A History of Intelligent Machines

an appendix to my Timeline of Artificial Intelligence

1909: Adolph Whitman's "Occultus"
1936: Alan Turing's Universal Machine
1941: Konrad Zuse's programmable electronic computer
1943: Warren McCulloch's and Walter Pitts' binary neuron ("A Logical Calculus of the Ideas Immanent in Nervous Activity")
1945: John Von Neumann's "stored-program architecture"
1946: The ENIAC computer
1949: William Grey-Walter's Elmer and Elsie robots
1951: Claude Shannon's maze-solving robots ("electronic rats")
1953: Harvey Chapman's "Garco"
1954: Leon Dostert's machine-translation system
1954: Wesley Clark and Belmont Farley build the first artificial neural network
1955: Arthur Samuel's Checkers, the world's first self-learning program, and the first implementation of the alpha-beta algorithm
1956: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon demonstrate the "Logic Theorist"
1957: Frank Rosenblatt's Perceptron
1958: Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium
1959: Bernard Widrow's and Ted Hoff's Adaline ((Adaptive Linear Neuron or later Adaptive Linear Element)
1959: The industrial robot Unimate is deployed at General Motors
1964: IBM's "Shoebox" for speech recognition
1964: Peter Toma's machine-translation system Systran
1965: Ed Feigenbaum's Dendral expert system
1966: Joe Weizenbaum's Eliza
1969: Stanford Research Institute's Shakey the Robot
1972: Bruce Buchanan's MYCIN
1972: Terry Winograd's Shrdlu
1973: Ichiro Kato's Wabot, the first real-size anthropomorphic walking robot
1975: Raj Reddy's Hearsay
1977: Pat Langley's Bacon, a system capable of discovering scientific laws
1978: John McDermott's expert system R1/XCON
1978: Ryszard Michalski builds the first practical system that learns from examples, AQ11
1979: Hans Berliner's BKG 9.8 at Carnegie-Mellon University (connected by satellite to the robot Gammonoid) beats the world champion of backgammon in Monte Carlo
1979: Kunihiko Fukushima's convolutional neural network
1981: Danny Hillis' Connection Machine
1982: John Hopfield describes a new generation of neural networks, based on recurrence
1983: Geoffrey Hinton's and Terry Sejnowski's Boltzmann machine
1984: Doug Lenat's "Cyc" to catalog common sense
1986: Paul Smolensky's Restricted Boltzmann machine
1986: Rodney Brooks' "dumb" robots
1988: Toshio Fukuda's self-reconfiguring robot CEBOT
1988: Philip Agre builds the first "Heideggerian AI", Pengi, a system that plays the arcade videogame Pengo
1990: Peter Brown at IBM implements a statistical machine translation system
1993: Masayuki Inaba's remote-brained robots
1993: Tom Mitchell's Xavier robot
1994: Ernst Dickmanns' self-driving car drives more than 1,000 kms near the airport Charles-de-Gaulle in Paris
1997: NASA's Mars Pathfinder lands on Mars and deploys the first roving robot, Sojourner
1997: IBM's "Deep Blue" chess machine beats the world's chess champion, Garry Kasparov
1998: Yann LeCun's second generation Convolutional Neural Networks ("Gradient-Based Learning Applied to Document Recognition")
1998: Sebastian Thrun's Minerva and Pearl robots
2000: Cynthia Breazeal's emotional robot, "Kismet"
2000: Hirochika Inoue's humanoid robot H6
2000: Honda's humanoid robot "Asimo"
2003: Hiroshi Ishiguro's Actroid, a robot that looks like a young woman
2003: Jackrit Suthakorn and Gregory Chirikjian build an autonomous self-replicating robot
2003: Klaus Loeffler's humanoid robot Johnnie
2004: Mark Tilden's biomorphic robot Robosapien
2005: Jun-ho Oh's humanoid robot Hubo
2005: Hod Lipson's "self-assembling machine" at Cornell University
2005: Sebastian Thrun's driverless car Stanley wins DARPA's Grand Challenge
2005: Boston Dynamics' quadruped robot "BigDog"
2008: Cynthia Breazeal's team at the MIT's Media Lab unveils Nexi, the first mobile-dexterous-social (MDS) robot
2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions
2011: IBM's Watson debuts on a tv show
2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter"
2012: Andrew Ng's team demonstrates an unsupervised neural network that recognizes cats in videos (Google Brain)
2014: Vladimir Veselov's and Eugene Demchenko's program Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy
2014: Microsoft introduces the text chatbot Xiaoice in China
2016: DeepMind's AlphaGo beats Go master Lee Se-dol

See also A Timeline of Androids and Automata
Back to A Timeline of Artificial Intelligence
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2017 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.