)
    • Sacred Heart, Prague (1928)
    • Chamber of Trade, Ljubljana, Slovenia (1925)
    • Zale (1938)
  • Rudolph Steiner (1861): Goetheanum II, Dornach, Switzerland (1928)
  • Dominikus Boehm (1880): Frielingsdorf Church, Koeln/Cologne, Germany (1927)
  • Marcello Piacentini (1881): Palazzo della Civilta` Italiana, EUR, Roma (1938-1942)
  • Walter Gropius (1883, Germany): Bauhaus, Dessau, Germany (1925)
  • William van Alen (1883): Chrysler Building, New York (1930)
  • Shreve, Lamb, and Harmon: Empire State Building, New York (1933)
  • Hood, Reinhard, Hofmeister, etc: Rockefeller Center, New York (1931-37)
  • Edwin Lutyens (1869): Catholic Cathedral, Liverpool (1933, unfinished)
  • Yi-shun Wang: Lungshan Temple, Taipei (1924)
    TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

    Modernist Architecture

  • Juan O'Gorman (1905): mosaic facade of the Biblioteca of the Universidad Nacional, Mexico City (1950)
  • Lev Rudnev (1885): Lomonosov University (1953, Moscow)
  • Lev Rudnev: Palace of Culture/ PKIN (1955, Warszaw)
  • Emery Roth (1871): Pan-Am building, New York (1963)
  • A. Mordinow y V. Oltarzewsky: Hotel Ukraine (1955, Moscow)
  • Lev Rudnev: Palace of Culture & Science (1955, Varsovia)
  • Frederick Kiesler (1890): The Shrine of the Book (1965, Jerusalem)
  • Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886):
    • Farnsworth House, Plano, Illinois (1951)
    • Seagram Building, New York (1954-57)
  • Charles-Edouard Jeanneret-Gris "LeCorbusier" (1887):
    • Notre-Dame-de-Haut, Ronchamp (1950-1955)
    • Villa Savoye (1931)
    • Chandigarh High Court, India (1952)
    • LaTourette monastery, France (1957-60)
  • Pierluigi Nervi (1891)
    • Palazzo dello sport EUR, Rome (1956)
    • Vatical Audience Hall, Roma (1971)
    • St Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco (1971)
  • Gio Ponti (1891):
    • Pirelli Building, Milano (1956)
  • Hans Scharoun (1893):
    • Philharmonie, Berlin (1956)
  • Buckminster Fuller (1895): Union Tank Car Dome, Baton Rouge, USA (1951)
  • Buckminster Fuller (1895): Montreal Biosphere, Canada (1967)
  • Achilles Rizzoli (1896)
  • Constant Nieuwenhuys
  • Alvar Aalto (1898):
    • Saynatsalo Townhall, Finland (1952)
    • Finlandia Hall (1967-71)
  • Temppeliauko Church, Helsinki (Timo & Tuomo Suomalainen, 1969)
  • Louis Kahn (1901, USA)
    • Salk Institute, La Jolla, San Diego (1959)
    • National Assembly, Dhaka, Bangladesh (1974)
    • Kimbell Art Museum, Texas (1972)
  • Disneyland, Los Angeles (1955)
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Moskow (1956)
  • Arne Jacobsen (1902): Royal SAS Hotel, Copenhagen (1960)
  • Marcel Breuer (1902, Germany): St John's Abbey, Minnesota (1953-63)
  • Josep Lluis Sert (1902): Fondation Maeght, St-Paul-de-Vence, France (1964)
  • Gordon Bunshaft: Lever House (1951)
  • Philip Johnson (1906)
    • Munson-Williams-Proctor Museum, Utica (1957)
    • Crystal cathedral, Los Angeles (1980)
    • Lipstick Building, New York (1986)
    • Torres Puerta de Europa, Madrid (1996)
    • Thanksgiving Square, Dallas (1977)
    • AT&T/Sony, New York (1984)
  • Oscar Niemeyer (1907):
    • Chapel of Sao Francisco, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte (1946)
    • Congress Complex, Brasilia (1958)
    • Cathedral, Brasilia (1970)
    • Museum of Contemporary Art, Niteroi, Brazil (1996)
  • Frederick Gibberd (1908): Cathedral of Christ the King, Liverpool (1967)
  • Gordon Bunshaft (1909): National Commercial Bank, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia (1984)
  • William Pereira (1909): Transamerica Pyramid, San Francisco (1973)
  • William Pereira (1909): Geisel Library, San Diego (1973)
  • Felix Candela (1910): Church of the Miraculous Virgin, Mexico City (1955)
  • John Lautner (USA, 1911):
    • Chemosphere House, Los Angeles (1960)
    • Garcia House on Mulholland Drive, Los Angeles (1962)
    • Sheats-Goldstein House, Los Angeles (1963)
    • Mar Brisas House, Acapulco, Mexico (1973)
    • Walstrom House, Santa Monica Mountains, California (1969)
  • Bertrand Goldberg (1913)
    • Marina City, Chicago (1967)
    • Prentice Women's Hospital, Chicago (1975)
  • Eero Saarinen (1910, Finland)
    • TWA terminal, New York (1962)
    • Gateway Arch, St Louis (1948-65)
  • Wallace Harrison: Met Opera at Lincoln Center (1966)
  • Pietro Belluschi: Alice Tully Hall in Juilliard School at Lincoln Center (1966)
  • Hugh Stubbins (1912):
    • Landmark Tower (1993, Yokohama)
    • Congresses Hall (1958, Berlin)
    • Citicorp building (1978, New York)
  • Yang Cho-cheng (1914): Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall, Taipei (1980)
  • Kenzo Tange (1913):
    • Peace Pavilion, Hiroshima (1956)
    • National Gymnasium, Tokyo (1964)
    • Cathedral, Tokyo (1965)
    • City Hall, West Shinjuku, Tokyo (1991)
    • United Overseas Bank 1, Singapore (1992)
  • Moshe Safdie: Marina Bay Sands, Singapore (2010)
  • Uchida Shozo: Yasuda Kasai Kaijo or Sompo Building (1976), Tokyo
  • Ieoh Ming Pei (1917):
    • National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado (1961-67)
    • Bank of China, Hong Kong (1990)
    • Library Tower, Los Angeles (1990)
    • City Hall, Dallas (1978)
    • Fountain Place at 1445 Ross Avenue, Dallas (1986)
  • John Burgee (1933): AT&T/Sony Building, New York (1984)
  • Richard Rogers (1933):
    • Cheesegrater/Leadenhall Tower, London (?)
    • Centre Pompidou, Paris (1972-76)
    • Lloyds Building, London (1978)
    • Millenium Dome, London (1999)
  • Eladio Dieste (1917): Iglesia de Atlantida, Uruguay (1959)
  • George Schipporeit: Lake Point Tower, Chicago (1968)
  • Paolo Soleri (1919): Arcosanti, Arizona (1972)
  • Jorn Utzon (1918): Sydney Opera House (1957-72)
  • Edward Durell Stone: Aon building, Chicago (1972)
  • Hiroshi Hara (1936, Japan): Umeda Sky (1993)
  • Hiroshi Hara (1936, Japan): Kyoto Station
  • John Portman (1924):
    • Embarcadero Center, San Francisco (1968-83)
    • Hyatt Regency, San Francisco (1974)
    • Bonaventure Hotel, Los Angeles (1986)
    • Tomorrow Square, Shangai (2003)
    • Peachtree Plaza Hotel, Atlanta (1976)
  • Bruce Graham (1925): John Hancock Center, Chicago (1970)
  • Eugene Baudoin, Urbain Cassan, Louis de Hoyn de Marien, Jean Saubat: Tour Montparnasse, Paris (1973)
  • Cesar Pelli (1926):
    • Pacific Design Center ("Blue Whale"), Los Angeles (1976)
    • Canary Wharf Tower, London (1991)
    • Bank of America, Charlotte (1992)
    • Sea Hawk Hotel, Fukuoka, Japan (1995)
    • Petronas Towers, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1998)
    • Two International Finance Centre (2003, Hong Kong)
  • Minoru Yamasaki (1912): World Trade Center, New York (1970, dem 2001)
  • Georgy Chakhava (): Roads Ministry building, Tbilisi, Georgia (1975)
  • Igor Vasilevsky (): Druzhba Sanitarium, Yalta, Ukraine (1986)
  • Anca Petrescu (): Casa Poporului, Bucharest, Romania (1989)
  • Janko Konstantinov (): Glavna Posta/ Central Post Office, Skopje, Macedonia (1974)
  • Jose Augusto Bellucci: Cathedral de Nossa Senhora da Gloria, Maringa, Brazil (1972)
  • Edgar de Oliveira de Fonseca: Catedral Metropolitana, Rio de Janeiro (1976)
  • Bruce Graham (1925): Sears Towers, Chicago (1974)
  • Harry Weese: Metropolitan Detention Center, Chicago (1975)
  • Harry Weese: 200 South Wacker Drive, Chicago (1981)
  • Kazuo Shinohara (1925): Tokyo Institute of Technology's Centennial Hall (1987)
  • James Stirling (1926): Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart (1977)
  • Gae Aulenti (1927): Musee d'Orsay (1987)
  • Rogelio Salmona (1929): Torres del Parque, Bogota (1970)
  • Johann Otto von Spreckelsen (1929): La Grande Arche, Paris (1982-1990)
  • Stephen Wright: Two Prudential Plaza, Chicago (1990)
  • Frank Gehry (1929):
    • Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao (1997)
    • Walt Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles (2005)
    • Jay Pritzker Pavilion, Chicago (2004)
    • Guggenheim Museum, Abu Dhabi (200?)
    • Hotel Marques de Riscal, Elciego, Spain
  • Arata Isozaki (1931): Museum of Contemporary Art (1986, Los Angeles)
  • Alvaro Siza-Vieira (1933, Portugal): Igreja de Marco de Canaveses (Portugal)
  • Norman Foster (1935, Britain)
    • Willis Faber Dumas Building, Ipswitch (1974)
    • Hong Kong Shangai Banking Building, Hong Kong (1986)
    • Commerzbank, Frankfurt (1997)
    • Chep Lap Kok airport, Hong Kong (1998)
    • Swiss Re, St Mary Axe & Camonile, London (2003)
    • Moorhouse, London Wall & Moorgate, London (2004)
    • Al Faisaliah Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (2000)
    • Hearst Tower, New York, USA (2008)
  • Michael Graves (1934)
    • Public Services Building, Portland (1983)
    • Humana Building, Louisville (1982)
  • Epstein: Associates Center, Chicago (1983)
  • Kohn Pedersen Fox: 333 Wacker Drive, Chicago (1983)
  • Kohn Pedersen Fox: Mori Building (2008, Roppongi Hills, Tokyo, Japan)
  • Kohn Pedersen Fox: 311 South Wacker Drive, Chicago (1990)
  • Henry Coss: First Interstate Bank, Dallas (1985)
  • Murphy & Jahn: Liberty Place, Philadelphia (1986)
  • Murphy & Jahn: Messeturm, Frankfurt (1990)
  • James Polshek (1930): Clinton Library, Little Rock, USA (2004)
  • Dennis Lau: Central Plaza, Hong Kong (1992)
  • Dennis Lau: Citic Plaza, Guangzhou (1997)
  • Ricardo Legorreta (1931): Cancun Hotel, Cancun (1975)
  • Richard Meier (1934): Getty Center, Los Angeles (1997)
  • Richard Meier (1934): Museu d'Arte Contemporani, Barcelona (1995)
  • Rafael Moneo (1937): Cathedral, Los Angeles (2002)
  • Renzo Piano (1937): DeMenil Collection (1986)
  • Renzo Piano (1937): California Academy of Science, San Francisco (1986)
  • Renzo Piano and Charles Thornton: New York Times Headquarters
  • Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers: Centre Pompidou, Paris (1972-76)
  • Terry Farrell (1938):
    • Tv-am building, Camden Town, London (1983)
    • Vauxhall Cross, London (1988-92)
  • Moshe Safdie (1938): Habitat Housing, Montreal (1967)
  • Ricardo Bofill (1939): Espaces de Abraxas, Marne-la-Vallee (1982)
  • Ricardo Bofill (1939): Taller de Arquitectura, St-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Paris (1981)
  • Nicholas Grimshaw (1939): Waterloo Station (1993, London)
  • Imre Makovecz (1935, Hungary): Church of the Holy Spirit (1992, Paks, Hungary)
  • Tadao Ando (1941):
    • Church on the Water, Tomamu-Hokkaido (1985-88)
    • Church of the Light, Osaka (1989)
  • Adrian Smith (USA, 1944)
    • AT&T Corporate Center, Chicago (1989)
    • Adrian Smith: Burj Dubai (2008, Dubai)
    • Adrian Smith: Jin Mao Building, Shangai (1998)
    • Adrian Smith: Masdar City, United Arab Emirates (200?)
