A timeline of the Hebrews

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(Copyright © 2014 Piero Scaruffi)


2500 BC: Canaanites live in the city-state of Jericho, a tributary of Egypt
1500 BC: a caravan trader, Abraham, leads Semitic nomads from Sumer to Canaan and then on to Egypt (Hebrews)
1400 BC: Canaanites found Urusalim (Jerusalem)
1300 BC: iron age in Palestine
1250 BC: Indo-European tribes (Philistines) move to Palestine (named after them) from the Aegean sea
1250 BC: the Hebrews move from Egypt to Palestine (Moses legend)
1230 BC: Hebrew leader Joshua conquers part of Palestine
1125 BC: the Canaanites are definitely defeated by the Hebrews
1042 BC: Saul defeats the Ammonites and is proclaimed king of Israel
1024 BC: David kills the Philistine giant Goliath during Saul's war with the Philistines
1011 BC: Saul's head shepherd Doeg slays the 85 priests of Nob and Saul in person kills every man, woman and child living in Nob
1010 BC: Saul is killed in a battle against the Philistines, and the kingdom is split between Judah, ruled by David, and the northern Israel, ruled by Saul's son Ish-Bosheth, civil war ensues, David wins
1003 BC: King David of Judah captures Jerusalem from the Canaanite tribe of the Jebusites and makes it the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel
970 BC: David dies and is succeeded by David's and Bathsheba's son Solomon
957 BC: Solomon builds the temple in Jerusalem
931 BC: Solomon dies and the Hebrew kingdom is divided, with Jerusalem becoming the capital of the southern kingdom of Judah wheres Israel in the north is ruled by ten tribes
853 BC: Israel and Judah fight the Assyrians at the battle of Qarqar
722 BC: Sargon II of Assyria conquers Israel and forcefully relocates Jews (Jewish diaspora)
609 BC: Israel is conquered by the Egyptians
587 BC: Nebuchadnezzar II conquers Judea (southern kingdom of the Hebrews), destroys Jerusalem and deports thousands of Jews (second Jewish diaspora) to Babylonia
550 BC: the Bible is composed
539 BC: King Cyrus of the Achaemenid Empire (Iran) conquers the Babylonian Empire at the Battle of Opis
537 BC: Cyrus issues the Proclamation allowing the Babylonian Jews to return to Israel and rebuild the temple
516 BC: the Jews rebuild the temple of Jerusalem
343 BC: King Artaxerxes III of the Achaemenid Empire destroys Jerusalem after a Hebrew revolt
332 BC: Alexander of Macedonia conquers the Middle East
320 BC: Ptolemy I's general Nicanor of Egypt conquers Syria and Palestine
310 BC: Simon the Just is high priest of the temple
301 BC: Ptolemy I settles Jews in Alexandria
300 BC: Seleucus I founds Antioch and attracts Jews in his new capital granting them equal rights with the Greek citizens
260 BC: the Old Testament is translated from Hebrew into Greek by scholars of Alexandria (the "Septuagint")
200 BC: The Seleucids of Iran conquer Jerusalem from the Ptolemaics
198 BC: Onias III becomes high priest of Jerusalem
196 BC: the ascetic Jewish sect of the Essenes lives in a monastery at Qumran
190 BC: the Hasidic party opposes the Hellenization of the Hebrew religion
170 BC: Onias III is assasinated and the Hasidic party loses to the Hellenists, who gain the office of high priest
170 BC: the Jews of Jerusalem rebel against the Seleucid emperor Antiochus IV
168 BC: the Seleucid emperor Antiochus IV outlaws Judaism and mandates the worship of Greek deities
167 BC: Mattathias and his son Judas Maccabean lead a revolt of Judea against the Seleucids and the Maccabeans (or Hasmoneans) are granted relative independence
160 BC: The Seleucids kill Judas Maccabeus at the Battle of Elasa, retake control of Jerusalem and end the Maccabean revolt
152 BC: Judas' brother Jonathan Maccabean is appointed both high priest and ruler of Judea
143 BC: Jonathan is murdered and is succeeded by his brother Simon
135 BC: Simon dies and is succeeded by John Hycarnus I, who conquers Samaria and Idumea, whose inhabitants are forced to convert to Judaism
104 BC: John Hyrcanus dies after greatly expanding the borders of Judea and is succeeded by Alexander Jannaeus
104 BC: the Pharisees (who adopt the orthodox views of the Maccabeans) and the Sadducees (who adopt the Hellenists views of the Seleucids) fight for control of the temple and of the state
100 BC: the Dead Sea Scrolls are composed
78 BC: Alexander Jannaeus dies after expanding the Maccabean kingdom to the whole of Palestine
64 BC: the Book of Henoch is completed
63 BC: Roman leader Pompeus captures Jerusalem and occupies Palestine
50 BC: Antipater the Idumaean helps Caesar during the civil war and is therefore granted Roman citizenship and de facto rule of Jerusalem
44 BC: Caesar is assassinated
43 BC: Antipater is murdered
40 BC: Antigonus, a Maccabean, seizes power in Jerusalem
38 BC: Herod, Antipater's son, marries Mariam Maccabean
37 BC: Antigonus is beheaded and Herod, Antipater's son, is appointed by the Romans as king of the Jews
30 BC: the Sanhedrin is recognized as the supreme court of justice for the Jews
29 BC: Herod murders his wife Mariam, after killing her father and brother
19 BC: Herod rebuilds the temple of Jerusalem
12 BC: Octavian (Augustus) becomes emperor of Rome (the "anointed")
6 BC: Herod murders his own sons
6 BC: Jesus is born in Betlehem
4 BC: Herod dies and his sons split the reign
6 AD: the kingdom of Judea is annexed to Rome
See also the Timeline of Christianity

Biblical timeline

(thanks to Agnes Domini)

4100 BC: Yahweh begets Adam
3970 BC: Adam begets Seth
3865 BC: Seth begets Enos
3775 BC: Enos begets Cainan
3705 BC: Cainan begets Mahalaleel
3640 BC: Mahalaleel begets Jared
3478 BC: Jared begets Enoch
3413 BC: Enoch begets Methuselah
3226 BC: Methuselah begets Lamech
3044 BC: Lamech begets Noah
2544 BC: Noah begets Shem
2444 BC: The flood and Noah's ark
2442 BC: Shem begets Arphaxad
2407 BC: Arphaxad begets Salah
2377 BC: Salah begets Eber
2343 BC: Eber begets Peleg
2313 BC: Peleg begets Reu
2281 BC: Reu begets Serug
2251 BC: Serug begets Nahor
2222 BC: Nahor begets Terah
2152 BC: Terah begets Abram
2077 BC: Abram leaves Haram for Canaan, the "Promised Land"
2068 BC: Yahweh makes the covenant with Abram
2067 BC: Ishmael is born unto Abram (by Hagar, his wife's handmaiden)
2053 BC: Yahweh changes Abram's name to Abraham
2052 BC: Isaac is born unto Abraham (by Sarah, his wife)
2012 BC: Isaac marries Rebekah
1992 BC: Jacob and Esau are born unto Isaac by Rebekah
1917 BC: Jacob marries Rachel
1910 BC: Jacob begets Joseph by Rachel in Canaan
1904 BC: Yahweh changes Jacob's name to Israel
1893 BC: Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers and purchased in Egypt by Potiphar
1880 BC: Joseph is appointed royal vizier of Egypt
1872 BC: The famine in Egypt
1440 BC: Moses leads the Israelites in the Mass Exodus from Egypt and Moses receives the Ten Commandments from Yahweh on Mt Sinai
1400 BC: The Israelites enter the Promised Land, Moses dies and Joshua assumes the leadership after the battle of Jericho (Yahweh commands that the Hebrews destroy the city and kill every man, woman, child and animal)
1393 BC: Joshua conquers Canaan and distributes the land among the tribes, with Shiloh as the capital of his kingdom, the city where the Tent Shrine and Ark of the Covenant are kept
1075 BC: Samson and Delilah
1070 BC: The Philistines defeat the Israelites at the battle of Aphek and capture the Ark of the Covenant


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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)