An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".
Download this page as a pdf file
Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1909: Adolph Whitman's "Occultus"
1935: Alonzo Church proves the undecidability of first order logic
1936: Alan Turing's Universal Machine ("On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem")
1936: Alonzo Church's Lambda calculus
1941: Konrad Zuse's programmable computer
1943: Warren McCulloch's and Walter Pitts' binary neuron ("A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity")
1943: Kenneth Craik's "The Nature of Explanation"
1943: "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" co-written by mathematician Norbert Wiener, physiologist Arturo Rosenblueth and engineer Julian Bigelow
1945: John Von Neumann publicizes the notion of a computer that holds its own instructions, the "stored-program architecture"
1946: The ENIAC computer
1946: The first Macy Conference on Cybernetics
1947: John Von Neumann's self-reproducing automata
1948: Norbert Wiener's "Cybernetics"
1948: Alan Turing's "Intelligent Machinery"
1949: Leon Dostert founds Georgetown University's Institute of Languages and Linguistics
1949: The Ratio Club
1949: William Grey-Walter's Elmer and Elsie robots
1949: Warren Weaver's "Translation" memorandum
1950: Claude Shannon's "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess"
1950: Alan Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (the "Turing Test")
1951: AI programs at Manchester on the Ferranti Mark: a draughts-playing program by Christopher Strachey; and a chess-playing program by Dietrich Prinz
1951: Herbert Robbins' "stochastic gradient descent" method for optimization
1951: Karl Lashley's "The problem of serial order in behavior"
1951: Claude Shannon's maze-solving robots ("electronic rats")
1952: First International Conference on Machine Translation organized by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel
1952: Ross Ashby's "Design for a Brain"
1953: Marshall Rosenbluth invents the "Metropolis algorithm", implemented by his wife Arianna, the first Markov Chain Monte Carlo method
1953: Harvey Chapman's "Garco"
1954: Zellig Harris' "Distributional Structure" (1954)
1954: Minsky's thesis on reinforcement learning "Theory of neural-analog reinforcement systems and its application to the brain-model problem"
1954: Demonstration of a machine-translation system by Leon Dostert's team at Georgetown University and Cuthbert Hurd's team at IBM, possibly the first non-numerical application of a digital computer
1954: Wesley Clark and Belmont Farley build the first computer simulation of a neural network
1955: The Western Joint Computer Conference with papers by Newell, Selfridge, Clark, etc
1955: Arthur Samuel's Checkers, the world's first self-learning program, and the first implementation of the alpha-beta algorithm
1956: Ray Solomonoff's inductive inference engine
1956: Dartmouth conference on Artificial Intelligence
1956: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate the "Logic Theorist"
1957: Newell & Simon's "General Problem Solver"
1957: Richard Bellman's "Dynamic Programming"
1957: Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron
1957: Noam Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (transformational grammar)
1958: Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium
1958: John McCarthy's LISP programming language
1958: John McCarthy's "Programs with Common Sense" focuses on knowledge representation
1958: Yehoshua Bar-Hillel's "proof" that machine translation is impossible without common-sense knowledge
1959: John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky found the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the MIT
1959: Noam Chomsky's review of a book by Burrhus Skinner ends the domination of behaviorism and resurrects cognitivism
1959: Zellig Harris' team develops the first parser
1959: Bernard Widrow's and Ted Hoff's Adaline (Adaptive Linear Neuron or later Adaptive Linear Element) that uses the delta rule for neural networks
1959: The industrial robot Unimate is deployed at General Motors
1960: Henry Kelley and Arthur Bryson invent backpropagation
1960: Hilary Putnam's Computational Functionalism ("Minds and Machines")
1960: The backpropagation algorithm
1961: Melvin Maron's "Automatic Indexing"
1962: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition
1963: John McCarthy moves to Stanford and founds the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL)
1963: Lawrence Roberts' "Machine Perception of Three Dimensional Solids", the birth of computer vision
1963: Jim Slagle writes a program for symbolic integration (calculus)
1963: Edward Feigenbaum's and Julian Feldman's "Computers and Thought"
1963: Vladimir Vapnik's "support-vector networks" (SVN)