  • Helmut Jahn (1940): Xerox Center, Chicago (1980)
  • Jean Nouvel (1941): L'Institut du Monde Arabe (1987, Paris)
  • Jean Nouvel (1941): Angbar Tower (2005, Barcelona)
  • Paul Rudolph: Concourse, Singapore (1994)
  • Arc Studio: Pinnacles, Singapore (2004)
  • Kisho Kurokawa (1934, Japan):
    • Republic Plaza (1995, Singapore)
    • Nakagin Capsule Tower (1972, Tokyo)
    • Sony Tower (1976, Osaka)
    • National Art Center, Tokyo (2005)
  • Mario Botta (1943): SFMOMA (1995, San Francisco)
  • Rafael Vinoly (1944): International Forum (1996, Tokyo)
  • Dominique Perrault (1953): Bibliotheque de France (1997, Paris)
  • Leo Daly architects: Jumeirah Beach hotel (1997, Dubai)
  • CY Lee (1938, Taiwan): Taipei 101 Tower (1998, Taipei)
  • Nikken Sekkei: Chamber of Commerce, Dubai (1995)
  • Carlos Ott: National Bank, Dubai (1998)
  • Tom Wright (1957, Britain): Burj Al Arab hotel, Dubai (2000)
  • Hijjas Kasturi: Menara Telekom (2000, Kuala Lumpur)
  • Hazel Wong: Emirates Towers , Dubai (2000)
  • Ellerde Becket: Kingdom Centre (2001, Saudi Arabia)
  • Jan Kaplicky (1937, Czeck): The Ark (2001, Doncaster, Britain)
  • Jose-Rafael Moneo (Spain, 1937): Cathedral, Los Angeles (2002)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951): Satolas TGV Station (1993, Lyons, France)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951): Sundial bridge (2004, Redding, California)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951): Turning Torso (2005, Malmo, Sweden)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951): Arts and Science Museum (Valencia, Spain)
  • Santiago Calatrava (1951): Chords Bridge, Jerusalem, Israel (2008)
  • Joachim Hauser (Germany): Hydropolis Hotel (2006, Dubai)
  • Lee Polisano (USA): Heron Tower (2006, London)
  • Lee Polisano (USA): World Financial Center (2006, Shanghai)
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: Gateway IV, Chicago (1983)
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: China World Trade Center Tower 3 (2010, Beijing)
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: DLI63/Korea Life Insurance, Seoul (1985)
  • Rafael Vinoly (Uruguay, 1944): Jongno Tower, Seoul (1999)
  • Rem Koolhaas: Samsung Togok Tower (200x, Seoul, South Korea)
  • Skidmore, Owings & Merrill: Freedom Tower (200?, New York)
  • Wong & Ouyang: Union Square Phase 7 (200?, Hong Kong)
  • Ralph Johnson (USA, 1948): AMA Tower (1999, Manila, Philippines)
  • Teodoro Gonzalez de Leon, Francisco Serrano and Alejandro Fierro: Arcos Bosques (1997, Mexico City)
  • Agustin Hernandez's Complejo Calakmul (1994, Mexico City)
  • Steven Holl and Robert Silman: 5th Avenue and 42nd Street Tower (New York)
  • Steven Holl: Nelson-Atkins Museum (Kansas City, 2007)
  • Hans Hollein and Josef Janda: Monte Laa Towers
  • Arata Isozaki and Toshiko Kimura: JR Ueno Railway Station
  • Paul Andreu: National Center for the Performing Arts, Beijing (2008)
  • Kenneth Yeang and T.R. Hamzah: Elephant and Castle Eco-Tower, London
  • Kisho Kurokawa: Zhengdong District, China
  • Peter Cook and Colin Fournier: Kunsthaus Graz (Graz, Austria, 2002)
  • Henning Larsen: Opera House (Copenhagen, Denmark, 2005)
  • Snohetta: Opera House (Oslo, Norway, 2008)
  • Jakob + MacFarlane: Cite de la Mode (Paris, France, 2008)
  • Zaha Hadid (Iraq, 1950):
    • Phaeno Science Center (Wolfsburg, Germany, 2005)
    • Herault Culture Sport (Montpelier, France, in progress)
    • Museum of Transport (Glasgow, Britain, in progress)
    • CMA CGM Head Office (Marseilles, France, in progress)
    • Fiera di Milano (Milano, Italy, in progress)
    • Architecture Foundation, Southwark Street and Great Guildford Street (London, Britain, in progress)
    • Guangzhou: Opera House (2011)
  • David Fisher: Dynamic Tower, Dubai (?)
  • David Fisher: Dynamic Tower, Moscow (?)
  • Rem Koolhaas and Ole Scheeren: China Central Television, Beijing (2009)
  • Tabung Haji, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (1984)
  • Menara Telekom, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Paul Rudolph (SAU, 1918): Hong Kong's Lippo (1987)
  • Giancarlo Mazzanti: Parque Biblioteca Espana, Medellin, Colombia
  • Ma Yansong: Absolute "Marilyn Monroe" Towers (Ontario, Canada, 2011)
  • Jeanne Gang: Aqua Building, Chicago (2009)
  • Roberto Luis Gandolfi: Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (1972)
  • Edgar de Oliveira de Fonseca: Catedral Metropolitana, Rio de Janeiro (1979)
  • Ben Van Berkel (1957): Mercedez-Benz Museum, Stuttgart (2006)
  • Daniel Libeskind (1946):
    • Reflection Towers at Keppel Bay (2012)
    • Creative Media Centre, City University of Hong Kong (2010)
    • Royal Ontario Museum, Ontario (2006)
    • Libeskind's Denver Art Museum (2006)
    • L Tower, Toronto
    • Museum of Military History, Dresden (2011)
    • Kotaro Ide: Shell House, Kitasaku, Nagano (2008)
    See also the buildings that don't exist

  • TM, ®, Copyright © 2001 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.