Charles Peirce
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Language
Logic
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Synopsis:
  • An object is defined by the effects of its use: a definition that works well is a good definition ("pragmatism")
  • An object "is" its behavior
  • The meaning of a concept consists in its practical effects on our daily lives: if two ideas have the same practical effects on us, they have the same meaning
  • The meaning of a concept is a function of the relations among many concepts: a concept refers to an object only through the mediation of other concepts
  • Truth is usefulness and validity: something is true if it can be used and validated
  • Truth is defined by consensus. Truth is not agreement with reality, it is agreement among humans (reached after a process of scientific investigation)
  • Truth is "true enough"
  • Truth is not eternal: it is decided by the situation
  • Truth is a process, a process of self-verification
  • Beliefs become fixed through experience/verification
  • Beliefs lead to habits that get reinforced through experience
  • The process of habit creation is pervasive in nature
  • All matter acquires habits
  • Matter is mind whose "beliefs" have been fixed to the extent that they can't be changed anymore
  • Habit is what makes objects what they are
  • An object is defined by the set of all its possible behaviors
  • I am my habits
  • Randomness is absence of identity
  • The laws of Physics describe the habits of matter, because what we observe is the habits of nature (eg, heavenly bodies have the habit of attracting each other, thus the laws of gravitation)
  • Systems evolve because of chance, which is inherent to the universe ("tychism")
  • Habits progressively remove chance from the universe
  • The universe is evolving from absolute chaos (chance and no habits) towards absolute order (all habits are fixed)
  • Darwinian evolution of systems towards stronger and stronger habits
  • Beliefs are a particular case of habits, that also get fixed through experience
  • Semiotics
  • Signs:
  • index (a sign which bears a causal relation with its referent),
  • icon (which bears a relation of similarity with its referent),
  • symbol (whose relation with its referent is purely conventional)
  • A sign consists of a signifier and a signified
  • The relation between signifier and signified (eg CAR and the car) is arbitrary
  • A sign refers to an object only through the mediation of other signs (interpretants)
  • There is an infinite regression of interpretants from the signifier to the signified (the signified is a representation of a representation of a representation of a _. of the signifier)
  • A dictionary defines a word in terms of other words, which are defined in terms of other words, which are defined in terms of_
  • Knowing is semiosis (making signs)
  • Semiosis is an endless process
  • The universe "is" those signs
  • Existential ("at least one/ some") and universal ("for every/ all") quantifiers

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )