(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )
Indian physicist Amit Goswami tries to
integrate consciousness into science.
After a rather amateurish introduction to Western Philosophy of Mind (one
philosopher) and Artificial Intelligence (one scientist), Goswami does a much
better job of introducing modern Physics.
Goswami criticizes materialism (the view that consciousness is a material
phenomenon, and that matter is the only substance) and endorses idealism
(the view that matter is a mental phenomenon, and consciousness is the only substance).
Goswami's idealism is based on a simple postulate: that
consciousness collapses the quantum wave, as Von Neumann originally claimed.
Goswami shows that this brand of idealism has no problem with some notorious
Basically, the "oddities" of Quantum Mechanics are in our mind, not in the
world. Schroedinger's cat could not possibly be both alive and dead in the
real world, but it can be in our minds.
Paul Wigner extended Von Neumann's meditation by asking: if a friend tells me
what he observed, at which point
did the wave collapse, when the friend carried out her observation or when
i carried out the observation of my friend telling me the result of his
observation? If one thinks that the friend collapsed the wave, then the
problem is that two friends observing the same phenomenon would both collapse
the wave, and possibly observe opposite outcomes. If one thinks that i collapse
the wave when i listen to my friend, then my friend's knowledge depends on her
talking to me.
Goswami explains Paul Wigner's dilemma by postulating that there is only
one consciousness, only one subject, not many individual, separate subjects.
There is, ultimately, only one observer.
He also cites the non-locality of Quantum Mechanics as evidence that there
is only one consciousness in the universe.
Goswami credits consciousness with a deliberate act of determining reality:
consciousness "chooses" (not just picks up) the outcome of a measurement.
Goswami could stop here, but instead he offers a theory of mind (presumably of the fact that each of us has a different mind). A mind is made of ideas or thoughts, and he envisions these mental objects as fully equivalent to the material objects (the particles) studied by Quantum Mechanics. Thus they must obey the same Physics, the same theories about uncertainty, measurement and non-locality. He views the brain as both a quantum system and a measuring apparatus. The possibilities of the quantum bran are unconscious processes, and the equivalent of the physical observation is the one unconscious process that becomes conscious. Consciousness "chooses" which unconscious process becomes conscious (just like it "chooses" the outcome of any other measurement). Consciousness "chooses" its own conscious experience.
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