For sure, in the 1990s the Last Poet,
a Harlem-based trio of former jail convicts converted to Islam (led by Jalal Mansur Nuriddin), were using "spiel" (as rap was called in those
days) over a jazz background: their political sermons inspired by Malcolm X
used the arrangements of jazz producer Alan Douglas on The Last Poets (1970), which became a hit, and This is Madness (1971),
and developed into "jazzoetry" on Chastisement (1972)
and abstract free-jazz on At Last (1974).
They even foreshadowed the fusion of rap and metal with their
collaboration with Jimi Hendrix, Doriella du Fontaine (1970).
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