Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
My book on Consciousness
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(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions )
Paivio Allan: IMAGERY AND VERBAL PROCESSES (Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1971)
Paivio was the first to posit that the mind must use two different types of representation, a verbal one and a visual one, corresponding to the brain's two main perceptive systems.
Parfit Derek: REASONS AND PERSONS (Oxford Univ Press, 1985)
Parkin Alan: EXPLORATIONS IN COGNITIVE NEUROPSYCHOLOGY (Blackwell, 1996)
A survey of the field, from the split brain to connectionist models.
Pattee Howard Hunt: HIERARCHICAL THEORY (Brazillen, 1973)
Collects five essays. Herbet Simon's "The organization of complex systems" proves that hierarchical organization is pervasive Pattee's "The physical basis and origin of hierarchical control" proposes general principles of organization and asks for a physical theory of the origin of life that rely on such principles. One fundamental finding is that hierarchical control does not reside in any one level of the hierarchy, it operates between levels.
Pawlak Zdzislaw: ROUGH SETS (Kluwer Academic, 1991)
Rough sets are sets that are defined in terms of lower and upper bounds.. Rough sets are useful in classifying imprecise, uncertain or incomplete knowledge. The approximation space is a classification of the domain into disjoint categories. The lower approximation is a description of the objects that are known with certainty to belong to the domain. The upper approximation is a description of the objects that possibly belong to the domain.
Peacock Christopher: A STUDY OF CONCEPTS (MIT Press, 1992)
The book details Peacock's own theory of concepts.
Peak David & Frame Michael: CHAOS UNDER CONTROL (W.H.Freeman, 1994)
A textbook for beginners on complexity, with a good introduction to fractals.
Pearl Judea: HEURISTICS (Addison Wesley, 1984)
A well-organized and comprehensive technical textbook on heuristic methods for problem solving: hill climbing, best first algorithms, and so forth. The second part is an analysis of performance, the third part is devoted to game playing.
Pearce John: ANIMAL LEARNING AND COGNITION (Psychology Press, 1997)
A survey of a century of experiments on animals learning, memory and communication.
Pearl Judea: PROBABILISTIC REASONING IN INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS (Morgan Kaufman, 1988)
A property of information is that it is relevant for some other type of information. Relevance's dual property is dependence: if a piece of information is relevant to another piece of information, than this piece of information is dependent on the former. Relevance can be defined as "conditional independence". Pearl provides an axiomatic formulation of "conditional independence".
Peirce Charles: COLLECTED PAPERS (Harvard Univ Press, 1931)
Peirce devised a graphical notation to express logical relationships alternative to Peano's linear notation. Peirce then defined a set of operations to manipulate such graphs which conserve truth (equivalent to inference rules). Peirce's "existential graphs" can represent first-order predicate logic as well as modal logic (through colored contexts) and higher-order logics.
Penfield Wilder: MYSTERY OF THE MIND (Princeton Univ Press, 1975)
Penfield showed that memory is distributed in the brain.
Penrose Roger: THE EMPEROR'S NEW MIND (Oxford Univ Press, 1989)
Penrose Roger: SHADOWS OF THE MIND (Oxford University Press, 1994)
Penrose Roger: THE LARGE THE SMALL AND THE HUMAN MIND (Cambridge Univ Press, 1997)
Penrose rehashes his theory of the universe and his theory of consciousness, and responds to criticism by distinguished colleagues. Goedel's theorem implies that thinking must be non-computational. Penrose carefully separates determinism from computation and looks for a deterministic but noncomputational solution to the puzzle of consciousness. The solution lies in "objective reduction", a type of collapse of the wave function which occurs when the universe must choose between significantly differing spacetime geometries. Objective reduction controls the operation of the brain through its effects on coherent flows inside microtubules of the cytoskeleton.
Penrose Roger: THE ROAD TO REALITY (Oxford University Press, 2004)
Pereira Nelson & Grosz Barbara: Natural Language Processing (MIT Press, 1994)
A collection of articles from the Journal of Artificial Intelligence.
Piaget Jean: EQUILIBRATION OF COGNITIVE STRUCTURES (University of Chicago Press, 1985)
Piaget's theory of knowledge (or genetic epistemology) Knowledge is constructed by each individual through her interaction with the environment, knowledge is a developing relationship between the individual and her environment. Knowledge is not simply absorbed, but it is also organized, for the purpose of adaptation. Knowledge develops through a process of self-organization based on feedback from the environment. The goal is to reach a sequence of progressive states of equilibrium through a process of "equilibration". Development is viewed as a progressive equilibration leading from a lesser to a higher state of equilibrium, i.e. as a progressive increase in equilibrium. The passage from one equilibrium state to the next is driven by maturation (physiological growth of hereditary structures), experience and social transmission, besides equilibration.
Pinker, Steven: WORDS AND RULES (Basic, 1999)
Pinker Steven: HOW THE MIND WORKS (Norton, 1997)
Pinker Steven: THE LANGUAGE INSTINCT (William Morrow, 1994)
Pinker, Steven: THE BLANK SLATE (Viking, 2002)
Pinker Steven: THE STUFF OF LANGUAGE (Viking, 2007)
Platts Mark: WAYS OF MEANING (MIT Press, 1997)
An introduction to philosophy of language.
Plotkin Henry: DARWIN MACHINES AND THE NATURE OF KNOWLEDGE (Harvard University Press, 1994)
The British psychologist Henry Plotkin defines knowledge as incorporating the knower. His focus is on the harmony established over the centuries between the organization and structure of a living being and the world it inhabits. Adaptation is the act of incorporating the outside world into the organism's structure and organization. More properly, this is "biological" knowledge. But human knowledge is simply a subset of biological knowledge. Plotkin therefore advocates a science of knowledge that would be based on evolutionary theory. Darwinism is likely to become the basis of all science, the idea spreading beyond biological evolution. Plotkin views brains themselves as Darwin Machines (just like Calvin). "Universal darwinism" will be a theory based on darwinism but general enough to encompass everything. A likely candidate structure for an empirical science is one based on the concepts of replicator (an entity that can make copies of itself) and interactor (an entity that can propagate replicators in space and conserve them in time while interacting with the environment). The presence of this combination is evidence that evolutionary algorithms are at work. They occur in life, in the brain, in the immune system, in memes.
Plotkin Henry: THE ROLE OF BEHAVIOR IN EVOLUTION (MIT Press, 1988)
A collection of essays that deal with behavior as a cause of evolution. Evolution determines behavior, but Plotkin and others believe that, in turn, behavior determines evolution. In 1960 the British biologist Conrad Hal Waddington pointed out that animals can choose the environment where they will live and therefore pass on to future generations a new class of selective pressures, indirectly influencing their evolution. Plotkin builds upon Waddington's intuition. What an individual does affects the evolution of its species. Individual behavior causes an acceleration in population evolution because it exposes the phenotype to a broader range of selection pressures than it would otherwise not experience.
Plotkin Henry: EVOLUTION IN MIND (Allen Lane, 1997)
Plotkin provides a delightful introduction to evolutionary psychology via ethology and sociobiology, assuming the tenet that most of an animal's behavior is functional to survival and hard-coded in its genes by evolution (we are "bundles of adaptations"). Nurture has nature: predispositions form and then execute. The book reviews several theories by contemporary thinkers to frame the borders of evolutionary psychology, from child development to Dawkins' memes.
Plotkin Henry: LEARNING, DEVELOPMENT, AND CULTURE (Wiley, 1982)
A collection of essays on evolutionary epistemology (evolution as a knowledge process) and classic papers on evolution (Bateson, Campbell, Popper, Lorenz, Mayr, Piaget, Waddington, Williams). founded by Donald Campbell on pioneering ideas by Popper similarities between bioogical and sociocultural evolution
Polya George: MATHEMATICS AND PLAUSIBLE REASONING (Princeton Univ Press, 1954)
A multi-volume survey of plausible reasoning. Plausible reasoning is what supports and yields human knowledge of the world, as opposed to demonstrative reasoning, which is incapable of yielding new knowledge.
Plotkin Henry: EVOLUTION IN MIND (Allen Lane, 1997)
Polya George: COLLECTED PAPERS (MIT Press, 1974)
Four volumes of collected papers.
Polya George: HOW TO SOLVE IT (Doubleday, 1957)
This thin book summarizes Polya's studies on the methods of solving mathematical problems. Polya's mathematics is not a monolotic deductive system in which the mathematician is a mindless machine performing mechanic operations, but an open game in which the mathematician must create a plan for achieving the desired solution. The book is written as a tool for teachers and students, but it really offers a comprehensive analysis of heuristic reasoning, from analogy to generate and test.
Polya George: MATHEMATICAL DISCOVERY (Wiley, 1965)
A textbook on understanding, learning and teaching problem solving. Polya defines "heuristic" the study of the methods for problem solving. Polya describes general, recurring patterns of behavior in trying to solve problems.
Popper Karl: THE LOGIC OF SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERY (Hutchinson, 1959)
Popper challenged logical positivism's hypothetico-deductive model of theory formation. Criticizing any inductive form of reasoning that attempts to derive a general proposition from specific instances, Popper proposes to focus on demonstrating that hypotheses are false. The scientific process should be one of conjectures and refutations.
Popper Karl & Eccles John: THE SELF AND ITS BRAIN (Springer-Verlag, 1977)
Popper Karl: KNOWLEDGE AND THE BODY-MIND PROBLEM (Routledge, 1994)
In these lectures Popper recapitulates his theory of the mind.
Porges Stephen & etc.: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY SYSTEMS PROCESS (Guilford, 1986)
A collection of articles on psychophysiology, a close relative of cognitive neuroscience which investigates psychological phenomena from their physiological bases. Chapters are devoted to attention, memory, learning, emotion, stress, sexuality.
Port Robert & Van Gelder Timothy: MIND AS MOTION (MIT Press, 1995)
A collection of papers on the dynamical approach to cognition.
Posner Michael: FOUNDATIONS OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE (MIT Press, 1989)
A monumental, comprehensive introduction to the field by a number of distinguished authors. Includes chapters on cognitive architectures (such as ACT and SOAR), connectionism, model-theoretic semantics, neurophysiology, discourse, mental models, vision, memory, action, etc.
Power Michael: COGNITION AND EMOTION (Psychology Press, 1997)
A survey of philosophical and psychological studies on the relationship between emotion and cognition, with an attempt to integrate the two.
Priest Stephen: THEORIES OF MIND (Houghton Mifflin, 1991)
Priest provides a good, scholastic, down-to-earth coverage of dualism (Plato and Descartes), monism (Spinoza, Russell), behaviorism (Hempel, Ryle, Wittgenstein) idealism (Berkeley, Hegel), materialism (Place, Davidson, Honderich, Putnam, Lewis) and phenomenology (Husserl).
Pribram Karl: LANGUAGES OF THE BRAIN (Prentice Hall, 1971)
Pribram's holonomic model of memory is based on the hologram. Memory is distributed in the brain. Memories do not disappear all of a sudden, but slowly fade away. This is consistent with Penfield's experiments.
Pribram Karl & Eccles John: RETHINKING NEURAL NETWORKS (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993)
Proceedings of a conference on neurodynamics. Includes R.L. Dawes' "Advances in the theory of quantum neurodynamics".
Pribram Karl: BRAIN AND PERCEPTION (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990)
A collection of lectures that review Pribram's holographic (or, better, "holonomic") theory of the brain.
Pribram Karl: ORIGINS (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1994)
Proceedings of a conference on neurodynamics. Contributions by Prigogine ("mind and matter: beyond the cartesian dualism"), P.J. Werbos ("self-organization"), J. Gyr ("psychophysics"), C. Game ("non-equilibrium thermodynamics and the brain"), and neurophysiological models.
Pribram Karl & Broadbent Donald: BIOLOGY OF MEMORY (Academic Press, 1970)
A collection of articles on models of memory. It includes Endel Tulving on different retrieval mechanisms for short- and long-term memories.
Price Huw: TIME'S ARROW AND ARCHIMEDE'S POINT (Oxford University Press, 1996)
The australian philosopher Huw Price advances a solution to the biggest dilemma of Quantum Physics: the mystery of the collapse of the wave function. He starts by examining asymmetry in Physics: the asymmetry of Thermodynamics, due to the second law, the asymmetry of radiation and the asymmetry of cosmology (entropy was very low at the beginning, will be very high at the end). Richard Feynman and John Wheeler had offered an explanation to unify all asymmetries, but Price thinks that all asymmetries must instead be reduced to a fundamentally coordinated behavior of the universe. The preferred direction from the past to the future is due to the fact that our universe contains sources of coordinated behavior. Nonetheless, Price believes that our theories are asymettric because we are conditioned by folk concepts of causality. Physical theories are built starting with the assumption that the future cannot influence the past, and therefore it is no surprise that they prescribe that the future cannot influence the past. Price thinks that backward causation (that future can influence the past), or advanced action, is a legitime option. By using it, one redraws the laws of Quantum Physics and finds that Einstein was right with his hypothesis of hidden variables, that Quantum Physics provides an incomplete description of the universe. A complete Quantum Physics will not assign any critical role to the observer.
Priest, Stephen: THEORIES OF THE MIND (Houghton Mifflin, 1991)
A collection of seminal papers on the various schools of philosophy of mind (materialism, dualism, behaviorism, etc).
Prigogine Ilya: THE END OF CERTAINTY (Simon & Schuster, 1997)
Prigogine investigates the role of irreversibility in nature. The arrow of time, as expressed by biological, geological and cosmological evolution, is not only a subjective illusion, it is a fundamental property of nature. A widespread interpretation of macroscopic irreversibility of things is that it simply arises from our ignorance of the microscopic state of things. Prigogine counters this argument by stating that unstable systems are real and that it is instability that breaks the symmetry of time. It does so because instability requires probability (the evolution of an unstable state can only be described as a range of probable evolutions) and probabilities introduce irreversibility. Stable systems allow for certitude, but unstable systems only allow for probabilities, and probabilities cannot be undone. Instability also solves the dilemma of the quantum observer: it is not the observer that breaks the symmetry of time, it is the instability related to the observation. The Prigogine shows that, far from being an illusion, the arrow of time is a source of order in nature.
Prigogine Ilya: INTRODUCTION TO THERMODYNAMICS OF IRREVERSIBLE PROCESSES (Interscience Publishers, 1961)
Prigogine introduced the minimum entropy principle (stable near-equilibrium dissipative systems minimize their rate of entropy production) to characterize living organisms.
Prigogine Ilya: FROM BEING TO BECOMING : TIME AND COMPLEXITY IN THE PHYSICAL SCIENCES (W. H. Freeman, 1980)
In classical and quantum Physics, equations are invariant with respect to time inversion. Future and past are equivalent. Time is only slightly different from space. Time is therefore a mere geometrical parameter. And Physics offers a static view of the universe. The second law of Thermodynamics made official what was already obvious: that many phenomena are not reversible, that time is not merely a coordinate in space-time. Irreversible processes are not only ubiquitous but they also play a fundamental role in biological phenomena.
Prigogine Ilya & Stengers Isabelle: ORDER OUT OF CHAOS (Bantham, 1984)
This is the english edition of "La Nouvelle Alliance" (1979). Prigogine analyzes the history of science and scientific thought and derives a new vision of the world.
Prior Arthur: PAST, PRESENT AND FUTURE (Clarendon Press, 1967)
Prior's temporal logic assumes that the temporal reference is negligible and therefore provides an underlying theory for an instant-based ontology (as opposed to the interval-based ontology) of Time.
Prior Arthur: WORLDS, TIMES, AND SELVES (Duckworth, 1977)
Prior investigates structural analogies between modal logic (the formal study of necessity and possibility) and quantification theory (the formal study of universality and existentiality) and develops a modal system Q with an operator Q that picks out instants, worlds, or selves, as the case may be.
Purves Dale: NEURAL ACTIVITY AND THE GROWTH OF THE BRAIN (Cambridge Univ Press, 1994)
Brain cells are in a continual state of flux, creating and destroying synapses all the time. Neural activity caused by external stimuli is responsible for the continual growth of the brain, and for sculpting a unique brain anatomy in every individual based on the individual's experience.
Putnam Hilary: MIND, LANGUAGE AND REALITY (Cambridge Univ Press, 1975)
The same mental state may be implemented by different physical states.
Putnam Hilary: REASON, TRUTH AND HISTORY (Cambridge Univ Press, 1981)
Putnam provides a formal proof that model-theoretic semantics fails as a theory of meaning, because he found a fundamental contradiction between the definition of meaning in model theory (a function which assigns a truth value to a sentence for all possible cases) and the constraint that the meaning of the parts cannot be changed without changing the meaning of the whole. Putnam proves that meaning does not stand in the realtionship between symbols and the world.
Putnam Hilary: REPRESENTATION AND REALITY (MIT Press, 1988)
Putnam abandons his functionalist theory of the brain.
Pylkkanen Paavo: MIND, MATTER AND ACTIVE INFORMATION (Univ. of Helsinki, 1992)
Pylyshyn Zenon: COMPUTATION AND COGNITION (MIT Press, 1984)
Zenon Pylyshyn believes in a variant of Fodor's language of thought. He has applied that theory to the debate on mental imagery, his "descriptionalism" being opposed to Stephen Kosslyn's pictorialism.
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