A Timeline of Artificial Intelligence

by piero scaruffi | (contact)

An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial" for an explanation of these events

Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"



1909: Adolph Whitman's "Occultus"
1935: Alonzo Church proves the undecidability of first order logic
1936: Alan Turing's Universal Machine ("On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem")
1936: Alonzo Church's Lambda calculus
1941: Konrad Zuse's programmable electronic computer
1943: Warren McCulloch's and Walter Pitts' binary neuron ("A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity")
1943: Kenneth Craik's "The Nature of Explanation"
1943: "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" co-written by mathematician Norbert Wiener, physiologist Arturo Rosenblueth and engineer Julian Bigelow
1945: John Von Neumann designs a computer that holds its own instructions, the "stored-program architecture"


1946: The ENIAC, the first Turing-complete computer


1946: The first Macy Conference on Cybernetics
1947: John Von Neumann's self-reproducing automata
1948: Norbert Wiener's "Cybernetics"
1948: Alan Turing's "Intelligent Machinery"
1949: Leon Dostert founds Georgetown University's Institute of Languages and Linguistics
1949: William Grey-Walter's Elmer and Elsie robots
1950: Claude Shannon's "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess"
1950: Alan Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (the "Turing Test")
1951: Karl Lashley's "The problem of serial order in behavior"
1951: Claude Shannon's maze-solving robots ("electronic rats")
1952: First International Conference on Machine Translation organized by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
1952: Ross Ashby's "Design for a Brain"
1953: Harvey Chapman's "Garco"
1954: Minsky's thesis on reinforcement learning "Neural Nets and the Brain Model Problem"
1954: Demonstration of a machine-translation system by Leon Dostert's team at Georgetown University and Cuthbert Hurd's team at IBM, possibly the first non-numerical application of a digital computer
1954: Wesley Clark and Belmont Farley build the first artificial neural network
1955: The Western Joint Computer Conference with papers by Newell, Selfridge, Clark, etc
1956: Dartmouth conference on Artificial Intelligence
1956: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate the "Logic Theorist"
1957: Newell & Simon's "General Problem Solver"
1957: Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron
1957: Noam Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (transformational grammar)
1958: Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium
1958: John McCarthy's LISP programming language
1958: John McCarthy's "Programs with Common Sense" focuses on knowledge representation
1958: Yehoshua Bar-Hillel's "proof" that machine translation is impossible without common-sense knowledge
1959: John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky found the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the MIT
1959: Arthur Samuel's Checkers, the world's first self-learning program, and the first implementation of the alpha-beta algorithm
1959: Noam Chomsky's review of a book by Skinner ends the domination of behaviorism and resurrects cognitivism
1959: The industrial robot Unimate is deployed at General Motors
1960: Hilary Putnam's Computational Functionalism ("Minds and Machines")
1960: Bernard Widrow's and Ted Hoff's Adaline ((Adaptive Linear Neuron or later Adaptive Linear Element) that uses the Delta Rule for neural networks
1961: Melvin Maron's "Automatic Indexing"
1963 John McCarthy moves to Stanford and founds the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL)
1963: Jim Slagle writes a program for symbolic integration (calculus)
1963: Irving John Good (Isidore Jacob Gudak) speculates about "ultraintelligent machines" (the "singularity")
1964: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition
1965: Ed Feigenbaum's Dendral expert system
1965: Gordon Moore's Law of exponential progress in integrated circuits ("Cramming more components into integrated circuits", 1965)
1965: Herbert Simon predicts that "Machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work a man can do"
1965: Hubert Dreyfus's "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence"
1965: Lotfi Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic
1966: Leonard Baum popularizes the Hidden Markov Model ("Statistical Inference for Probabilistic Functions of Finite State Markov Chains")
1966: Ross Quillian's semantic networks
1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza
1967: Charles Fillmore's Case Frame Grammar
1968: Glenn Shafer's and Stuart Dempster's "Theory of Evidence"
1968: Peter Toma founds Systran to commercialize machine-translation systems
1969: Marvin Minsky & Samuel Papert's "Perceptrons" kill neural networks
1969: First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) at Stanford
1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot
1969: Roger Schank's Conceptual Dependency Theory for natural language processing
1969: Cordell Green's automatic synthesis of programs
1970: Albert Uttley's Informon for adaptive pattern recognition
1970: Tom Martin founds Threshold Technology, the first commercial company for speech recognition
1970: William Woods' Augmented Transition Network (ATN) for natural language processing
1971: Richard Fikes' and Nils Nilsson's STRIPS planner
1971: Ingo Rechenberg publishes his thesis "Evolution Strategies", a set of optimization methods for evolutionary computation
1972: Alain Colmerauer's PROLOG programming language
1972: Harry Klopf's "Brain Function and Adaptive Systems"
1972: William Woods' question-answering system LUNAR
1972: Bruce Buchanan's MYCIN
1972: Terry Winograd's Shrdlu
1973: "Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey" by James Lighthill criticizes Artificial Intelligence for over-promising
1973: Jim Baker applies the Hidden Markov Model to speech recognition ("Machine-aided Labeling of Connected Speech")
1974: Marvin Minsky's frame
1974: Paul Werbos' backpropagation algorithm for neural networks
1975: Roger Schank's script
1975: Raj Reddy's team at Carnegie Mellon University develops three speech-recognition systems (Bruce Lowerre's Harpy, Hearsay-II and Jim Baker's Dragon)
1975: John Holland's genetic algorithms
1976: Doug Lenat's AM
1976: Richard Laing's paradigm of self-replication by self-inspection
1976: Fred Jelinek's "Continuous Speech Recognition by Statistical Methods"
1978: John McDermott's expert system R1/XCON
1979: William Clancey's Guidon
1979: Hans Berliner's BKG 9.8 at Carnegie-Mellon University (connected by satellite to the robot Gammonoid) beats the world champion of backgammon in Monte Carlo
1979: Drew McDermott's non-monotonic logic
1979: David Marr's theory of vision
1980: McCarthy's Circumscription
1980: Kunihiko Fukushima's Convolutional Neural Networks ("Neocognitron - A Self-organizing Neural Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern Recognition Unaffected by Shift in Position")
1980: John Searle's article "Minds, Brains, and Programs" on the "Chinese Room" that attacks Artificial Intelligence
1980: John McDermott's Xcon
1980: Intellicorp, the first major start-up for Artificial Intelligence
1981: Danny Hillis' Connection Machine
1981: Hans Kamp`s Discourse Representation Theory
1981: Andrew Barto's and Richard Sutton's reinforcement learning
1982: John Hopfield describes a new generation of neural networks, based on a simulation of annealing
1982: The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) establishes Artificial Intelligence and Robotics as its very first program
1982: Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Systems project
1982: Teuvo Kohonen's Self-Organized Maps (SOM) for unsupervised learning
1982: Judea Pearl's "Bayesian networks"
1983: John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom's SOAR
1983: Geoffrey Hinton's and Terry Sejnowski's Boltzmann machine for unsupervised learning
1983: Gerard Salton and Michael McGill's "Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval" (the "bag-of-words model")
1984: Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles"
1984: Doug Lenat's "Cyc" to catalog common sense
1984: Barbara Hayes-Roth's general-purpose blackboard system BB1
1986: David Rumelhart's "Parallel Distributed Processing" rediscovers Werbos' backpropagation algorithm
1986: Barbara Grosz's "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse"
1986: Paul Smolensky's Restricted Boltzmann machine
1987: Hinton moves to the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)
1987: Chris Langton coins the term "Artificial Life"
1987: Stephen Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for unsupervised learning
1987: Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind"
1987: Rodney Brooks' robots
1988: Hilary Putnam: "Has artificial intelligence taught us anything of importance about the mind?"
1988: Toshio Fukuda's self-reconfiguring robot CEBOT
1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that plays the arcade videogame Pengo
1988: Fred Jelinek's team at IBM publishes "A Statistical Approach to Language Translation"
1989: Chris Watkins' Q-learning
1989: Yann LeCun's "Backpropagation Applied to Handwritten Zip Code Recognition", that applies backpropagation to convolutional networks for supervised learning.
1990: Carver Mead describes a neuromorphic processor
1990: Robert Jacobs' "mixture-of-experts" architecture
1990: Peter Brown at IBM implements a statistical machine translation system
1990: Ray Kurzweil's book "Age of Intelligent Machines"
1992: Thomas Ray develops "Tierra", a virtual world
1992: Hava Siegelmann's and Eduardo Sontag's Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs)
1994: The first "Toward a Science of Consciousness" conference in Tucson, Arizona
1995: Geoffrey Hinton's Helmholtz machine
