Nishida Kitaro
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Nature
Philosophy of Ethics
Existentialism
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Synopsis:
  • Symbiosis between European rationalism and Zen Buddhism
  • Western Rationalism provides the rational foundations (a robot without feelings or ethics), Zen provides the feelings and the ethics
  • "We don't exist because we think, but we think because we exist."
  • "To know is to love and to love is to know"
  • Action-intuition: discovering the self in creative activity and realizing the place of this personal creativity in the historical context
  • Eternal now
  • The "eternal now" contains one's whole being and also the being of all other things
  • The infinitisemal brief presence of the "here-and-now" creates past, present, and future.
  • "Mu" (nothingness) creates a spacetime topology
  • Mu = unmeasurable moment in spacetime ("less than a moment") that has to be "lived" in order to reach the next "mu"
  • Mu also creates the time-experience, self-consciousness and free will
  • The present is merely an aspect of the eternal
  • "We do not feel the past: to feel something in the past is a feeling in the present"
  • The eternal generates all the time a self-determining present (at every mu)
  • "Mu no basho ronri" (place of nothingness): nothingness as field, place or topos
  • Unifies "pure experience" and field of force
  • Unity of subjective and objective reality
  • "Only one reality exists in the universe"
  • "Phenomena of consciousness are the sole reality"
  • "Objective reality does not exist apart from subjective consciousness"
  • "That which Newton and Kepler observed and took to be the order of natural phenomena is actually the order of our phenomena of consciousness"
  • "Subject and object do not exist separately, for they are the two relative sides of one reality"
  • "The self does not exist apart from the world that it sees"
  • Unity of subjective and objective reality
  • Each self and each thing is an expression of the only reality of the world (cfr Leibniz's monad)
  • The self is not a substance: it is nothingness ("to study the self is to forget the self")
  • The historical world
  • The creative now not only creates time, but also space
  • Each present is a unique combination of space and time
  • Time can be viewed as both linear and cyclical, but converges in both states at the same space point
  • This point is the historical world
  • History is an ascending self-realization of the absolute
  • Ethics
  • "Morality is not a matter of seeking something apart from the self: it is simply the discovery of something within the self"
  • "There is only one true good: to know the true self"
  • "Our true self is the ultimate reality of the universe, and if we know the true self we not only unite with the good of humankind in general but also fuse with the essence of the universe and unite with the will of God"
  • Ethics
  • "We individuals are entities which have developed as cells of one society. The essence of the nation is the expression of the communal consciousness that constitutes the foundation of our minds"
  • "At present, the nation is the greatest expression of unified communal consciousness. But the expression of our personality ... demands something even greater: a social union that includes all human kind."
  • God
  • "God transcends time and space, is eternal and indestructible, and exists everywhere"
  • "God is none other than the world and the world is none other than God"
  • "The universe is not a creation of God but a manifestation of God"
  • "To love God is to know God"
  • "Religion is the culmination of knowledge and love.
  • "Religion is not to be sought for the sake of spiritual peace. Religion is a goal, not a means to something else."
  • "Zettai mujunteki jikodoitsu" ("absolute contradictory self-identity", unity of opposites)
  • Ethics
  • "Morality is not a matter of seeking something apart from the self: it is simply the discovery of something within the self"
  • "There is only one true good: to know the true self"
  • "Our true self is the ultimate reality of the universe, and if we know the true self we not only unite with the good of humankind in general but also fuse with the essence of the universe and unite with the will of God"
  • "We individuals are entities which have developed as cells of one society. The essence of the nation is the expression of the communal consciousness that constitutes the foundation of our minds"
  • "At present, the nation is the greatest expression of unified communal consciousness. But the expression of our personality ... demands something even greater: a social union that includes all human kind."

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )