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| An appendix to the Bibliography on Mind
All of these events are explained in my book "Intelligence is not Artificial".
Slide presentation "AI and the Singularity"
TM, ®, Copyright © 1996-2019 Piero Scaruffi except pictures. All rights reserved.
2010: The first ImageNet challenge
2010: Demis Hassabis, Shane Legg and Mustafa Suleyman found DeepMind
2010: The New York stock market is shut down after algorithmic trading has wiped out a trillion dollars within a few seconds.
2010: James Kuffner coins the term "cloud robotics"
2010: Daniela Rus' "Programmable Matter by Folding"
2010: Lola Canamero's Nao, a robot that can show its emotions
2011: Nick D'Aloisio releases the summarizing tool Trimit (later Summly) for smartphones
2011: Dong Yu's speech recognition using deep learning
2011: IBM's Watson debuts on a tv show
2011: Osamu Hasegawa's SOINN-based robot that learns functions it was not programmed to do
2012: Rodney Brooks' hand programmable robot "Baxter"
2012: The Open Source Robotics Foundation is launched
2012: Andrew Ng's team demonstrates an unsupervised neural network that recognizes cats in videos
2012: Alex Krizhevsky and Ilya Sutskever from the University of Toronto demonstrate that deep learning outperforms traditional approaches to computer vision processing 200 billion images during training (AlexNet)
2013: Nal Kalchbrenner's and Phil Blunsom's "sequence to sequence" learning
2013: Volodymyr Mnih's Deep Q-Networks
2013: Max Welling's and Diederik Kingma's variational autoencoders
2013: Tomas Mikolov's Word2vec
2013: Yangqing Jia develops the deep-learning platform Caffe
2013: Ross Girshick's Region-based Convolutional Neural Networks (R-CNN)
2013: Piero Scaruffi's book "Intelligence is not Artificial"
2014: Vladimir Veselov's and Eugene Demchenko's program Eugene Goostman, which simulates a 13-year-old Ukrainian boy, passes the Turing test at the Royal Society in London
2014: Karen Simonyan's and Andrew Zisserman's VGG-16
2014: Kyunghyun Cho's encoder-decoder model and gated recurrent units (GRUs)
2014: Christian Szegedy's GoogLeNet
2014: Volodymyr Mnih's recurrent attention model (RAM)
2014: Ian Goodfellow's generative adversarial networks
2014: Alex Graves' LSTM without Hidden Markov Models for speech recognition
2014: Ilya Sutskever and Oriol Vinyals use a recurrent neural network to improve machine translation at Google ("Sequence to Sequence Learning with Neural Networks")
2014: Microsoft introduces the text chatbot Xiaoice in China
2014: Andrey Karpathy's and Fei-Fei Li's computer vision algorithm that can describe photos ("Deep Visual-Semantic Alignments for Generating Image Descriptions", 2014)
2014: Alex Graves, Greg Wayne and Ivo Danihelka publish a paper on "Neural Turing Machines"
2014: Jason Weston, Sumit Chopra and Antoine Bordes publish a paper on "Memory Networks"
2014: Microsoft's Skype demonstrates a real-time spoken language translation system
2014: Google buys DeepMind, founded by Demis Hassabis and Shane Legg
2015: Baidu's Deep Speech 2 that uses a GRU instead of a LSTM and no HMM
2015: Francois Chollet develops the deep-learning platform Keras
2015: Microsoft's 152-layer Residual Net
2015: Rajat Monga's team develops the deep-learning platform TensorFlow
2015: Seiya Tokui develops the deep-learning platform Chainer
2015: Over 1,000 high-profile Artificial Intelligence scientists sign an open letter calling for a ban on "offensive autonomous weapons"
2015: Leon Gatys, Alexander Ecker and Matthias Bethge's "A Neural Algorithm of Artistic Style"
2015: Alec Radford's deep convolutional generative adversarial networks
2016: Ronen Eldan and Ohad Shamir prove that "depth can be exponentially more valuable than width"
2016: DeepMind's AlphaGo, developed by Aja Huang, beats Go master Lee Se-dol
2016: Kaiming He's ResNet with identity mappings of 1001 layers
2016: Jianpeng Cheng's and Mirella Lapata's self-attention
2017: Google's "transformer" model for sentence analysis (Ashish Vaswani, Noam Shazeer, Jakob Uszkoreit)
2017: DeepMind's AlphaGo Zero and AlphaZero
2017: Alexei Efros' team generates images from sketches with Pix2pix
2017: More than 100 variants of generative adversarial networks are introduced in 2017
2017: Linguee launches the free translator DeepL
2017: John Schulman's proximal policy optimization for reinforcement learning
2018: Ali Eslami's and Danilo Rezende's Generative Query Network - GQN
2018: OpenAI's OpenAI Five
2018: Xiaolong Wang's nonlocal neural networks
2018: Jeremy Howard's and Sebastian Ruder's ULMFiT
2018: David Duvenaud's Neural ODEs
2018: Jacob Devlin's BERT for reading comprehension
2019: OpenAI's GPT2 creates convincing articles
2019: DeepMind's AlphaStar wins against 99.8% of its human opponents at the videogame StarCraft II
2020: OpenAI's GPT3
2020: Daniel Adiwardana's and Thang Luong's chatbot Meena at Google
2021: Google's AlphaFold solves the protein structure prediction problem for single protein chains
2021: OpenAI's DALL-E
2022: OpenAI's ChatGPT