Hubert Dreyfus:
WHAT COMPUTERS CAN'T DO (Harper & Row, 1979)

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The second edition of the book that started the anti-artificial intelligence movement.
Inspired by Husserl's phenomenology (intelligence as a context-determined, goal-directed activity), Dreyfus thinks that comprehension can never do without the context in which it occurs. The information in the environment is fundamental for a being's intelligence. Dreyfus reviews ten years of research and failures in artificial intelligence and proves that the four fundamental assumptions, biological (that the brain must operate as a symbolic processor), psychological (that the mind must obey a heuristic program), epistemological (that there must be a theory of practical activity) grounds, and ontological (that the data necessary for intelligent behavior must be discrete, expliciti and determinate), are not plausible.
Dreyfus emphasizes the role of the body in intelligent behavior and that human experience is intelligible only when organized in terms of a situation (as a function of human needs).
The introduction to the second edition takes on Minsky's frames and Schank's scripts, two noveties that apparently meet Husserl's criteria for intelligence (in that they perform search for anticipated facts). But they too assume that the context is a set of rigidly defined situations, while in reality the context cannot be separated from the rest of our everyday's lives.

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