Noam Chomsky
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Language
Links:

Synopsis:
  • Human brains are designed to acquire a language
  • They contain a "universal grammar"
  • We speak because our brain is meant to speak
  • Performance vs competence
  • we understand sentences that we have never heard before
  • The number of sentences in a language is potentially infinite, but there is a finite system of rules that defines which sentences can be built
  • That system of rules is what identifies a language and differentiates it from other languages.
  • Grammar= rules that account for all valid sentences of the language
  • Independence of syntax from semantics (well-formed vs meaningful sentence)
  • Application of formal logic to linguistics
  • Language = set of sentences
  • Sentence = finite string of words from a lexicon
  • Grammar = set of rules that determine whether a sentence belongs to the language
  • A language is "recursively enumerable"
  • Deductive approach to language: how to derive all possible sentences of a language from an abstract structure
  • "Deep structure" = fundamental relationships among linguistic components
  • "Surface structure" = the sentences that are actually uttered
  • One deep structure for many surface structures
  • Chomsky's "standard theory":a grammar is made of a syntactic component (phrase structure rules, lexicon and transformational component), a semantic component (a "logical form" that assigns a meaning to the sentence) and a phonologic component (which transforms it into sounds)
  • "Deep structure" = fundamental relationships among linguistic components
  • "Surface structure" = the sentences that are actually uttered
  • One deep structure for many surface structures
  • Chomsky's "standard theory":a grammar is made of a syntactic component (phrase structure rules, lexicon and transformational component), a semantic component (a "logical form" that assigns a meaning to the sentence) and a phonologic component (which transforms it into sounds)
  • Learning a language = innate knowledge plus experience
  • Universal linguistic knowledge ("universal grammar")
  • Language "happens" to a child, just like growth
  • Government binding: differences between languages can be summarized into a set of constraints
  • Universal grammar = linguistic genotype

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )