Istvan Szabo

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6.5 Age of Daydreaming (1964)
7.1 Father (1966)
6.9 Love Film (1970)
7.6 25 Firemen St (1973)
6.8 Budapest Tales (1976)
7.4 Confidence (1979)
7.4 Mephisto (1981)
6.5 Colonel Redl (1984)
7.1 Hanussen (1988)
5.0 Meeting Venus (1991)
7.2 Sweet Emma Dear Bobe (1992)
6.0 Sunshine (1999)
6.5 Taking Sides (2001)
5.0 Being Julia (2004)
6.0 Relatives (2006)
6.0 The Door (2012)

If English is your first language and you could translate my old Italian text, please contact me.
Attivo fin dai tempi del liceo, Istvan Szabo (Hungary, 1938) esordisce nel lungometraggio con opere liriche e caustiche influenzate dalla nouvelle vague.

Almodozasok Kora/ Age of Daydreaming (1964) quotes several scenes from Truffaut: i sogni e gli entusiasmi di un gruppo di ragazzi si schiantano contro la realta` meschina del mondo degli adulti.

Apa/ Father (1966), photographed by Sandor Sara, is the psychological portrait of a congenital liar who twists his late father's unknown story to serve his own career and love life. It can also be read as a satirical allegory of Stalin-era cult of personality.

His first four films are partly autobiographical and star Andras Balint in roles that hint at Szabo's own odyssey.

Szerelmesfilm/ Love Film (1970), his first color film, revisits both the historical Hungarian past and the private individual past, pointing at both sociology of a nation and psychoanalysis of childhood myths as complementary tools to reach the truth. The first half jumps back and forth in time, mostly a stream of memories a` la Alain Resnais, and is more evocative than narrative. The second half is more linear, almost entirely played in France in the present (and a lot less interesting than the first half).

Jansci talks to the camera, explaining that he is on his way to meet a girl he hasn't seen in ten years. Jansci and Kata grew up together during the war. Actually, this Kata was a really annoying little girl, who one day told him that his father had died and then kept making fun of him, to the point that he has recurring dreams of her on a swing chanting that his father has died. He left his girlfriend, who came to the train station to wish him a good trip and ran along the railway waving goodbye. On the train memories come flowing back. When his father was arrested as a deserter, Kata's family took him in, but the little girl threatened to tell everybody about Jansci's father if Jansci didn't give her his knapsack. He remembers the carefree happiness their childhood while the fascists were spreading terror in the streets and the planes were dropping bombs on the city. Now he is sitting in a comfortable train, showing his documents to polite conductors and immigration officers. He remembers when Kata, now a young woman living under communist rule, phoned him to tell him that she was going to flee Hungary and that she regretted that he had decided to stay. He remembers that during the war, as children, they had attempted to dig a tunnel all the way to America after learning at school that the Earth is round. The classes were taught in somebody's living room because the school had been bombed. He remembers the street car that they took every day as children, and where, as young adults, they kissed while it was snowing outside. He remembers that, as teenagers, already under communism, they were judged by a commission of the other teenagers emulating adult communists and convicted because they had been seen holding hands and she steadfastedly admitted that she loved Jansci more than anybody else. He remembers when they caused the entire neighborhood to lose power while trying to electrocute a fish before dissecting it at a time when their dream was to become doctors. They played in the snow both as children and then as young lovers. They were briefly separated by communism. When they met again, their hands searched each other while they were walking, trying to return to the spontaneity of when they were children and always holding hands, but she, still a virgin, got scared when he tried to kiss her. Finally they became lovers but just then the Soviet Union invaded Hungary to abort the 1956 revolution. We see again a scene in which he is stopped a patrol while riding his bike, and this time we see the scene continue until he meets with Kata. She still doesn't want to have sex. There is shooting in the street. Back then they remembered the woman who had been taken away and shot by the Germans, Bozsi, a vivid memory for both of them. We see again Kata phoning Jansci that she is leaving the country. On the train he imagines how it will be when he meets her in France. Her letters started coming soon afterwards. She studied fashion design, she found a job. The letters got shorter and shorter. He had another girlfriend. Jansci realizes that the train has reached the station and gets off. Kata is not there: she had a meeting and sent a friend to pick him up. Finally she shows up at her apartment and they make love. She has the same memory that he has of them in wintertime. They go over some of the memories that we've already seen but they argue because they remember different details. They meet with other Hungarian exiles. One woman survived the mass shooting carried out by Germans in which Bozsi was also killed, but her recollection differ from theirs. She tells them of how she saved herself by swimming down the river and then walking to the border. Kata doesn't want Jansci to leave. He proposes to her. She accepts. But then they realize that they both have a past: she had two lovers, and one was her friend's husband. They take a beach vacation. She curses her childhood that made her fall in love so much with him that she can't love anyone else. One of their best childhood friends come to visit them. He is now a US soldier stationed in Germany, and they look down on him for living in the country that oppressed and massacred their people. Jansci asks Kata to go back to Hungary with him. She guesses that he has a girl in Hungary. In any case she has her job and is not willing to sacrifice it for him. Jansci even realizes that the kiss in the streetcar in the snow (one of his dearest memories) was just a dream. He decides to go back home. All he sees of Paris (they kept talking about spending a romantic weekend there) are a few minutes while waiting for the train to depart. Later Jansci married his girlfriend Jutka, and Kata married an Englishman. In a post office people of all ages and sexes are writing letters to their friends and relatives who left the country; their voices become a cacophony; and Jansci's is only one of them. Kata and her husband visit Jansci and his wife.

Tuzolto Utca 25/ 25 Firemen St (1973), again photographed by Sandor Sara, disposed with the temporal order and created a blend of voices in a plethora of formats (stream of consciousness, autobiography, dialogues, etc). A hot night keeps the neighbors of an old building awake and they start remembering and meditating. The wildly surreal film, one of the most intricate flashbacks in the history of cinema, photographed by cinematographer Sandor Sara, is one long delirious collective stream of consciousness that takes place on a hot summer night, introduced by the explosion to demolish a residential building. The film is the story of the families that lived in that building, told by the survivors in random order. There is additional time distortion as scenes and dialogues mix past, present and future (the characters tell us what will happen to other characters).

There's a middle-aged woman having sex with a boy, a girl who swims in her living room while asleep, a young woman who loves a young man who doesn't talk to her and watches as a gorgeous woman sleeps naked, and especially Maria, a middle-aged woman who can't fall asleep even if she's so tired. Maria remembers the two men of her life, first viewed as two faces in one. French soldierslooking for "reds" A Mitteleuropean intermezzo replete with neoclassical ballet and rococo decor shows the young Maria and her suitors: a Russian anarchist and a nice doctor. She can read their tragic future. After the cryptic scene of an old man taking care of lots of children in a cramped room, we shift to winter, with a carpenter working in the street. And then back to Maria's wedding banquet, while a man in the streets sells gas masks and soldiers parading comically in the streets. Every now and then someone leaves for Australia or Canada. A granma dies and her body is taken away by a queen's carriage. Everybody packs their belongings in suitcases and assembles in the street, but a girl commits suicide by jumping from the balcony. The persecution of the Jews by the fascist regime has begun: Maria's family is given just a few hours to pack and join the other Jewish families. The Jews are stripped naked, disinfected and imprisoned. A woman, the owner of a bakery, risks her life to shelter deserters (and after the war her beneficiaries will testify to it), surviving several police raids. The Russians are approaching. Partisans and fascists fight. Maria's first husband dies of heart failure surrounded by nuns. An old man with two girls repairs clocks. The war is finally over. Now everyody is trying to prove that they were antifascists and asks the woman who sheltered escapees to testify for them. The Jewish family returns. The cmmunist nationalize the bakery of woman who sheltered antifascists during the war, but then the very communist woman who nationalized her bakery comes asking her to hide in the attic, evidently persecuted by the communists herself. Now it's the nobility and the higher middle-class that has to fear the new regime. There's Maria's second wedding banquet. Another cryptic scene with objects in free fall on a courtyard. There is poverty againa: rich families have to sell what they have to ragmen. The old clock-repair man is starving and even eats plastic. All the characters line up outside and watch their building (like the actors at the end of a theatrical play).

Budapest Mesek/ Budapest Tales (1976), a more linear film, is an allegorical story set in a dilapidated trolley car, full of refugees, that slowly advances towards its unknown destination after an unnamed disaster. It's a simple allegory told in a more direct style.

Bizalom/ Confidence (1979), which began his collaboration with cinematographer Lajos Koltai, is an psychological drama, mostly confined in one room, a room that contrasts with the surrounding landscape in which people never speak: they either stand in endless lines (waiting to get some food) or walk briskly away. The film attains a marriage of Bergman and Kafka: a Bergman-style domestic drama set in a Kafka-style human landscape. The apparent slim plot is wrapped in a tangle of loneliness and fear. The woman falls in love with two men and at the end she herself is not sure whom she truly loves.

A woman is watching newsreels in a movie theater during the war and the German occupation. When she walks outside in a deserted street, a man approaches her and tells her that she cannot go home. He tells her that he belongs to the "movement" like her husband, and that her husband is in trouble. She follows the stranger to a hospital where she is given a new identity. She has to memorize her new name Katalin, and her daughter's name. Then she is delivered to her new husband, Janos, who is also a member of the resistance in hiding. They pretend to be husband and wife in front of the old lady who takes them him as refugees, and they pretend that their child is at the hospital. Katalin almost goes crazy with the terror of what may have happened to her real husband and her real child. Janos makes things worse by not trusting her: he subjects her to cruel psychological tests to make sure that she will not betray him. If she makes a mistake, he is dead too. She keeps begging for news about her husband and finally one day Janos delivers to her a note handwritten by her husband that says he is ok and he misses her too. One day as she is sitting alone in a upper-scale care, Katalin is approached by a blonde who claims to know her well and calls her a coward for not being willing to hide her. But Katalin truly doesn't remember her and cannot trust her. Janos begins to feel sorry for her situation, a woman who has been separated from her family and is surrounded by suspicion and fear. And one night, out of the blue, she offers herself to him, and he takes her passionately. The following day she seems amused that she now has a lover. They can only see one person, their contact with the resistance: a lieutenant named Pali, an old acquaintance of his who tells her that Janos used to be a womanizer. Every step they take outside the house they have to be paranoid because anybody could be a spy. A German soldier stops Janos: they used to know each other. The German soldier is eager to chat with somebody. He seems to be honestly lonely and unhappy. Back home she find the landlady in her room and the landlady tells her that a young man looked for her. Janos explains why he is afraid of everybody: he had a girlfriend in Germany who seems to love him a lot and she betrayed him with the police. Now Katalin seems to have a new mission: to restore his trust in humanity. She is the one who wants to have sex with him. She admits to him that she is in love. They start dreaming of a future together. Unseen by her, he reads a letter from his wife Judit, in which his wife sends him her tender love and tells him of how much she misses him. He walks outside and calls his real wife: he quickly tells her that he misses her too. Pali brings a gramophone while Janos is away, and dances with Katalin. When Janos arrives, Pali tells him that Katalin has been called to a secret appointment and that the situation is tense because the resistance staged a new sabotage attack. Katalin walks through deserted streets to a building that looks empty, knocks at a door and... her real husband Tamas opens. It is only a temporary apartment. She complains that he never told her anything about his revolutionary activities, treated her like a child. They make love. Then she has to return to her fake husband. When he disappears for one night, she gets angry and makes a furious scene. They make love. She tells him that she wants a child from him. Suddenly, the bombing begins. Pali comes to report that anarchy is spredaing in the streets, with widespread looting and killing. Instead of giving them hope, the events create tension. One day he simply tells her that he has to leave. The war ends with the victory of the revolutionaries, but Janos has disappeared and her identification papers are gone. At the government office they interrogate her about the mysterious Janos who was supposed to be a revolutionary but is unknown to them (Janos was not his real name). She returns home to find her real husband Tamas and hugs him crying. Unbeknownst to her, Janos is looking for her outside the government office that she has just left: he must have been told of a woman looking for a revolutionary named Janos.

The German-language Mephisto (1981), the first collaboration with Austrian actor Klaus Maria Brandauer, was his meditation on the relationship between art and power.

In the 1930s Dora is the star of an opera. She gets a standing ovation. In a room backstage Hendrik (Klaus-Maria Brandauer) is devoured by jealousy. He is only a provincial actor. His black dance teacher, Juliette, is also his lover: they make love like children who fight for play. Juliette is the only one who knows his real name, Heinz. Hendrik's partner in the play that he is performing is Nicoletta. Hendrik falls in love with her best friend, Barbara, who comes from a wealthy aristocratic family. Hendrik steers his company towards Marxist theater. He provokes Miklas, a minor actor who is a nazi, and then tries to have him fired. His career takes off when Dora introduces him to a famous producer. He becomes famous for his communist ideals as well as for his acting, dancing and singing skills. At the peak of his career he plays Mephisto, the devil who offers Dr Faust a pact. That night Dora announces that she is leaving for the USA, before it is too late. Hendrik, whose career is soaring, lives in denial of what is happening (Hitler's rise to power). His wife Barbara decides to leave too and settles in Paris. Hendrik goes to Hungary to make a film. He has the chance to go in exile, but he knows that his career would never be the same abrod. So he goes back to Germany. Lotte, an actress who is the lover of a powerful nazist, restores his reputation. He has a chance to play Mephisto again. He has to work with Miklas, his old nemesis. He has to pay homage to Lotte's lover, the prime minister, who becomes an admirer of his. He even poses as a model for a female sculptor who is imbued with nazist fervor. Juliette is again his lover, but Juliette, unlike him, cannot change her situation: she is a black living in a racist society. Hendrik becomes a celebrity, Germany's most respected actor. When Miklas (the original nazist) leads a protest, Hendrik (the original proletariat) is the one who doesn't want to hear about it. Hendrik has sold his soul to the devil (nazism) in return for fame and glory. Miklas is summarily executed. Hendrik's staunch loyalty to the nazists gains him a promotion to director of the opera theater. However, the nazists have found out about his relationship with a black woman. Hendrik begs that they let her leave the country unharmed. As the director of the theater, Hendrik has to accept further compromises, such as firing old friends and Jewish workers. He visits Juliette in Vienna, the only woman to whom he confesses, and then Barbara in Paris, to whom she says he's married to the theater. As he walks around Paris, he meditates what job he could have in such a country (certainly not director of the national theater).
Back in Germany, Hendrik divorces and marries Barbara's best friend Nicoletta, an actress who, like him, has remained in Germany. When his old friend Otto disappears, he begs the prime minister, but he is treated like a slave. Lotte later tells him that Otto "committed suicide". Hendrik goes on to stage Hamlet, another wild success. The prime minister congratulates him and invites him to see his brand new stadium, and asks him to run to the middle. Hendrik is blinded by the lights and wonders what else they want from an actor.

Redi Ezredes/ Colonel Redl (1984) is a period drama set in the 18th century's "Mitteleuropa", just before the start of World War I, about the rise and fall of a sneaky and ambitious officer all the way to his suicide. It is a diligent portrait but uninspired.

Alfred Redl, the child of a humble ethnic Ukrainian peasant family, is selected by the teachers to enter the military academy of the Austrian emperor and become an officer in the imperial army. The family is proud of him. The academy teaches the children discipline in brutal manners. He becomes good friend with the son of a wealthy Hungarian baron, Kristof, who introduces him to his family (and Alfred lies to them pretending to be from an aristocratic Ukrainian family) and saves him from punishment by reporting someone else when the children make a practical joke to a teacher. He stands out for loyalty to the emperor. Informed that his father has died, he demands to remain at the academy instead of attending his father's funeral so that he doesn't miss a religious ceremony for the emperor. Years later Alfred and Kristof are still close friends. They spend a night at a brothel where Alfred morbidly interrogates a prostitute about Kristof's sexual drive. Upon leaving the brothel, Kristof kisses him passionately on the mouth. Later, Alfred is told by his superior to get rid of a "mole" who writes articles under the moniker "Senior" that attack the army's corruption, Jaromil. He is also told that Kristof is not loyal enough to the emperor. When Alfred demands in front of all the officers that Jaromil resigns, Jaromil insults the imperial uniform by taking it off and throwing it at a Jewish doctor. The doctor, who is not a real soldier, challenges him to a duel. Jaromil, the third best shooter in the regiment, refuses to fight a Jew who doesn't even know how to shoot. Then Kristof challenges him to the duel and Jaromil accepts, confident that he can win. But Jaromil has lost interest in life and lets Kristof kills him. His superior reproaches Alfred for his role in the duel but then promotes him to major to reward his loyalty and efficiency, and sends him to the Russian frontier. His superior doesn't trust Kristof but Alfred is morbidly attached to his friend and asks the superior to be able to keep him in his team. Alfred courts Kristof's pretty sister Katalin, who is married but bored of her husband. During a ride in the woods they glimpse the emperor on a hunting trip and Alfred gets excited. Then they stop at a inn and have sex. Alfred enforces discipline at a garrison where too many officers are busy enjoying a life of fun and sex. There is clearly trouble in the army: an officer deserts to the Russians. Alfred assaults Kristof (a Hungarian) when Kristof calls the Austrian emperor "senile". Kristof is transferred back to the capital. Before leaving, Kristof drinks with friends against the emperor. They suspect that Alfred could be a Jew. Alfred, angry, becomes a persecutor of Jews. When his sister Soferl visits him, Alfred is ashamed and angry: clearly, he wants to hide his humble origins, and the sister is dressed like a poor woman from the countryside. Katalin tries in vain too convince him that the empire is rotten, but Alfred is loyal to the emperor. Alfred is promoted again, this time to a post that involves spying on fellow officers in order to detect the rotten apples. This creates enemies who spread the rumor that he is homosexual. His superior advises him to get married. On a romantic vacation in Italy, Katalin too advises him to find a wife. Alfred therefore marries Clarissa, but it is only a marriage of convenience. He doesn't love her and doesn't even want to have sex with her. During a meeting with the archduke, heir to the throne, he briefly runs into Kristof who coldly insults him for spying on fellow officers. The archduke, instead, is a cynical politician who senses that Alfred can be useful to undermine the regime and pave his way to the throne. When Alfred brings him five cases of corruption that amount to high treason, the archduke demands a scapegoat but ideally a Ukrainian: the five cases are about officers who belongs to groups that the archduke doesn't want to hurt. Alfred is asked to betray his own ethnic group. He obeys and finds a Ukrainian aristocrat who can be conveniently charged with treason. But during the search of his mansion, the Ukrainian aristocrat tries to escape and a soldier kills him. During the search of the mansion Alfred finds a note signed by Kristof. Alfred suspects that there is a plot to send secrets to the Russians. The archduke, however, gets angry at the insinuation and hints at the need for provoking a war in order to reform the country. Alfred finally understands that the archduke is plotting a coup against the emperor. He is disillusioned about the emperor. Meanwhile, the archduke has found the Ukrainian victim he needs: Alfred himself! With his wife in a sanatorium due to ill health, Alfred attends a masqued ball and senses that everybody is plotting. There he meets a young Italian homosexual officer, Alfredo. They ride horses in a snowy forest. He quickly realizes that the young man has been paid by the Russians to get national secrets out of him. ALfred pulls out a gun and pretends to kill the young man but instead gives him all the secrets that he wanted. He understood that he is the Ukrainian scapegoat that they are looking for. Katalin, who introduced him to the young man, tells Alfred that the young man mentioned being a friend of Kristof. Knowing that he is finished, Alfred walks into a church and prays. He is arrested a few hours later, as he expected. His old superior comes to see him but only to slaps him in the face. They send Kristof to tell him that he is supposed to plead guilty at the trial. Both Katalin and his wife Clarissa implore him to tell them what they want to hear. But Alfred chooses not to collaborate. The archduke fears a public trial at which Alfred could reveal secrets about them. He and other top offices discuss how to frame Alfred in public. Eventually they agree to force Kristof to commit suicide. Kristof is appointed to deliver the news and the pistol to Alfred. The archduke is assassinated shortly afterwards, an event that starts World War I.

Hanussen (1988) is another historical drama set in World War II.

Meeting Venus (1991), his first English-language film, is a comedy about the love story between a Hungarian conductor and an American opera diva.

Leaving aside his historical concerns, the melodrama Edes Emma Draga Bobe - Vazlatok Aktok/ Sweet Emma Dear Bobe - Sketches Nudes (1992) is a more authentic artistic work, a powerful psychological film noir about an innocent who, surrounded by corruption, is losing faith in her own old-fashioned moral values.

The pro-Russian communist regime has collapsed and life is rapidly being westernized in Hungary. Emma has a nightmare of rolling down a ravine. She wakes up. There is noise of a tram and of an airplane. She shares a room in a hostel with another girl, Bobe. Both are coming from the countryside and both are teachers of Russian at a nearby high school. That day Emma witnesses the children burning the books in the Russian language that are no longer required learning. She is distracted by the headmaster, a middle-aged man with whom she is having a relationship. He treats her coldly in public but she loves him madly. That night she goes to bed alone dreaming of walking in the woods with the man. Instead she hears her housemate making love with a man (we understand she's prostituting herself). Russian teachers are no longer needed, so Emma and Bobe are sent to study English in the evening. She brings a birthday present to the headmaster, who invites her to spend the weekend with him in the countryside, but at the same time is concerned about their future. On the tram the teachers have to listen to the rough vulgar language of a group of punks, while the older generation sits silent, well-dressed and well-behaved. On the way home she is attacked by a pervert who holds a knife at her but she manages to run away. At the police station she is interrogated and humiliated by a young cop who obviously has no interest in prosecuting the case. Emma, being a teacher of the Russian language, is snobbed and scorned by the other teachers. She is now teaching English to her class. The headmaster cancels their date because he has important meetings but hands her the keys to spend the weekend at the dacha with her housemate. In the wonderful cottage the two girls see traces of the man's married life. They play like children inside and outside. A small airplane flies over them. At night, however, Bobe tells Emma that she knows. She knows because the headmaster hit on her too, and told her about Emma wanting him. Her friend scolds Emma for being so gullible and romantic. Bobe is, instead, a cynical girl but they both have the same problem: they are desperate to find the right man. At first Emma calls Bobe a whore, but then they make peace. When the two girls are approached at a cafe by two German tourists, Bobe is ready to do anything with them but Emma runs away. Emma keeps having the nightmare of rolling down a ravine. Bobe reads an ad in the newspaper: a filmmaker is looking for extras. Bobe, Emma and some other friends decide to go. They have to undress for a bathing scene and dance. Emma is the only one who refuses to undress. The others want the money. She finally confronts the headmaster. He tells her that he can lose his job any time because he belongs to the old regime and the last thing he needs is a sex scandal. Rejected, she walks away but first leaves a flower on his car's windshield. He can't resist and lets her in. Emma cleans his parents' home and then visits her granma at the hospital. The old woman asks Emma to go and pray for her at the church. Emma walks to the church but, instead, prays for herself and her impossible love. Looking for Bobe around the hostel, Emma ends up in a party and meets a young male teacher, Szilard. They dance and hug tenderly. He takes her to his room. They have sex silently while his housemate waits outside till midnight. Returning to her room, Emma finds the police. They have arrested Bobe, her roommate for seven years, for prostitution and drugs. She is shocked to find out what, unconsciously, she has always suspected. The captain who interrogates her sounds more like a psychiatrist and a philosopher, intruding in her private life and private thoughts. When she returns to school, the headmaster asks her if she's a whore too, and she leaves crying. Then in class she loses her temper when the children make a dirty joke and she physically assaults one. Two months later Bobe returns. Emma has been assigned a new housemate. Bobe picks up her stuff, takes a shower without taking off her dress and then kills herself jumping off a window. An airplane takes off just like in the first scene. Emma runs downstairs and hugs the dying Bobe. Emma ends up selling newspapers in the subway.

The English-language A Napfeny Ize/ Sunshine (1999), a three-hour family saga, is a period drama that follows three generations of a Jewish family, a historical epic a` la Bertolucci's "1900" divided in three acts corresponding to the three protagonists played by Ralph Fiennes (grandfather, father and son). The film is haunted by an incestuous theme that seems to mirror the political destiny of Hungary, first part of the Austrian empire, then de-facto part of the Soviet empire. The first act is rather tedious and superficial, further sabotaged by clumsy editing. The events of half a century are briefly narrated and visualized without much psychological analysis. It's like flipping to someone's old diary and reading only one or two sentences per page. The first act is narrated more verbally than visually. The British accent and general British attitude of the actors do not help. The film feels like a BBC drama, but a boring one. The real protagonist is the turbulent history of Hungary throughout that century: that is a truly entertaining story, with so many fateful dates (1914, 1919, 1945,1953, 1956, 1989) especially when viewed from the eyes of the Jewish minority, that benefited of the rule of the Austrian Empire and suffered under the fascist dictatorship.

The narrator, a Jew, starts with his grandfather Emmanuel, who left the village in the Austro-Hungarian Empire after an explosion killed his parents Aaron and Josefa while distilling their herbal potion. Moving to the Hungarian capital Budapest, Emmanuel finds a wife, Rose, and money, thanks to the elixir (named "Sunshine") that becomes the brew into a successful business. They have two children, Ignatz and Gustave, and adopt an orphaned niece. Over time Ignatz falls in love with his cousin Valerie, despite the opposition of his parents and the jealousy of his brother. His father convinces him to move to Vienna and focus on his study. For a while he refused to reply to his cousin's letters, but she comes to visit him and a passionate love affair ensues in earnest. Ignatz graduates and becomes a judge. To advance his career, he has to change his Jewish name. So do his brother Gustave and his cousin and lover Valerie. Valerie gets pregnant and they decide to marry against the will of the parents. Ignatz accepts to cover up a political case in order to protect the reputation of the emperor. His brother Gustave instead advocates a socialist revolution. Valerie is more interested in Hungary's fate than in the bombastic and anachronistic Austro-Hungarian Empire. Valerie is still pregnant at the end of 1899 when the family celebrates the new century. Two children are born out of their marriage: Istvan and Adam (played again by the same actor who played Ignatz). Ignatz learns that his brother Gustave is involved in a conspiracy to overthrow the monarchy. They have a heated argument in which Ignatz defends the monarchy and Gustave accuses it of oppressing the people. Gustave then falls gravely ill but recovers quickly. Both brothers enlist in the Austro-Hungarian army as officers during World War I. Ignatz does not see his wife nor his children for four years. He is still away when his father dies. He is sad that the empire loses the war and gets dismantled. His wife Valerie feels frustrated and decides to leave him. In 1919 the communists seize power in Hungary. Ignatz loses his job while Gustave becomes a powerful official. Valerie returns when she hears of Ignatz's disgrace. Arguments flare up between Valerie and Ignatz's mother, who has never forgiven her. Ignatz dies and his mother dies. Valerie raises the children, Istvan and Adam (played by the same actor who played Ignatz). They both join a fencing club. Adam, in particular, becomes a national champion, while Valerie becomes a famous photographer. An Italian general invites him to join the officer's club but the condition is that he must convert to Catholicism. Valerie, who is more loyal to Hungary than to Judaism, encourages him to convert. At the conversion ritual Adam meets Hannah, who is engaged to a Catholic. Adam invites her to dinner and tells her that he loves her. Adam is trained to win and is determined to win her over. He succeeds, she dumps her fiance, and they get married and have one son, Ivan. Adam wins twice the national fencing championship and leads the national team to the Olympic games in Nazi Germany. Istvan's wife Greta seduces him with an animal determination. He tries to resist her, feeling remorse towards his brother, but eventually they become lovers. The country enacts anti-Semitic laws, but Adam is spared because he is a national hero. However, the fencing club excludes him. Greta wants him to flee the country, but Adam reacts dumping her. Greta, terrified by the anti-Semitic mood, invokes the entire family, including Valerie, to apply for the visa to emigrate. Adam, on the other hand, is convinced that things will improve. When the family finally listens to her, it is too late and they can't get the visas. Germany occupies Hungary, Valerie and Hannah are locked into the Ghetto, Valerie escapes, Adam and his son Ivan are deported to a concentration camp. Adam is stripped naked and tortured to death (in front of his son Ivan) for refusing to humiliate himself. He keeps repeating that he is a Hungarian officer until the last moment. Gustave is safe because he is in exile in France. Istvan, Greta and their son are summarily executed by the Nazis and their bodies are dumped in the river. Hannah too dies in a concentration camp. When the Soviet Union liberates Hungary, the only survivor of the two families is Ivan (played again by the same actor who played Istvan), who is the narrator of the film. Valerie and Gustave welcome him back, but Gustave accuses him: his father Adam was killed by three Nazi guards in front of two thousand Jews. Gustave makes Adam feel guilty because he didn't do anything to save his father. Adam, determined to take his revenge against the fascists, enlists into the secret police of the new communist regime and persecutes the people who collaborated with the Nazis. Ivan is placed in charge of persecuting Jews suspected of plotting against the communist regime, including his own boss and friend. When Ivan refuses to find him guilty, the party assigns someone else to extort a confession from the poor victim. Luckily his own uncle Gustave dies before Ivan gets to investigate him. Meanwhile, he has an affair with Carole, the wife of a party boss. Stalin dies, Ivan realizes the brutality of the communist regime after burying his former boss and friend who has been tortured to death, leaves the secret police, and becomes a leader of the failed anti-communist revolution of 1956, for which he spends a few years in prison. Released (but without the watch that belonged to his great-grandfather), Ivan returns to live with his grandmother Valerie. He helps her search for the legendary recipe of great-grandfather's elixir. She has a heart attack and dies before they can find it, repeating the family's original Jewish name. While throwing away the old furniture, Ivan finds an old letter written by Emmanuel to his son, Ivan's grandfather. Ivan changes his name back to the family's original Jewish name. His narration ends with the fall of the Soviet Union.

Szembesites/ Taking Sides (2001), an adaptation of Ronald Harwood's play "Taking Sides" (1995), is based on the controversial life of Berlin's classical music conductor Wilhelm Furtwangler.

During World War II a minister of the Nazi government encourages a conductor to leave Germany in order to escape the frequent bombings. The war ends with the defeat of Germany and the USA is occupying West Germany. A general shows Steve, a former insurance agent who is now a major, footage of German conductor Furtwaengler and tells Steve that all Germans are guilty of cooperating with Hitler and the great Furtwaengler no less than ordinary ones, except that the conductor was allowed to immigrate to the USA. He wants Steve to prove that Furtwaengler connived with the Nazis. After watching footage of the extermination camps, Steve has nightmares. Passers-by watch as US troops remove symbols of Nazi power from a palace and turn it into a US military office. Steve is given a German secretary, Emmaline, daughter of a German officer executed for plotting against Hitler, and an assistant, David, a German-born Jew who emigrated to the USA. Steve rudely interrogates some distinguished members of the orchestra, all of which swear that they were never members of the Nazi party, all of which testify that the conductor refused to give the Nazi salute to Hitler and all of which pay tribute to the memory of Emmaline's father. A Russian official wants Furtwaengler to conduct a Russian orchestra and begs Steve to drop the investigation. Meanwhile, Steve learns that the British discovered a secret archive of Nazi documents about every major artist. Furtwaengler takes a regular tram to go to the interview. He is banned from public life awaiting the outcome of the investigation. Steve treats him like a regular suspect, not like an important artist. Steve asks him why he accepted honorific titles from the Nazi regime and he replies that he didn't ask for those titles and in any case he eventually resigned. Steve asks him why he performed on several Nazi occasions and Furtwaengler defends his decisions. Steve asks him why he escaped to Switzerland and he says that he had guessed that they were about to arrest him when the minister advised him to move abroad (the first scene of the film). Furtwaengler protests that he is still under investigation while the other famous conductor, Herbert von Karajan, has already been cleared, and leaves the room. Steve is granted access to the secret files discovered by the British. The Russian official approaches Furtwaengler during a concert held in a bombed roof-less church and offers help if he accepts to move to Russia. Emmaline and David are there too and overhear the conversation. Steve intrude on a date between Emmaline and David at the army club. Steve finds the file on a second violinist that has testified in favor of the conductor. He was forced to join the Nazi party because he had been a communist. Steve offers the man a plea deal if he helps nail Furtwaengler. The violinist tells Steve about the dark side of the conductor: he is an anti-Semite, he once sent a telegram to Hitler, music critics were punished by the regime for critizing him, he was madly jealous of Von Karajan, and he seduced several women. Meanwhile, the defense attorney approaches David and asks for collaboration, and David looks for names of people that Furtwaengler helped escape abroad. Steve eats and drinks with the Russian official who takes Furtwaengler's side and tries to explain the psychology of a German citizen who decides to stay even if the regime is horrible. Again, he begs Steve to stop investigating, but Steve is obsessed with bringing Furtwaengler to justice. Emmaline, too, is beginning to resent the way Steve treats a national legend like Furtwaengler. Furtwaengler denies ever sending a telegram to Hitler, ever taking revenge against music critics, As Steve interrogates Furtwaengler in a vicious manner, and humiliates him, David stands up to defend him. David and Emmaline are clearly beginning to resent the whole thing. Emmaline quits. David asks Steve to treat the great conductor with more respect, but Steve is shocked that a Jew would not stand up against the Germans who killed Jews. Steve is more haunted and outraged by the holocaust than David. David talks Emmaline to return to work. Steve brings back Furtwaengler and confronts him about his anti-Semitic statements. David, again, stands up to defend him, showing evidence that Furtwaengler helped several Jews; but Steve thinks that Furtwaengler simply pretended. Emmaline herself stands up to remark that her father revolted against Hitler when it became obvious that Germany could not win the war, implying that even those who plotted against Hitler were doing it for a patriotic ideal. Steve sees him and even German classical music in general as representing the crimes of the nation. David, again, stands up to defend him, showing evidence that Furtwaengler helped several Jews; but Steve thinks that Furtwaengler simply pretended. In a last gesture of dissent, David plays a record of Furtwaengler conducting Beethoven so loud that Steve cannot talk on the phone of the case. The film ends with Steve's voiceover informing us that Furtwaengler was acquitted and resumed his profession, but was never allowed to conduct in the USA. The film ends with historical footage of the Furtwaengler shaking hands with Goebbels... and then wiping his hands with a handkerchief.

Being Julia (2004) is an adaptation of Somerset Maugham's 1937 novel "Theater".

Rokonok/ Relatives (2006), based on Zsigmond Moricz's 1932 novel, is another allegorical political drama.

Az Ajto/ The Door (2012) is an adaptation of Magda Szabo's novel "Az Ajto/ The Door" (1987).

The fundamental theme of his films remained memory, but at the individual level and at the collective level.

(Copyright © 2003 Piero Scaruffi | Terms of use )