A time-line of the Barbars

World News | Politics | History | Editor

(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

  • Huns
    • Mounted archers
    • 200BC: Mao-tun unites the Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeastern Mongolia, with capital in Longcheng (near Ulan Bator)
    • 176BC: the Hsiung-nu attack eastern China (the Tocharians)
    • 140BC: Han emperor Wu-ti conducts campaigns against the Hsiung-nu
    • 121BC: China defeats the Hsiung-nu
    • 51 BC: the Hsiung-nu split into two hordes, with the eastern (southern) horde subject to China
    • 50 BC: the western Huns expand to the Volga
    • 48 AD: the Hsiung-nu empire is defeated by the Han and dissolves
    • 337AD: Constantine dies and the Roman empire is divided in eastern (Costantinople) and western (Rome) empire
    • 350AD: Hunnic invasion of South-eastern Europe
    • 376AD: Huns, led by Uldin, reach the Black Sea and the Danube, conquering the eastern Goths
    • 395AD: the Huns raid Armenia
    • 408AD: Uldin crosses the Danube but is defeated by Rome
    • 408AD: the Roman patrician Aetius is taken prisoner by the Huns
    • 412AD: the new Hun leader Donatus is murdered by the Romans and is succeeded by Charato (Karaton), who unifies all Western Huns
    • 425AD: Huns are hired by a western Roman general (Aetius) to fight in Italy during a political crisis
    • 430AD: the new Hun leader Rugida (Rua) signs a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire (annual salary in return for peace)
    • 433AD: Rugida (Rua) signs a treaty with the western Roman empire that surrenders Pannonia to the Huns in exchange for military help
    • 433AD: Aetius becomes the de-facto ruler of the western Roman empire
    • 434AD: Rugida (Rua) dies and is succeeded by Attila (a friend of Aetius) and his brother Bleda
    • 435AD: Aetius employs Huns to fight Vandals and Franks
    • 436AD: Aetius and the Huns destroy the Burgundians
    • 439AD: Attila helps Aetius
    • 441AD: the Huns raid eastern Roman outposts along the Danube
    • 441AD: the Huns sign a peace treaty with the eastern Roman empire
    • 445AD: by murdering his brother, Attila becomes sole leader of the Huns, who are centered in Hungary (Pannonia)
    • 447AD: the Huns and Valamer's Goths attack the eastern Roman empire in the Balkans and Attila reaches the walls of Constantinople
    • 449AD: Attila signs a new treaty with the eastern Roman empire
    • 450AD: the new emperor Marcian reneges on the Hun-Roman treaty
    • 451AD: Huns travel from Pannonia and attack Gaul but are defeated by Aetius and the Visigoths
    • 452AD: Huns cross the Alps but renounce attacking Italy for fear of the plague and Attila concludes peace with Pope Leo
    • 453AD: Attila dies
    • 454AD: Goths expel Huns from Pannonia
    • 454AD: Aetius is murdered by his emperor
    • 461AD: the Huns besiege Paris
    • 469AD: the Hun king Dengizik dies and the Huns disappear
  • Scythians:
    • 750 BC: the Scythians (or Sakas), a pastoral nomadic Indo-European group, settle between the Don and the Carpathians
    • 674 BC: the Scythian king Partatua marries an Assyrian princess
      653 BC: the Scythians invade the Median empire
    • 626 BC: the Medes defeat the Scythians
    • 514 BC: the Persian kind Darius invades Scythia
    • 360 BC: king Atheas unites all Scythian tribes and expands their territory to the border with Macedonia
    • 339 BC: Atheas of Scythia is killed in the war against Philip of Macedonia
    • 225 BC: the Celts in the west and the Sarmatians in the east destroy the Scythian kingdom
  • Vandals
    • 70BC: Julius Caesar establishes the north-western border at the Rhein
    • 100AD: Vandals inhabit the land between Elbe and Vistula (northern Germany)
    • 160AD: Vandals inhabit Slesia
    • 270AD: Vandals cross the Rhein
    • 330AD: Constantine grants the Vandals land in Pannonia (Hungary)
    • 360AD: the Vandals convert to christianity
    • 395AD: Stilicho (a German of Vandal descent) is appointed supreme commader of the western Roman army
    • 406: Germanic-speaking Vandals and Iranian-speaking Alans invade Gaul (France)
    • 407AD: Roman general Stilicho (of Vandal descent) stops the Vandals on their way to Italy
    • 409: Vandals and Alans invade Spain
    • 419AD: Gunderic unifies the Vandals of northern (Alans) Spain and southern (Vandals) Spain
    • 421AD: Vandals defeat the Roman army
    • 427AD: Gunderic dies and is succeeded by his brother Gaiseric/Gensenric
    • 427: Gaiseric/Gensenric's Vandals crosses the strait of Gibraltar and lands in Africa
    • 439AD: Gaiseric conquers Carthage
    • 455AD: Gaiseric's Vandals sack Rome
    • 468AD: A Roman expedition against Gaiseric's Vandals is defeated and Rome recognizes Vandal rule over the Italian islands
    • 477AD: Gaiseric dies
    • 534AD: the Roman general Belisarius recaptures Africa from the vandals
  • Goths
    • Scandinavia?
    • Non-literate
    • 0BC: Poland
    • 9 AD: Gothic warlord Arminius destroys the Roman army at the Teutoburg Forest and Roma withdraws the border to the Rhine
    • 50: Danube (Marcomannic war)
    • 167: the Roman empire is attacked for the first time by barbarians (the German Quadi and Marcomanni)
    • 178: Aurelius and his son Commodus fight the Third Marcomannic War against the German barbarians
    • 213: Caracalla a campaign against the Alamanni
    • 150AD: Roman expansion in Europe halted
    • 200AD: Visigoths (Balthi family, forests of Central Europe, originally known as Tervingian Goths) and Ostrogoths (Amals family, from the Don to the Dnestr, originally known as Greuthungian Goths)
    • 238AD: First Gothic incursion into the Roman empire
    • 250AD: Goths settle in Scythia (Black Sea)
    • 268AD: Goths raid Athens
    • 340AD: Christianization and literalization of the Goths (Ulfila and the "Gothic bible")
    • 370AD: Ermanarich rules all the Greuthungian Goths from the Baltic to the Black Sea
    • 375AD: Ermanarich is defeated by the Huns and commits suicide, while his Goths become subjects of the Huns
    • 376AD: the Tervingian king Athanaric is defeated by the Huns and his Goths are pushed into the Carpathians by the advancing Huns
    • 376AD: Athanaric's rival Fritigern converts to (Arian) christianity in order to benefit from Roman help, crosses the Danube and demands admission to the empire
    • 378AD: the Romans are defeated at Hadrianapolis by Fritigern's Goths and the emperor is killed
    • 380: The Visigoths defeat the Roman army in Macedonia
    • 382: Theodosius I signs a peace treaty with Tervingi (later Visigoths) and Greuthungi (later Ostrogoths)
    • 390AD: the Gothic general Alaric is hired as a Roman commander
    • 395AD: Alaric unifies the Goths of the Balkans (Visigoths) and invades Greece
    • 397AD: Stilicho attacks his old friend Alaric, but lets him repeatedly escape, so that the Eastern emperor signs a deal with the Goths
    • 401AD: Alaric invades Italy but is defeated by Stilicho (who lets him escape again)
    • 402AD: the western Roman empire moves its capital from Rome to Ravenna
    • 405: Radagaisus leads a Gothic raid into Italy
    • 406: Radagaisus is captured and executed
    • 408AD: Stilicho is assassinated in a coup
    • 410AD: Alaric sacks Rome
    • 411AD: Alaric dies on hs way to Africa and is succeeded by his brother-in-law Ataulf, who marches back north to Gaul
    • 412AD: the Romans expel the Visigoths
    • 414: Ataulf marries Galla Placida, the emperor's sister
    • 415: Ataulf marches into Spain where he is assassinated and is succeeded by his brother Wallia
    • 418: the emperor grants Wallia's Visigoths the right to settle in Aquitaine (Atlantic coast of France) in return for help against Vandals and Alans
    • 447AD: Valamer unifies Goths in Pannonia and helps Huns fight the Romans
    • 451AD: Visigoths help Rome fight Huns (and their subjects Valamer's Pannonian Goths)
    • 454AD: Valamer's Goths expel the Huns from Pannonia and his Goths regain their independence
    • 456AD: the Visigoths enter Spain
    • 462AD: Visigoths gain Narbonne
    • 466AD: Euric becomes leader of the Visigoths
    • 469: Euric conquers Gaul as far as the Loire
    • 471AD: following a revolt against Rome, Strabo is appointed general and leader of the Thracian Goths, who are "foederati"
    • 473AD: Euric invades Catalonia
    • 476AD: Theodoric becomes king of the Pannonian Goths
    • 475AD: Euric declares his independence from Rome and founds the Visigothic kingdom in Spain
    • 476AD: Euric invades southwestern France
    • 476AD: Pannonian Goths revolt and Theodoric is appointed general by a contender to the title of emperor
    • 476AD: Strabo dies
    • 476AD: Odoacer, a mercenary in the service of Rome, leader of the Germanic soldiers in the Roman army, deposes the western Roman emperor and thereby terminates the western Roman empire
    • 480AD: Euric invades Spain
    • 484AD: Euric dies
    • 484AD: Theodoric becomes consul
    • 488AD: Theodoric unifies Pannonian and Thracian Goths (Ostrogoths)
    • 488AD: following orders from the eastern Roman emperor Zeno, Theodoric's Ostrogoths (still settled in Pannonia) invade Odoacer's Italian kingdom
    • 493AD: Theodoric's Ostrogoths kill Odoacer and Theodoric becomes the new king of Italy, with capital in Ravenna
    • 496AD: Franks attack the Visigoths in France
    • 507AD: Visigoths are defeated by the Franks and move to Spain
    • 508AD: Theodoric de facto annexes the Visigoths (southern Gaul and Spain) thus unifying Visigoths and Ostrogoths
    • 526AD: Theodoric dies and his kingdom disintegrates again, each half ruled by a different grandson
    • 534AD: the Visigoths move their capital to Toledo
    • 536AD: the Roman general Belisarius lauches a campaign to recover Italy and destroys the Ostrogothic kingdom
    • 539AD: the Ostrogoths conquer Milan
    • 546AD: the Ostrogoths led by Totila sack Rome
    • 546AD: the Lombards under Audoin invade the Danube valley
    • 550AD: Codex Argenteus
    • 550AD: Getica
    • 553AD: the Ostrogoths are expelled from Italy by the eastern Roman armies
    • 554AD: the new king of the Visigoths, Athanagild, accepts the emperor's sovereignity over Spain
    • 561AD: the Ostrogoths are destroyed by the eastern Roman empire
    • 568AD: Alboin's Lombards, expelled by the Avars from Pannonia, invade northern Italy
    • 569AD: Leovigild becomes king of the Visigoths
    • 580AD: Arian synod in Toledo
    • 586AD: Leovigild dies after unifying most of Iberia
    • 587AD: the new Visigothic king Recared converts to catholicism and the Gothic language is abandoned
    • 603AD: the Lombards convert to Christianity and move their capital to Pavia
    • 612AD: the Visigothic king Sisebut forces the Jews of Spain to release all slaves and convert to Christianity
    • 614AD: the Visigoths reconquer all of Spain from the Roman empire
    • 620AD: the Visigoths conquer the last Roman possession in Spain
    • 711AD: the Moors invade Spain and destroy the Visigothic kingdom
    • 718AD: Pelayo unites with the Visigothic leaders who have been defeated by Tariq, and creates the kingdom of Asturias in northwestern Spain, thus creating the kingdom of Leon
    • 751AD: the Lombards, under king Aistulf, conquer Ravenna from the Byzantines
    • 774AD: the Franks of Charlemagne annex the Lombards
  • Franks
  • Donatism-Arianism
    • 260AD: Paul of Samosata preaches that Jesus was not God
    • 264AD: A council excommunicates Paul of Samosata
    • 268AD: Lucianus of Antioch (born in Samosata) preaches that Jesus was only a man
    • 311AD: Donatus and others rebel against the appointment of the bishop of Carthage, claiming independence of church and state
    • 313AD: Constantine recognizes the Christian church
    • 314AD: Donatism is condemned as a heresy
    • 316AD: Donatism splits from Catholicism and spreads throughout Africa
    • 318AD: Arius (b 256), a student of Lucian, preaches in Alexandria
    • 320AD: Arius is expelled by the patriarch Alexander and during his travels through the eastern Roman empire converts more bishops
    • 325AD: at the council of Nicaea the Arians are defeated
    • 340AD: Ulfila converts the Goths to Arianism
    • 353AD: the new emperor favors Arianism
    • 379AD: the Roman empire bans Arianism
    • 411AD: thanks to St Augustine, Donatism begins to decline
    • 496AD: Clovis converts the Franks to catholicism
    • 534AD: the Roman empire destroys the Arian kingdom of the Vandals
    • 555AD: the Franks conquer the Arian people of France
    • 587AD: the Visigoths convert to catholicism
    • 639AD: Islam invades Africa and Donatism disappears
    • 650AD: Arianism disappears after the Lombards convert to catholicism
  • Avars
    • 375 AD: nomadic Mongolian tribes of central Asia (possibly remnants of the Hsiung-nu, Xiongnu, Huns) organize themselves into a confederation, the Juan-juan (Avars)
    • 394 AD: Kutelburi becomes khan of the Juan-juan empire, that stretches from Manchuria in the east to Lake Balkhash in the west
    • 450 AD: the Juan-juan fight the Northern Wei dynasty
    • 500 AD: the Juan-juan convert to Buddhism
    • 552 AD: the Juan-juan are defeated and expelled by their Turkic-speaking vassals
    • 558 AD: the Avars (remnants of the Juan-juan) invade the Russian steppes and push the Slavs to the west
    • 560 AD: The eastern Roman emperor Justinian hires the Avars to fight the Huns and Slavs
    • 568 AD: The Avars invade Pannonia and Dalmatia, expelling the Lombards who move towards Italy
    • 571 AD: The eastern Roman empire signs a peace treaty with the Avars
    • 58# AD: While the Roman Empire is at war with Persia, the Avars launch attacks in the Balkans
    • 590 AD: The empire of the Avars extends from the Volga to the Danube to the Baltic Sea
    • 593 AD: The Roman empire attacks the Avars in the Balkans
    • 599 AD: The Avars capture and execute 12,000 Byzantine prisoners
    • 614 AD: Avars and Slavs capture Dalmatia from the Roman Empire
    • 626 AD: the Avars lay siege to Costantinople
    • 796 AD: The Franks defeat the Avars
    • 810 AD: The Bulgars, under king Krum, destroy the Avars
  • Khazars:
    • 630: the nomadic Turkic-speaking Khazars emerge from the break-up of the western (Kok) Turkish empire and settle in southern Russia with capital at Balanjar (Verkhneye Chir-Yurt)
    • 640: dual kingship (kagan and bek)
    • 650: the Khazars' expansion drives Bulgars westward
    • 683: Khazars raid Armenia and Georgia
    • 725: the Khazars transfer their capital to Samandar in the northern Caucasus
    • 730: Khazars raid Azerbaijan
    • 737: the Khazars are defeated by the Arabs and forced to convert to Islam
    • 750: the Kazars transfer their capital to Itil (Atil) on the Volga River
    • 762: the Kazars invade the Transcaucasus
    • 860: Cyril visits Khazaria
    • 861: the Khazars under king Bulan convert to Judaism
    • 896: the kingdom of Hungary is formed by seven Magyar and three Khazar tribes
    • 939: the Khazars defeat the Rus led by Oleg
    • 965: Khazars are defeated at Sarkel by Svyatoslav of Kiev
    • 1016: Byzantine emperor Basil II and the Rus defeat the last Khazar kagan Georgius Tzul
  • Celts:
    • 1600 BC: Stonehenge
    • 1200 BC: Celts inhabit northern France and western Germany
    • 500 BC: Celts settle in the British islands
    • 400 BC: Celts use iron
    • 400 BC: Celts invade Northern Italy
    • 300 BC: Celts settle in Ireland
    • 279 BC: Celts raid Delphi in Greece
    • 58 BC: Julius Caesar conquers the French Celts (or Gauls)
    • 47 AD: Rome conquers the English Celts (or Britanni)
    • 410 AD: the Romans withdraw from Britain
    • 432 AD: the Roman missionary Patrick is taken prisoner to Ireland
    • 750 AD: several monasteries founded in Ireland, from which Irish monks evangelize the rest of Europe
    • 795 AD: Vikings raid Ireland
    • 831 AD: Vikings invade Ireland and found Dublin
    • 850 AD: Vikings trade slaves along the Dniepr and Volga
    • 968 AD: Brian Boru defeats the Vikings
    • 1002 AD: Brian Boru unifies all of Ireland

  • World News | Politics | History | Editor
    (Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)