1995: Vladimir Vapnik's "Support-Vector Networks"
1996: David Field & Bruno Olshausen's sparse coding
1997: Sepp Hochreiter's and Jeurgen Schmidhuber's Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model
1997: IBM's "Deep Blue" chess machine beats the world's chess champion, Garry Kasparov
1998: Yann LeCun's second generation Convolutional Neural Networks ("Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition")
1998: Thorsten Joachims' "Text Categorization With Support Vector Machines"
1998: Two Stanford students, Larry Page and Russian-born Sergey Brin, launch the search engine Google
2000: Cynthia Breazeal's emotional robot, "Kismet"
2000: Seth Lloyd's "Ultimate physical limits to computation"
2001: Juyang Weng's "Autonomous mental development by robots and animals"
2001: Nikolaus Hansen introduces the evolution strategy called "Covariance Matrix Adaptation" (CMA) for numerical optimization of non-linear problems
2002: iRobot's Roomba
2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a robot that looks like a young woman
2003: Jackrit Suthakorn and Gregory Chirikjian at Johns Hopkins University build an autonomous self-replicating robot
2003: Gabriela Csurka's "Visual Categorization With Bags Of Keypoints" (submitted in 2003, published in 2004)
2003: Tai-Sing Lee's "Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual cortex"
2003: Yoshua Bengio's "Neural Probabilistic Language Model"
2003: DARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition
2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien
2004: Ipke Wachsmuth's conversational agent "Max"
2005: Hod Lipson's "self-assembling machine" at Cornell University
2005: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo"
2005: Andrew Ng at Stanford launches the STAIR project (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Robot)
2005: Sebastian Thrun's driverless car Stanley wins DARPA's Grand Challenge
2005: Pietro Perona's and Fei-Fei's "A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Learning Natural Scene Categories"
2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog"
2006: Geoffrey Hinton's Deep Belief Networks (a fast learning algorithm for restricted Boltzmann machines)
2006: The Monte Carlo tree search algorithm
2006: Robot startup Willow Garage is founded
2006: Osamu Hasegawa's Self-Organising Incremental Neural Network (SOINN), a self-replicating neural network for unsupervised learning
2007: Yeshua Bengio's Stacked Auto-Encoders ("Greedy Layer-wise Training of Deep Networks")
2007: Stanford unveils the Robot Operating System (ROS)
2008: Dharmendra Modha at IBM launches a project to build a neuromorphic processor
2008: Adrian Bowyer's 3D Printer builds a copy of itself at the University of Bath
2008: Cynthia Breazeal's team at the MIT's Media Lab unveils Nexi, the first mobile-dexterous-social (MDS) robot
2009: Feifei Li's ImageNet database of human-tagged images
2009: ARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition
2010: The New York stock market is shut down after algorithmic trading has wiped out a trillion dollars within a few seconds.
2010: Andrew Ng's "Learning Continuous Phrase Representations and Syntactic Parsing with Recursive Neural Networks"
Daniela Rus' "Programmable Matter by Folding"
2010: Quoc Le's "Tiled Convolutional Networks"
2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions
2011: Nick D'Aloisio releases the summarizing tool Trimit (later Summly) for smartphones
2011: Yoshua Bengio's "Deep Sparse Rectifier Networks"
2011: IBM's Watson debuts on a tv show
2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions it was not programmed to do
2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter"
2012: The Open Source Robotics Foundation is launched
2012: Alex Krizhevsky and Ilya Sutskever from the University of Toronto demonstrate that deep learning outperforms traditional approaches to computer vision processing 200 billion images during training
2013: Volodymyr Mnih's Deep Q-Networks
2014: Vladimir Veselov's and Eugene Demchenko's program Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, passes the Turing test at the Royal Society in London
2014: Microsoft introduces the text chatbot Xiaoice in China
2014: Li Fei-Fei's computer vision algorithm that can describe photos ("Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions", 2014)
2014: Alex Graves, Greg Wayne and Ivo Danihelka publish a paper on "Neural Turing Machines"
2014: Jason Weston, Sumit Chopra and Antoine Bordes publish a paper on "Memory Networks"
2014: Microsoft's Skype demonstrates a real-time spoken language translation system
2015: Over 1,000 high-profile Artificial Intelligence scientists sign an open letter calling for a ban on "offensive autonomous weapons"
2015: Leon Gatys, Alexander Ecker and Matthias Bethge's "A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style"
2016: Google's AlphaGo beats Go master Lee Se-dol

See also A Timeline of Androids and Automata
Reading material: