A History of Philosophy

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Database of Philosophers

Table of Contents

The Birth of Western Philosophy

  • Thales (650 BC) and form;
  • Democritos (460 BC) and atomism;
  • Pythagora (570 BC) and numbers;
  • Eraclito (550 BC)
  • Parmenides (515 BC)
  • Zeno (490 BC) and the paradox;
  • Socrates (470 BC)
  • Euclides (300 BC): "Elements"
  • Plato (427 BC) and the world of ideas;
  • Aristotle (384 BC): logic, matter, natural motion;
  • Lucrezio (54 BC): "De Rerum Natura"

Religions

  • "Bible"
  • Jesus
  • Buddha
  • Hinduism
  • Buddhism
  • Zoroaster and Mithraism
  • Judaism and Christianity
  • Mohammed
  • Confucius
  • "Zhuangzi"
  • "Upanisad"
  • "Bhagavad Gita"
  • "I Ching"

The Masters of Eastern Philosophy

  • Laozi
  • Gongsun Long
  • Nagarjuna
  • Vasubandhu
  • Mohammad
  • Fazang
  • Wonhyo
  • Avicenna
  • Ibn Arabi
  • Shinran
  • Dogen

The Age of Reason

  • Augustine (354): "Confessiones"
  • Boetius (524): "De Consolatione Philosophiae"
  • Aquinas (1221): "Summa Theologica"
  • More (1477): "Utopia"
  • Bacon (1561): "Novum Organum"
  • Descartes (1596): "Discourse"
  • Hobbes (1588): "Leviathan"
  • Spinoza (1632)'s spiritualism;
  • Leibniz (1646)' panpsychism;
  • Newton (1642): "Principia Mathematica"
  • Vico (1668): "Scienza nuova" (1725)
  • Darwin (1809): "Origin of Species"

Idealism

  • Locke (1632): Theory of knowledge
  • Berkeley (1685): Idealism
  • Hume (1711): Epistemology
  • Kant (1724)'s categories;
  • Hegel (1770):
  • Kierkegaard (1813):
  • Mill (1806):
  • Marx (1818):
  • Freud (1856): "Interpretation of Dreams"
  • Nietzsche (1844):
  • James (1842):
  • Bergson (1859):
  • Brentano (1838):
  • Meinong (1853):
  • Husserl (1859): Phenomenology
  • Heidegger (1889): Being and Time

Logic

  • Gadamer (1900):
  • Sussure:
  • Dewey (1859):
  • Frege (1848):
  • Peirce (1839):
  • Hilbert (1862):
  • Russell (1872):
  • Kuhn: Paradigm
  • Levi-Strauss:
  • Ayer: Language, Truth and Logic
  • Wittgenstein (1889):
  • Ryle:
  • Von Neumann:
  • Goedel (1906):
  • Turing (1912):

Language and Meaning

  • Austin:
  • Grice:
  • Popper:
  • Quine: Ontological Relativism
  • Rorty:
  • Kripke: Possible World Semantics
  • Putnam: Functionalism
  • Barthes: Semiotics
  • Chomsky
  • Fodor: Computational Functionalism
  • Searle:
  • Dennett: Intentional Stance, Memes

The Science of the Mind

  • Modern synthesis of biology
  • Herb Simon's symbolic processing paradigm
  • Jerry Fodor's computational functionalism
  • Kenneth Craik's representational paradigm
  • Ilya Prigogine's thermodynamics of non-equilibrium systems
  • Gerard Edelman's theory of neural selection
  • Fredrick Bartlett's reconstructive memory
  • William James' connectionism
  • Noam Chomsky's generative grammar
  • Stuart Kaufman's self-organization
  • Humberto Maturana's autopoiesis
  • George Lakoff's cognitive metaphor
  • Roger Penrose's quantum theory of consciousness
  • Lotfi Zadeh's fuzzy logic
  • Rodolfo Llina's brain model
  • Allan Hobson's theory of dreaming
  • Richard Dawkins' memes

Modern physics

  • Thermodynamics and entropy
  • Relativity and spacetime events
  • Quantum Theory and the observer

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