An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind

All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".

Download this page as a pdf file

Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"

TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

1909: Adolph Whitman's "Occultus" 1914: Leonardo Torres y Quevedo demonstrates his electromechanical chess-playing automaton 1928: David Hilbert "Entscheidungsproblem" or "decision problem" 1931: Kurt Goedel's self-referential formulas 1935: Alonzo Church proves the undecidability of first order logic 1936: Alan Turing's Universal Machine ("On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem") 1936: Alonzo Church's Lambda calculus 1941: Konrad Zuse's programmable computer 1943: Warren McCulloch's and Walter Pitts' binary neuron ("A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity") 1943: Emil Post's production rules 1943: Kenneth Craik's "The Nature of Explanation" 1943: "Behavior, Purpose and Teleology" co-written by mathematician Norbert Wiener, physiologist Arturo Rosenblueth and engineer Julian Bigelow 1945: John Von Neumann publicizes the notion of a computer that holds its own instructions, the "stored-program architecture" 1946: The ENIAC computer 1946: The first Macy Conference on Cybernetics 1947: John Von Neumann's self-reproducing automata 1948: Norbert Wiener's "Cybernetics" 1948: Alan Turing's "Intelligent Machinery" 1949: Leon Dostert founds Georgetown University's Institute of Languages and Linguistics 1949: The Ratio Club 1949: William Grey-Walter's Elmer and Elsie robots 1949: Warren Weaver's "Translation" memorandum 1950: Claude Shannon's "Programming a Computer for Playing Chess" 1950: Alan Turing's "Computing Machinery and Intelligence" (the "Turing Test") 1951: AI programs at Manchester on the Ferranti Mark: a draughts-playing program by Christopher Strachey; and a chess-playing program by Dietrich Prinz 1951: Herbert Robbins' "stochastic gradient descent" method for optimization 1951: Karl Lashley's "The problem of serial order in behavior" 1951: Claude Shannon's maze-solving robots ("electronic rats") 1952: First International Conference on Machine Translation organized by Yehoshua Bar-Hillel 1952: Louis Couffignal's book "Thinking Machines" 1952: Ross Ashby's "Design for a Brain" 1953: Marshall Rosenbluth invents the "Metropolis algorithm", implemented by his wife Arianna, the first Markov Chain Monte Carlo method 1953: Harvey Chapman's "Garco" 1954: Zellig Harris' "Distributional Structure" (1954) 1954: Minsky's thesis on reinforcement learning "Theory of neural-analog reinforcement systems and its application to the brain-model problem" 1954: Demonstration of a machine-translation system by Leon Dostert's team at Georgetown University and Cuthbert Hurd's team at IBM, possibly the first non-numerical application of a digital computer 1954: Wesley Clark and Belmont Farley build the first computer simulation of a neural network 1955: The Western Joint Computer Conference with papers by Newell, Selfridge, Clark, etc 1955: Arthur Samuel's Checkers, the world's first self-learning program, and the first implementation of the alpha-beta algorithm 1956: Ray Solomonoff's inductive inference engine 1956: Gordon Pask builds the special-purpose electro-mechanical automata SAKI and Eucrates 1956: Dartmouth conference on Artificial Intelligence 1956: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate the "Logic Theorist" 1957: Newell & Simon's "General Problem Solver" 1957: Richard Bellman's "Dynamic Programming" 1957: Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron 1957: Noam Chomsky's "Syntactic Structures" (transformational grammar) 1958: Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium 1958: John McCarthy's LISP programming language 1958: John McCarthy's "Programs with Common Sense" focuses on knowledge representation 1958: Yehoshua Bar-Hillel's "proof" that machine translation is impossible without common-sense knowledge 1959: John McCarthy and Marvin Minsky found the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the MIT 1959: Noam Chomsky's review of a book by Burrhus Skinner ends the domination of behaviorism and resurrects cognitivism 1959: Zellig Harris' team develops the first parser 1959: Bernard Widrow's and Ted Hoff's Adaline (Adaptive Linear Neuron or later Adaptive Linear Element) that uses the delta rule for neural networks 1959: The industrial robot Unimate is deployed at General Motors 1960: Henry Kelley and Arthur Bryson invent backpropagation 1960: Donald Michie's reinforcement-learning system MENACE 1960: Hilary Putnam's Computational Functionalism ("Minds and Machines") 1960: The backpropagation algorithm 1961: Melvin Maron's "Automatic Indexing" 1962: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition 1963: John McCarthy moves to Stanford and founds the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (SAIL) 1963: Lawrence Roberts' "Machine Perception of Three Dimensional Solids", the birth of computer vision 1963: Jim Slagle writes a program for symbolic integration (calculus) 1963: Edward Feigenbaum's and Julian Feldman's "Computers and Thought" 1963: Vladimir Vapnik's "support-vector networks" (SVN) 1964: Peter Toma demonstrates the machine-translation system Systran 1965: Irving John Good (Isidore Jacob Gudak) speculates about "ultraintelligent machines" (the "singularity") 1965: Ed Feigenbaum's Dendral expert system 1965: Gordon Moore's Law of exponential progress in integrated circuits ("Cramming more components into integrated circuits", 1965) 1965: Herbert Simon predicts that "Machines will be capable, within 20 years, of doing any work a man can do" 1965: Hubert Dreyfus's "Alchemy and Artificial Intelligence" 1965: Lotfi Zadeh's Fuzzy Logic 1965: Alexey Ivakhnenko publishes the first learning algorithms for multi-layered networks 1966: Leonard Baum popularizes the Hidden Markov Model ("Statistical Inference for Probabilistic Functions of Finite State Markov Chains") 1966: Ross Quillian's semantic networks 1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza 1966: ALPAC report on Machine Translation 1967: Charles Fillmore's Case Frame Grammar 1968: Glenn Shafer's and Stuart Dempster's "Theory of Evidence" 1968: Bruce Lacey's robot Rosa Bosom at the Cybernetic Serendipity exhibition of computer art 1969: Marvin Minsky & Samuel Papert's "Perceptrons" kill neural networks 1969: First International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI) at Stanford 1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot 1969: Roger Schank's Conceptual Dependency Theory for natural language processing 1969: Cordell Green's automatic synthesis of programs 1969: John McCarthy's "Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence" and the frame problem 1970: Albert Uttley's Informon for adaptive pattern recognition 1970: Tom Martin founds Threshold Technology, the first commercial company for speech recognition 1970: William Woods' Augmented Transition Network (ATN) for natural language processing 1971: Richard Fikes' and Nils Nilsson's STRIPS planner 1971: Noam Chomsky's article against Burrhus Skinner's behaviorism 1971: Ingo Rechenberg publishes his thesis "Evolution Strategies", a set of optimization methods for evolutionary computation 1972: Alain Colmerauer's PROLOG programming language 1972: The first chatbot to chatbot conversation ever takes place over the Arpanet between Kenneth Colby's chatbot Parry at Stanford and Eliza at MIT 1972: Richard Karp shows there are many problems that can probably only be solved in exponential time 1972: Harry Klopf's "Brain Function and Adaptive Systems" 1972: William Woods' question-answering system LUNAR 1972: Bruce Buchanan's MYCIN 1972: Terry Winograd's Shrdlu 1973: "Artificial Intelligence: A General Survey" by James Lighthill criticizes Artificial Intelligence for over-promising 1973: Ichiro Kato's Wabot, the first real-size anthropomorphic walking robot 1973: Jim Baker applies the Hidden Markov Model to speech recognition ("Machine-aided Labeling of Connected Speech") 1974: Marvin Minsky's frame 1974: Paul Werbos' backpropagation algorithm for neural networks 1975: Roger Schank's script 1975: Raj Reddy's team at Carnegie Mellon University develops three speech-recognition systems (Bruce Lowerre's Harpy, Hearsay-II and Jim Baker's Dragon) 1975: Hearsay-II's blackboard model by Rick Hayes-Roth, Lee Erman, Victor Lesser and Richard Fennell 1975: The first Artificial Intelligence in Medicine workshop at Rutgers University 1975: John Holland's genetic algorithms 1976: Richard Laing's paradigm of self-replication by self-inspection 1976: Fred Jelinek's "Continuous Speech Recognition by Statistical Methods" 1977: Pat Langley's Bacon, a system capable of discovering scientific laws 1977: Ian Witten's actor-critic method 1978: John McDermott's expert system R1/XCON 1978: Ryszard Michalski builds the first practical system that learns from examples, AQ11 1978: David Marr's theory of vision 1979: Johan DeKleer's qualitative reasoning 1979: Tokuji Okada's robotic hand with three fingers 1979: William Clancey's Guidon 1979: Hans Berliner's BKG 9.8 at Carnegie-Mellon University (connected by satellite to the robot Gammonoid) beats the world champion of backgammon in Monte Carlo 1979: Drew McDermott's non-monotonic logic 1979: Kunihiko Fukushima's convolutional neural network ("Neocognitron - A Self-organizing Neural Network Model for a Mechanism of Pattern Recognition Unaffected by Shift in Position") 1980: McCarthy's Circumscription 1980: John Searle's article "Minds, Brains, and Programs" on the "Chinese Room" that attacks Artificial Intelligence 1980: IntelliGenetics (Intellicorp), the first major start-up for Artificial Intelligence 1981: Danny Hillis' Connection Machine 1981: Hans Kamp`s Discourse Representation Theory 1981: Andrew Barto's and Richard Sutton's temporal-difference method of reinforcement learning 1982: The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) research group at UC San Diego 1982: Kenneth Salisbury (Stanford) & Jet Propulsion Laboratory's robotic hand 1982: John Hopfield describes a new generation of neural networks, based on recurrence 1982: The Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) establishes Artificial Intelligence and Robotics as its very first program 1982: Japan's Fifth Generation Computer Systems project 1982: Teuvo Kohonen's Self-Organized Maps (SOM) for unsupervised learning 1982: Judea Pearl's "Bayesian networks" 1983: Scott Kirkpatrick's simulated annealing 1983: John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom's SOAR 1983: Geoffrey Hinton's and Terry Sejnowski's Boltzmann machine 1983: Gerard Salton and Michael McGill's "Introduction to Modern Information Retrieval" (the "bag-of-words model") 1984: Valentino Braitenberg's "Vehicles" 1984: Robotic hand by Stephen Jacobsen (Univ of Utah) & MIT 1984: Doug Lenat's "Cyc" to catalog common sense 1984: Barbara Hayes-Roth's general-purpose blackboard system BB1 1985: Ross Quinlan's ID3 for decision trees analysis 1985: Piero Scaruffi opens the A.I. Center at Olivetti, the first major non-academic A.I. Center outside the USA 1986: Terrence Sejnowski's and Charles Rosenberg's NETtalk 1986: David Rumelhart, Geoffrey Hinton and Ronald Williams rediscover Werbos' backpropagation algorithm 1986: David Rumelhart's and James McClelland's book "Parallel Distributed Processing" 1986: Paul Smolensky's Restricted Boltzmann machine 1986: Barbara Grosz's "Attention, Intentions, and the Structure of Discourse" 1986: Rodney Brooks' "dumb" robots 1987: Hinton moves to the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) 1987: Dana Ballard uses unsupervised learning to build representations layer by layer 1987: Chris Langton coins the term "Artificial Life" 1987: Stephen Grossberg's Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) for unsupervised learning 1987: Marvin Minsky's "Society of Mind" 1988: Hilary Putnam: "Has artificial intelligence taught us anything of importance about the mind?" 1988: Toshio Fukuda's self-reconfiguring robot CEBOT 1988: Dean Pomerleau's self-driving vehicle ALVINN 1988: Hans Morave's "Mind Children" 1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that plays the arcade videogame Pengo 1988: Fred Jelinek's team at IBM publishes "A Statistical Approach to Language Translation" 1989: Alex Waibel's "time-delay" neural network 1989: Chris Watkins' Q-learning 1989: Yann LeCun applies backpropagation to convolutional networks for supervised learning. 1989: George Cybenko proves that neural networks can approximate continuous functions 1989: Yann LeCun's convolutional neural network for handwritten-digit recognition (LeNet-1) 1989: Kurt Hornik proves that neural networks are universal approximators 1990: Carver Mead describes a neuromorphic processor 1990: Robert Jacobs' "mixture-of-experts" architecture 1990: Robert Schapire's "boosting" for machine learning 1990: Peter Brown at IBM implements a statistical machine translation system 1990: Ray Kurzweil's book "Age of Intelligent Machines" 1991: Youstol Dispage Frompiero discovers inverted correlation 1991: Isabelle Guyon adapts Vapnik's support vector machine (SVM) to pattern classification 1992: Hava Siegelmann and Eduardo Sontag prove that recurrent neural networks are equivalent to Turing machines 1992: Hava Siegelmann's and Eduardo Sontag's Analog Recurrent Neural Networks 1993: Masayuki Inaba's remote-brained robots 1993: Tom Mitchell's Xavier robot 1994: The first "Toward a Science of Consciousness" conference in Tucson, Arizona 1994: Ernst Dickmanns' self-driving car drives more than 1,000 kms near the airport Charles-de-Gaulle in Paris 1994: Jonathan Schaeffer's Chinook wins the world championship of checkers 1995: Tin-kam Ho's random decision forests 1995: First "No Free Lunch" theorem by David Wolpert 1996: David Field & Bruno Olshausen's sparse coding 1997: Jeurgen Schmidhuber's and Sepp Hochreiter's Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) model 1997: NASA's Mars Pathfinder lands on Mars and deploys the first roving robot, Sojourner 1997: IBM's "Deep Blue" chess machine beats the world's chess champion, Garry Kasparov 1998: Yann LeCun's LeNet-5 1998: Sebastian Thrun's Minerva and Pearl robots 1998: Thorsten Joachims' "Text Categorization With Support Vector Machines" 1998: Two Stanford students, Larry Page and Russian-born Sergey Brin, launch the search engine Google 2000: Cynthia Breazeal's emotional robot, "Kismet" 2000: Seth Lloyd's "Ultimate physical limits to computation" 2000: Hirochika Inoue's humanoid robot H6 2000: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo" 2001: Juyang Weng's "Autonomous mental development by robots and animals" 2001: Herbert Jaeger`s echo state networks 2001: Nikolaus Hansen introduces the evolution strategy called "Covariance Matrix Adaptation" (CMA) for numerical optimization of non-linear problems 2001: Yoshua Bengio's "Neural Probabilistic Language Model" 2002: iRobot's Roomba 2002: Wolfgang Maass and Henry Markram's liquid state machines 2002: Ronan Collobert develops the deep-learning platform Torch 2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a robot that looks like a young woman 2003: Jackrit Suthakorn and Gregory Chirikjian build an autonomous self-replicating robot 2003: Gabriela Csurka's bag-of-features 2003: Tai-Sing Lee's "Hierarchical Bayesian inference in the visual cortex" 2003: DARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition 2003: Klaus Loeffler's humanoid robot Johnnie 2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien 2005: Jun-ho Oh's humanoid robot Hubo 2005: Hod Lipson's "self-assembling machine" at Cornell University 2005: Andrew Ng at Stanford launches the STAIR project (Stanford Artificial Intelligence Robot) 2005: Sebastian Thrun's driverless car Stanley wins DARPA's Grand Challenge 2005: Pietro Perona's and Fei-Fei's "A Bayesian Hierarchical Model for Learning Natural Scene Categories" 2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog" 2006: Geoffrey Hinton's Deep Belief Networks ("A Fast Learning Algorithm for Deep Belief Nets") 2006: The Monte Carlo tree search algorithm 2006: Scott Hassan founds robot startup Willow Garage 2006: Alex Graves' connectionist temporal classification (CTC) 2006: Osamu Hasegawa's Self-Organising Incremental Neural Network (SOINN), a self-replicating neural network for unsupervised learning 2007: Yeshua Bengio's Stacked Auto-Encoders ("Greedy Layer-wise Training of Deep Networks") 2007: Stanford unveils the Robot Operating System (ROS) 2008: Dharmendra Modha at IBM launches a project to build a neuromorphic processor 2008: Cynthia Breazeal's team at the MIT's Media Lab unveils Nexi, the first mobile-dexterous-social (MDS) robot 2009: Fei-fei Li's ImageNet database of human-tagged images 2009: ARPA's assessment of progress in speech recognition 2010: The first ImageNet challenge 2010: The New York stock market is shut down after algorithmic trading has wiped out a trillion dollars within a few seconds. 2010: James Kuffner coins the term "cloud robotics" 2010: Daniela Rus' "Programmable Matter by Folding" 2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions 2011: Nick D'Aloisio releases the summarizing tool Trimit (later Summly) for smartphones 2011: Dong Yu's speech recognition using deep learning 2011: IBM's Watson debuts on a tv show 2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions it was not programmed to do 2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter" 2012: The Open Source Robotics Foundation is launched 2012: Andrew Ng's team demonstrates an unsupervised neural network that recognizes cats in videos 2012: Alex Krizhevsky and Ilya Sutskever from the University of Toronto demonstrate that deep learning outperforms traditional approaches to computer vision processing 200 billion images during training (AlexNet) 2013: Volodymyr Mnih's Deep Q-Networks 2013: Max Welling's and Diederik Kingma's variational autoencoders 2013: Tomas Mikolov's skip-gram 2013: Yangqing Jia develops the deep-learning platform Caffe 2013: Ross Girshick's Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN) 2014: Vladimir Veselov's and Eugene Demchenko's program Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, passes the Turing test at the Royal Society in London 2014: Karen Simonyan's and Andrew Zisserman's VGG-16 2014: Kyunghyun Cho's encoder-decoder model and gated recurrent units (GRUs) 2014: Christian Szegedy's GoogLeNet 2014: Volodymyr Mnih's recurrent attention model (RAM) 2014: Ian Goodfellow's generative adversarial networks 2014: Alex Graves' LSTM without Hidden Markov Models for speech recognition 2014: Ilya Sutskever and Oriol Vinyals use a recurrent neural network to improve machine translation at Google ("Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks") 2014: Microsoft introduces the text chatbot Xiaoice in China 2014: Andrey Karpathy's and Fei-Fei Li's computer vision algorithm that can describe photos ("Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions", 2014) 2014: Alex Graves, Greg Wayne and Ivo Danihelka publish a paper on "Neural Turing Machines" 2014: Jason Weston, Sumit Chopra and Antoine Bordes publish a paper on "Memory Networks" 2014: Microsoft's Skype demonstrates a real-time spoken language translation system 2014: Google buys DeepMind, founded by Demis Hassabis and Shane Legg 2015: Baidu's Deep Speech 2 that uses a GRU instead of a LSTM and no HMM 2015: Francois Chollet develops the deep-learning platform Keras 2015: Microsoft's 152-layer Residual Net 2015: Rajat Monga's team develops the deep-learning platform TensorFlow 2015: Seiya Tokui develops the deep-learning platform Chainer 2015: Over 1,000 high-profile Artificial Intelligence scientists sign an open letter calling for a ban on "offensive autonomous weapons" 2015: Leon Gatys, Alexander Ecker and Matthias Bethge's "A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style" 2015: Alec Radford's deep convolutional generative adversarial networks 2016: Ronen Eldan and Ohad Shamir prove that "depth can be exponentially more valuable than width" 2016: DeepMind's AlphaGo, developed by Aja Huang, beats Go master Lee Se-dol 2016: Kaiming He's ResNet with identity mappings of 1001 layers 2017: DeepMind's AlphaGo Zero 2017: Alexei Efros' team generates images from sketches with Pix2pix 2017: More than 100 variants of generative adversarial networks are introduced in 2017 |

See also A Timeline of Androids and Automata

Reading material:

- A timeline of Neuroscience
- Slide presentation
- My book "Thinking about Thought"
- My book "Intelligence is not Artificial"
- Slides of my class "Thinking about Thought"

TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.