1964: Peter Toma demonstrates the machine-translation system Systran
1965: Irving John Good (Isidore Jacob Gudak) speculates about "ultraintelligent machines" (the "singularity")
1965: Ed Feigenbaum's Dendral expert system
1965: Gordon Moore's Law of exponential progress in integrated circuits ("Cramming more components into integrated circuits", 1965)
1965: Herbert Simon predicts that "Machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work a man can do"
1965: Hubert Dreyfus's "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence"
1965: Lotfi Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic
1965: Alexey Ivakhnenko publishes the first learning algorithms for multi-layered networks
1966: Leonard Baum popularizes the Hidden Markov Model ("Statistical Inference for Probabilistic Functions of Finite State Markov Chains")
1966: Ross Quillian's semantic networks
1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza
1966: ALPAC report on Machine Translation
1967: Charles Fillmore's Case Frame Grammar
1968: Glenn Shafer's and Stuart Dempster's "Theory of Evidence"
1969: Marvin Minsky & Samuel Papert's "Perceptrons" kill neural networks
1969: First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) at Stanford
1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot
1969: Roger Schank's Conceptual Dependency Theory for natural language processing
1969: Cordell Green's automatic synthesis of programs
1969: John McCarthy's "Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence" and the frame problem
1970: Albert Uttley's Informon for adaptive pattern recognition
1970: Tom Martin founds Threshold Technology, the first commercial company for speech recognition
1970: William Woods' Augmented Transition Network (ATN) for natural language processing
1971: Richard Fikes' and Nils Nilsson's STRIPS planner
1971: Noam Chomsky's article against Burrhus Skinner's behaviorism
1971: Ingo Rechenberg publishes his thesis "Evolution Strategies", a set of optimization methods for evolutionary computation
1972: Alain Colmerauer's PROLOG programming language
1972: Richard Karp shows there are many problems that can probably only be solved in exponential time
1972: Harry Klopf's "Brain Function and Adaptive Systems"
1972: William Woods' question-answering system LUNAR
1972: Bruce Buchanan's MYCIN
1972: Terry Winograd's Shrdlu
1973: "Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey" by James Lighthill criticizes Artificial Intelligence for over-promising
1973: Ichiro Kato's Wabot, the first real-size anthropomorphic walking robot
1973: Jim Baker applies the Hidden Markov Model to speech recognition ("Machine-aided Labeling of Connected Speech")
1974: Marvin Minsky's frame
1974: Paul Werbos' backpropagation algorithm for neural networks
1975: Roger Schank's script
1975: Raj Reddy's team at Carnegie Mellon University develops three speech-recognition systems (Bruce Lowerre's Harpy, Hearsay-II and Jim Baker's Dragon)
1975: Hearsay-II's blackboard model by Rick Hayes-Roth, Lee Erman, Victor Lesser and Richard Fennell
1975: The first Artificial Intelligence in Medicine workshop at Rutgers University
1975: John Holland's genetic algorithms
1976: Richard Laing's paradigm of self-replication by self-inspection
1976: Fred Jelinek's "Continuous Speech Recognition by Statistical Methods"
1977: Pat Langley's Bacon, a system capable of discovering scientific laws
1977: Ian Witten's actor-critic method
1978: John McDermott's expert system R1/XCON
1978: Ryszard Michalski builds the first practical system that learns from examples, AQ11
1978: David Marr's theory of vision
1979: Johan DeKleer's qualitative reasoning
1979: Tokuji Okada's robotic hand with three fingers
1979: William Clancey's Guidon
1979: Hans Berliner's BKG 9.8 at Carnegie-Mellon University (connected by satellite to the robot Gammonoid) beats the world champion of backgammon in Monte Carlo
1979: Drew McDermott's non-monotonic logic
1979: Kunihiko Fukushima's convolutional neural network ("Neocognitron - A Self-organizing Neural Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern Recognition Unaffected by Shift in Position")
1980: McCarthy's Circumscription
1980: John Searle's article "Minds, Brains, and Programs" on the "Chinese Room" that attacks Artificial Intelligence
1980: IntelliGenetics (Intellicorp), the first major start-up for Artificial Intelligence
1981: Danny Hillis' Connection Machine
1981: Hans Kamp`s Discourse Representation Theory
1981: Andrew Barto's and Richard Sutton's temporal-difference method of reinforcement learning
1982: The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) research group at UC San Diego
1982: Kenneth Salisbury (Stanford) & Jet Propulsion Laboratory's robotic hand
1982: John Hopfield describes a new generation of neural networks, based on recurrence
