Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
My book on Consciousness
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(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions )
Cairns-Smith Graham: GENETIC TAKEOVER (Cambridge University Press, 1982)
Cairns-Smith argues that the first living beings were not carbon composts but metallic crystals, i.e. minerals. Life's ancestors were self-replicating patterns of defects in metallic crystals. One day those patterns started replicating in a different substance, carbon molecules.
Cairns-Smith Graham: EVOLVING THE MIND (Cambridge University Press, 1995)
Calne Donald: WITHIN REASON (Pantheon, 1999)
The American neurologist Donald Calne contends that reason (mainly located in the frontal lobe) is counterbalanced by other cognitive functions. And reason has a biological limit: we can only comprehend what has been important in our past for our survival.
Calvin Melvin: CHEMICAL EVOLUTION (Clarendon, 1969)
Calvin explores different autocatalytic scenarios for the origin of life which assume life spontaneously bootstrapped itself from simple molecules and don't require any unlikely event to produce very complex molecules.
William Calvin & Derek Bickerton: LINGUA EX MACHINA (MIT Press, 2000)
Calvin, William: HOW BRAINS THINK (Basic, 1996)
Calvin William: THE CEREBRAL CODE (MIT Press, 1996)
Calvin William: THE ASCENT OF MIND (Bantam, 1991)
Calvin looks for the causes of the evolution of the human brain in ice-age climates. The brain got bigger and bigger through a three-part cycle of evolutionary alterations in body proportions which involves a set of genes that regulate fetal and childhood growth.
Calvin William: THE CEREBRAL SYMPHONY (Bantam, 1990)
The brain is a "Darwin machine", a biological system in which pressure to adapt to the environment causes natural selection of population of neurons in such a way that some patterns of the environment will be recognized and appropriate actions performed.
Campbell John: PAST, SPACE AND SELF (MIT Press, 1994)
Campbell examines how human thinking about space and time differs from animals' thinking about space and time (in particular the ability to think about the past). Campbell then examines the consequences on self-consciousness.
Joseph Campbell: PRIMITIVE MYTHOLOGY: THE MASKS OF GOD (Viking, 1959)
Capra Fritjof: THE TAO OF PHYSICS (Shambala, 1975)
In this book the Austrian physicist Fritjof Capra draws a parallel between modern western Physics and ancient eastern philosophy. The first chapters introduce the essentials of Hinduism, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Zen, and the following ones explore similarities between their views of the world and the quantum-relativistic world.
Capra Fritjof: THE WEB OF LIFE (Anchor Books, 1996)
Carbonell, Jaime: "Machine Learning" (MIT Press, 1989)
Carlson Richard: EXPERIENCED COGNITION (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1997)
Carroll, Sean: FROM ETERNITY TO HERE (Penguin, 2010)
Carvalo Marc: NATURE, COGNITION AND SYSTEM (Kluwer Academic, 1988)
A collection of articles on cybernetics applied to the nature of living systems, autopoiesis and self-organization. One of the main themes is that of the "two arrows of time": the second law of thermodynamics pointing towards entropy increase and therefore disorder increase, and evolution pointing the other way by building increasingly complex structures of order.
Cassirer, Ernst: "An Essay on Man" (1944)
Castaneda Hector-Neri: THINKING, LANGUAGE, EXPERIENCE (University of Minnesota Press, 1989)
The book advances a general semantics of thinking that accounts for the unity of experience: "guise theory". According to its ontological scheme, properties are the building blocks of the world.
Cavalli-Sforza Luigi: GENES, PEOPLES AND LANGUAGES (North Point, 2000)
Chalmers David: THE CONSCIOUS MIND (Oxford University Press, 1996)
Chalmers David: "The Character of Consciousness" (Oxford University Press, 2010)
Changeux JeanPierre: NEURONAL MAN (Pantheon, 1985)
Changeux JeanPierre: THE PHYSIOLOGY OF TRUTH (Harvard Univ Press, 2007)
Changeux JeanPierre: ORIGINS OF THE HUMAN BRAIN (Oxford University Press, 1995)
Charniak Eugene: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PROGRAMMING (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1987)
The second edition of a classic textbook of practical Artificial Inteligence techniques (very LISP-oriented).
Chauvin Yves & Rumelhart David: BACKPROPAGATION (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995)
Theory and practice of the most popular training algorithm for neural networks.
Chierchia Gennaro: DYNAMICS OF MEANING (Univ of Chicago Press, 1995)
A few linguistic phenomena constitute evidence in favor of a view of meaning as "context change", as opposed to the traditional view of meaning as content. Context updating would be an integral part of the compositional system of meaning.
Chierchia Gennaro: MEANING AND GRAMMAR (MIT, 1990)
A seminal textbook on semantics.
Child William: CAUSALITY, INTERPRETATION AND THE MIND (Oxford University Press, 1994)
The nature of intentional phenomena, such as belief and desire, in a causal theory of the mind.
Chomsky Noam: SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES (Mouton, 1957)
Chomsky Noam: ASPECTS OF THE THEORY OF SYNTAX (MIT Press, 1965)
Chomsky Noam & Halle Morris: THE SOUND PATTERN OF ENGLISH (Harper & Row, 1968)
A classical textbook on generative phonology. Besides detailing the formal structure of a phonological theory, the book tried to define a way in the formal expressions of these processes that would predict which phonological processes were likely and which were not. An evaluation metric ranks rules according to how likely they are to occur (inversely proportional to the number of features needed to express it).
Chomsky Noam: REFLECTIONS ON LANGUAGE (Pantheon, 1975)
Chomsky Noam: THE LOGICAL STRUCTURE OF LINGUISTIC THEORY (University of Chicago Press, 1975)
Chomsky Noam: RULES AND REPRESENTATIONS (Columbia Univ Press, 1980)
Chomsky Noam: THEORY OF GOVERNMENT AND BINDING (MIT Press, 1982)
Chomsky Noam: KNOWLEDGE OF LANGUAGE (Greenwood, 1986)
Chomsky Noam: LANGUAGE AND THOUGHT (Moyer Bell, 1993)
A lecture and a discussion. Inessetial.
Chomsky Noam: NEW HORIZONS IN THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE AND MIND (2000)
Collects various essays in which Chomsky criticizes Putnam's externalism, Quine's holism, etc. Inessential.
Church Alonso: CALCULI OF LAMBDA CONVERSION (Princeton Univ Press, 1941)
Church's intuition was that of determining a way to compare two functions. A function can be defined either "intensionally", as the computational procedure that computes its value, or "extensionally", as the set of input/output correspondences. Two functions can be compared in either of the two fashions. To compare them "intensionally", Church created the "lambda" abstraction, which provides rules to transform any function in a canonical form.
Churchland Paul: SCIENTIFIC REALISM AND THE PLASTICITY OF MIND (Cambridge Univ Press, 1979)
The meaning of our common observations is determined not by sensations but by a network of common beliefs.
Churchland, Paul: MATTER AND CONSCIOUSNESS (MIT Press, 1984)
A beginner's level introduction to the topic.
Churchland Patricia: NEUROPHILOSOPHY (MIT Press, 1986)
Churchland Patricia: "Touching a Nerve" (Norton, 2013)
Churchland Paul: ENGINE OF REASON (MIT Press, 1995)
The book provides detailed description of how the brain perceives sensory input (in particular vision) and relates the findings to artificial neural networks.
Churchland Paul & Churchland Patricia: ON THE CONTRARY (MIT Press, 1998)
Churchman Charles: THE DESIGN OF INQUIRING SYSTEMS (Basic, 1971)
Churchman thinks that mental development occurs as construction of mental models. He identifies five "inquiring systems" (systems to acquire knowledge): Leibniz's, or deductive; Locke's, or inductive; Kant's, or analogical; Hegel's, or dialectical (build hypotheses that are antithetical to the previous models); and Singer's metrological (that can control the previous four).
Clancey William: SITUATED COGNITION (Cambridge Univ Press, 1997)
Clancey focuses on the program of building intelligent robots. In the tradition of Richard Brooks, such robots need more than a simple representation of the environment ("the map is not the territory"), they need "situated cognition". Clancey reviews robots built over the years by the A.I. community as well as Gibson's ecological theory, Edelman's neural darwinism and Maturana's autopoiesis. They all point towards a vision of structural coupling of the organism with the environment, which translates into structural coupling of action and perception. Clancey envisions "transactional systems" which are not sets of interacting components but "wholes".
Clark, Andy: MINDWARE (Oxford Univ Press, 2000)
Clark Andy: Natural-born Cyborgs (Oxford Univ Press, 2003)
Clark Andy: BEING THERE (MIT Press, 1997)
Clark Andy: MICROCOGNITION (MIT Press, 1989)
The book provides a reasoned critique to artificial intelligence and cognitive science and a defence of parallel distributed processing. Clark finds clues in general considerations on biological systems, that fit well in the parallel distributed model. Evolved creatures do not store information in a costly way when they can use the structure of the environment for the same purposes. Complex biological systems have evolved subject to the constraints of gradualistic holism: the evolution of a complex system is possible only insofar as that system is the last or latest link in a chain of structures, such that at each stage the chain involves only a small change (gradualism) and each stage yields a structure that is itself a viable whole (holism).
Clark, Andy: ASSOCIATIVE ENGINES (MIT Press, 1993)
Cleeremans, Axel: THE UNITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS (Oxford University Press, 2003)
Close, Frank: "Nothing" (Oxford University Press, 2009)
Cohen Fred: IT'S ALIVE (Wiley, 1994)
Cohen Jonathan & Schooler Jonathan: SCIENTIFIC APPROACHES TO CONSCIOUSNESS (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1996)
An interdisciplinary overview of studies on consciousness.
Cohen Jack & Steward Ian: THE COLLAPSE OF CHAOS (Viking, 1994)
The theme of the book is how the regularities of nature emerge from the underlying chaos and complexity of nature: "emergent simplicities collapse chaos". The first part introduces scientific themes of cosmology, quantum theory, biological evolution and psychology. Consciousness and life are described as "systems of interactive behavior".
Collins Alan: THEORIES OF MEMORY (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993)
A collection of papers from cognitive psychologists, ranging from Baddeley ("working memory and conscious awareness"), D. Schacter, Susan Gathercole, William Hirst, Lawrence Barsalou.
Comrie Bernard: LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS AND LINGUISTIC TYPOLOGY (Univ. of Chicago Press, 1981)
Comrie proposes a catalog of universal properties that seem to hold for all known languages.
Conrad Michael: ADAPTABILITY (Plenum, 1983)
Conrad's "statistical state model" of the evolutionary process distinguishes between adaptedness (fixed adapations) and adaptability (response to the environment's fluctuations). Adaptability is adaptedness to an ensemble of environments and can be decomposed into anticipation (uncertainty of behavior of the system which is used to dissipate environmental fluctuations) and indifference (uncertainty of the environment that the system incorporates into its behavior). The maximum total modifiability (uncertainty) of a system approaches over time the average uncertainty of its environment. Conrad then defines formally the maximum total modifiability of a system An increase in uncertainty at one level of organization is compensated by changes in adaptability at some level. Levels compensate for each other's fluctuations.
Peter Corning: "Nature's Magic" (Cambridge Univ Press, 2003)
Corriveau Jean-Pierre: TIME-CONSTRAINED MEMORY (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995)
A theory of grounded cognition that accounts for the diachronic (over time a text may be interpreted in different ways by the same reader) and non-deterministic (a text may or may be not interpreted by a reader) nature of comprehension. Linguistic comprehension is viewed as a time-constrained process. Rules for linguistic comprehension can be implemented by simple "knowledge units" that work in a very constrained amount of time.
Tooby John and Cosmides Leda: THE ADAPTED MIND (Oxford Univ Press, 1992)
Evolutionary psychologists proponents of the Standard Social Sciences Model believe that culture shapes human behavior notwithstanding biological pressures.
Coveney Peter: FRONTIERS OF COMPLEXITY (Fawcett, 1995)
An accessible introduction to theories of nonlinear systems.
Cowan Nelson: ATTENTION AND MEMORY (Oxford University Press, 1995)
Cowan puts forth a theory of memory that discriminates between memory processes operating within and outside the focus of attention. At any time the focus of attention comprises only a subset of the information that is currently activated. In this model the role of attentional filter is played by habituation of orienting, rather than by the filter of Broadbent's model.
Cowie, Fiona: WHAT'S WITHIN (Oxford Univ Press, 1998)
Cox Richard: THE ALGEBRA OF PROBABLE INFERENCE (John Hopkins Press, 1961)
Unlike Savage, who built his theory of probabilities on pragmatic arguments regarding decision making, Cox attempted to develop a theory of probabilistic inference founded on axiomatic principles. His axioms refer only to abstract entities such as "evidence" and "belief". Any phenomenon that can be expressed by means of Cox's axioms can be reduced to probabilistic calculus. Cox attributes nonfrequentist but objective interpretations to prior probabilities.
Craik Kenneth: THE NATURE OF EXPLANATION (Cambridge Univ Press, 1943)
Craik was one of the first visionaries to posit that the human brain can be considered as a particular type of machine which is able to build internal models of the world, and process them to produce action. Craik's improvement over Descartes' automaton (limited to mechanical reactions to external stimula) was considerable because it involved the idea of an "internal representation" and a "symbolic processing" of such representation. Descartes' automaton had no need for knowledge and inference. Craik's automaton needs knowledge and inference and the processing of knowledge is what yields intelligence. Craik's ideas predate the theory of knowledge-based systems, Fodor's mentalese and Johnson-Laird's models.
Crick Francis: LIFE ITSELF (Simon & Schuster, 1981)
Crick examines the story of life on planet Earth and draws a few unusual conclusions.
Crick Francis: ASTONISHING HYPOTHESIS (MacMillan, 1993)
The British biochemist and Nobel laureate Francis Crick summarizes recent developments in neurobiology, particularly in the area of visual awareness. and speculates that synchronized firing in the range of 40 Hertz in the areas connecting the thalamus and the cortex might explain consciousness.
Cronin Helena: THE AND AND THE PEACOCK (Cambridge University Press,1992)
The book, written in colloquial english, focuses on two controversial and apparently contradictory (in the light of natural selection) phenomena of biological evolution: sexual selection and altruism.
Crowder Robert: PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING AND MEMORY (Erlbaum, 1976)
A comprehensive manual of research on learning and memory. Crowder presents findings and theories about iconic memory (pre-categorial storage), encodindg in memory (vision, audition and speech), the working of short-term memory, nonverbal memory (eidetic imagery), primary memory (consciousness), forgetting, processes of learning and retrieval. Hundreds of studies are mentioned and reviewed.
Culbertson James: THE MINDS OF ROBOTS (University of Illinois Press, 1963)
This is the book that introduced "spacetime reductive materialism", according to which consciousness permeates nature, everything is conscious to a degree, and therefore it is possible to build conscious robots.
Culbertson James: SENSATIONS MEMORIES AND THE FLOW OF TIME (Cromwell Press, 1976)
Cziko Gary: WITHOUT MIRACLES (MIT Press, 1995)
Cziko Gary: THE THINGS WE DO (MIT Press, 2000)
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