1982: The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) establishes Artificial Intelligence and Robotics as its very first program
1982: Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Systems project
1982: Teuvo Kohonen's Self-Organized Maps (SOM) for unsupervised learning
1982: Judea Pearl's "Bayesian networks"
1983: John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom's SOAR
1983: Geoffrey Hinton's and Terry Sejnowski's Boltzmann machine
1983: Gerard Salton and Michael McGill's "Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval" (the "bag-of-words model")
1984: Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles"
1984: Robotic hand by Stephen Jacobsen (Univ of Utah) & MIT
1984: Doug Lenat's "Cyc" to catalog common sense
1984: Barbara Hayes-Roth's general-purpose blackboard system BB1
1985: Ross Quinlan's ID3 for decision trees analysis
1985: Piero Scaruffi opens the A.I. Center at Olivetti, the first major non-academic A.I. Center outside the USA
1986: Terrence Sejnowski's and Charles Rosenberg's NETtalk
1986: David Rumelhart, Geoffrey Hinton and Ronald Williams rediscover Werbos' backpropagation algorithm
1986: David Rumelhart's and James McClelland's book "Parallel Distributed Processing"
1986: Paul Smolensky's Restricted Boltzmann machine
1986: Barbara Grosz's "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse"
1986: Rodney Brooks' "dumb" robots
1987: Hinton moves to the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR)
1987: Dana Ballard uses unsupervised learning to build representations layer by layer
1987: Chris Langton coins the term "Artificial Life"
1987: Stephen Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for unsupervised learning
1987: Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind"
1988: Hilary Putnam: "Has artificial intelligence taught us anything of importance about the mind?"
1988: Toshio Fukuda's self-reconfiguring robot CEBOT
1988: Hans Morave's "Mind Children"
1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that plays the arcade videogame Pengo
1988: Fred Jelinek's team at IBM publishes "A Statistical Approach to Language Translation"
1989: Alex Waibel's "time-delay" neural network
1989: Chris Watkins' Q-learning
1989: Yann LeCun applies backpropagation to convolutional networks for supervised learning.
1989: George Cybenko proves that neural networks can approximate continuous functions
1989: Yann LeCun's convolutional neural network for handwritten-digit recognition (LeNet-1)
1989: Kurt Hornik proves that neural networks are universal approximators
1990: Carver Mead describes a neuromorphic processor
1990: Robert Jacobs' "mixture-of-experts" architecture
1990: Robert Schapire's "boosting" for machine learning
1990: Peter Brown at IBM implements a statistical machine translation system
1990: Ray Kurzweil's book "Age of Intelligent Machines"
1991: Youstol Dispage Frompiero discovers inverted correlation
1991: Isabelle Guyon adapts Vapnik's support vector machine (SVM) to pattern classification
1992: Hava Siegelmann and Eduardo Sontag prove that recurrent neural networks are equivalent to Turing machines
1992: Hava Siegelmann's and Eduardo Sontag's Analog Recurrent Neural Networks
1993: Masayuki Inaba's remote-brained robots
1993: Tom Mitchell's Xavier robot
1994: The first "Toward a Science of Consciousness" conference in Tucson, Arizona
1994: Ernst Dickmanns' self-driving car drives more than 1,000 kms near the airport Charles-de-Gaulle in Paris
1994: Jonathan Schaeffer's Chinook wins the world championship of checkers
1995: Tin-kam Ho's random decision forests
1995: First "No Free Lunch" theorem by David Wolpert
1996: David Field & Bruno Olshausen's sparse coding
1997: Jeurgen Schmidhuber's and Sepp Hochreiter's Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model
1997: NASA's Mars Pathfinder lands on Mars and deploys the first roving robot, Sojourner
1997: IBM's "Deep Blue" chess machine beats the world's chess champion, Garry Kasparov
1998: Yann LeCun's LeNet-5
1998: Sebastian Thrun's Minerva and Pearl robots
1998: Thorsten Joachims' "Text Categorization With Support Vector Machines"
1998: Two Stanford students, Larry Page and Russian-born Sergey Brin, launch the search engine Google
2000: Cynthia Breazeal's emotional robot, "Kismet"
2000: Seth Lloyd's "Ultimate physical limits to computation"
2000: Hirochika Inoue's humanoid robot H6
2000: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo"
2001: Juyang Weng's "Autonomous mental development by robots and animals"
2001: Nikolaus Hansen introduces the evolution strategy called "Covariance Matrix Adaptation" (CMA) for numerical optimization of non-linear problems
2001: Yoshua Bengio's "Neural Probabilistic Language Model"
2002: iRobot's Roomba
2002: Ronan Collobert develops the deep-learning platform Torch
2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a robot that looks like a young woman
2003: Jackrit Suthakorn and Gregory Chirikjian build an autonomous self-replicating robot
2003: Gabriela Csurka's bag-of-features
2003: Tai-Sing Lee's "Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual cortex"
2003: DARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition
2003: Klaus Loeffler's humanoid robot Johnnie
2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien
2005: Jun-ho Oh's humanoid robot Hubo
2005: Hod Lipson's "self-assembling machine" at Cornell University
2005: Andrew Ng at Stanford launches the STAIR project (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Robot)
2005: Sebastian Thrun's driverless car Stanley wins DARPA's Grand Challenge
2005: Pietro Perona's and Fei-Fei's "A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Learning Natural Scene Categories"
2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog"
2006: Geoffrey Hinton's Deep Belief Networks ("A Fast Learning Algorithm for Deep Belief Nets")
2006: The Monte Carlo tree search algorithm
2006: Scott Hassan founds robot startup Willow Garage
2006: Osamu Hasegawa's Self-Organising Incremental Neural Network (SOINN), a self-replicating neural network for unsupervised learning
2007: Yeshua Bengio's Stacked Auto-Encoders ("Greedy Layer-wise Training of Deep Networks")
2007: Stanford unveils the Robot Operating System (ROS)
2008: Dharmendra Modha at IBM launches a project to build a neuromorphic processor
2008: Cynthia Breazeal's team at the MIT's Media Lab unveils Nexi, the first mobile-dexterous-social (MDS) robot
2009: Fei-fei Li's ImageNet database of human-tagged images
2009: ARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition
2010: The first ImageNet challenge
2010: The New York stock market is shut down after algorithmic trading has wiped out a trillion dollars within a few seconds.
2010: James Kuffner coins the term "cloud robotics"
2010: Daniela Rus' "Programmable Matter by Folding"
2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions
2011: Nick D'Aloisio releases the summarizing tool Trimit (later Summly) for smartphones
2011: Dong Yu's speech recognition using deep learning
2011: IBM's Watson debuts on a tv show
2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions it was not programmed to do
2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter"
2012: The Open Source Robotics Foundation is launched
2012: Andrew Ng's team demonstrates an unsupervised neural network that recognizes cats in videos
2012: Alex Krizhevsky and Ilya Sutskever from the University of Toronto demonstrate that deep learning outperforms traditional approaches to computer vision processing 200 billion images during training (AlexNet)
2013: Volodymyr Mnih's Deep Q-Networks
2013: Max Welling's and Diederik Kingma's variational autoencoders
2013: Tomas Mikolov's skip-gram
2013: Yangqing Jia develops the deep-learning platform Caffe
2013: Ross Girshick's Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN)
2014: Vladimir Veselov's and Eugene Demchenko's program Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, passes the Turing test at the Royal Society in London
2014: Karen Simonyan's and Andrew Zisserman's VGG-16
2014: Christian Szegedy's GoogLeNet
2014: Ian Goodfellow's generative adversarial networks
2014: Ilya Sutskever and Oriol Vinyals use a recurrent neural network to improve machine translation at Google ("Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks")
2014: Microsoft introduces the text chatbot Xiaoice in China
2014: Andrey Karpathy's and Fei-Fei Li's computer vision algorithm that can describe photos ("Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions", 2014)
2014: Alex Graves, Greg Wayne and Ivo Danihelka publish a paper on "Neural Turing Machines"
2014: Jason Weston, Sumit Chopra and Antoine Bordes publish a paper on "Memory Networks"
2014: Microsoft's Skype demonstrates a real-time spoken language translation system
2015: Microsoft's 152-layer Residual Net
2015: Rajat Monga's team develops the deep-learning platform TensorFlow
2015: Seiya Tokui develops the deep-learning platform Chainer
2015: Over 1,000 high-profile Artificial Intelligence scientists sign an open letter calling for a ban on "offensive autonomous weapons"
2015: Leon Gatys, Alexander Ecker and Matthias Bethge's "A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style"
2015: Alec Radford's deep convolutional generative adversarial networks
2016: Ronen Eldan and Ohad Shamir prove that "depth can be exponentially more valuable than width"
2014: Google buys DeepMind, founded by Demis Hassabis and Shane Legg
2016: DeepMind's AlphaGo, developed by Aja Huang, beats Go master Lee Se-dol
2017: DeepMind's AlphaGo Zero
2017: Alexei Efros' team generates images from sketches with Pix2pix