Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
My book on Consciousness
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(Copyright © 2000 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions )
Haken, Hermann: SYNERGETICS (Springer-Verlag, 1977)
Halpern, Diane: THOUGHT AND KNOWLEDGE (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995)
Halpern, Mark: BINDING TIME (Ablex, 1990)
Hamblin, Charles: IMPERATIVES (Basil Blackwell, 1987)
Hameroff, Stuart: ULTIMATE COMPUTING: BIOMOLECULAR CONSCIOUSNESS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY (Elsevier Science, 1987)
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Hameroff, Stuart: QUANTUM COMPUTING IN MICROTUBULES - AN INTRA-NEURAL CORRELATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS?
Hamilton, Ternell: PROCESS AND PATTERN IN EVOLUTION (MacMillan, 1967)
Hamilton thinks that evolution is accelerated by parasites. Organisms adopted sexual reproduction in order to cope with invasions of parasites. Life is a symbiotic process which necessitates of competitors.
Hamilton, William Donald: NARROW ROADS OF GENE LAND (W.H. Freeman, 1996)
Hampson, Peter & Morris, Peter: UNDERSTANDING COGNITION (Blackwell, 1995)
Hanson, Norwood: PATTERNS OF DISCOVERY (Cambridge Univ Press, 1958)
Hardcastle, Valerie: LOCATING CONSCIOUSNESS (John Benjamins, 1995)
Hardin, Larry: COLOR FOR PHILOSOPHERS (Hackett, 1988)
Harris, Sam: "Free Will" (Free Press, 2012)
Harris, MaryDee: INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (Prentice Hall, 1985)
Harth, Erich: CREATIVE LOOP (Addison-Wesley, 1993)
Hassoun Mohamad: FUNDAMENTALS OF ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS (MIT Press, 1995)
Hassoun, Mohamad: ASSOCIATIVE NEURAL MEMORIES (Oxford, 1993)
Haugeland, John: MIND DESIGN II (MIT Press, 1997)
Haugeland, John: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (MIT Press, 1985)
Hauser, Marc: THE EVOLUTION OF COMMUNICATION (MIT Press, 1996)
Hawkins, Jeff: ON INTELLIGENCE (Henry Holt, 2004)
Hayes-Roth Frederick: BUILDING EXPERT SYSTEMS (Addison Wesley, 1983)
Hayles, Katherine: "How We Became Post-Human" (1999)
Haykin, Simon: NEURAL NETWORKS (Macmillan, 1994)
Hebb, Donald: ESSAY ON MIND (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1980)
Hebb, Donald: THE ORGANIZATION OF BEHAVIOR (John Wiley, 1949)
Hecht-Nielsen, Robert: NEUROCOMPUTING (Addison-Wesley, 1989)
Hecht-Nielsen uses Kolmogorov's theorem to demonstrate that for every function there exists a three-layer neural net which can compute its values.
Heidegger, Martin: BEING AND TIME (1962)
Heil, John: PHILOSOPHY OF MIND (Routledge, 1998)
Heil, John: PERCEPTION AND COGNITION (Univ of California Press, 1983)
The class of perceptual objects for a perceiving agent is determined by 1. the agent's sensory system (which is sensitive to some environmental stimuli and not others, and even for those stimuli it is tuned to detect only some high-order features) and 2. the agent's set of concepts, or perceptual beliefs.
Heil has modified Dretske's theory by assuming, with Kant, that the transition from analogic to digital is made possible by concepts that are innate in the agent.
Herbert, Nick: ELEMENTAL MIND (Dutton, 1993)
Herbert, Nick: FASTER THAN LIGHT: SUPERLUMINAL LOOPHOLES IN PHYSICS (Dutton, 1988)
Herbert, Nick: QUANTUM REALITY: BEYOND THE NEW PHYSICS (Doubleday, 1985)
Hertz, John, Krogh Anders & Palmer Richard: INTRODUCTION TO THE THEORY OF NEURAL COMPUTATION (Addison-Wesley, 1990)
Hewitt, Carl: TOWARDS OPEN INFORMATION SCIENCE (MIT Press, 1990)
The main property of such systems is their "deductive indecisiveness": since many agents compete for the same resources in parallel, the state of the world at any time is indeterminate. The distributed system can only exhibit "global coherence".
Heyting, Arend: INTUITIONISM (North Holland, 1956)
Hintikka, Jaakko: KNOWLEDGE AND BELIEF (Cornell Univ Press, 1962)
Hintikka, Jaakko THE INTENTIONS OF INTENTIONALITY (Reidel, 1975)
Propositional attitudes can be interpreted using possible worlds and an "alternativeness" relation. Alternatives are relative to an attitude, an agent and the world in which the agent has that attitude. The sentence "a believes that p" can be therefore interpreted as "a believes that p is true in a world if and only if p is true in all the alternatives to that world".
Following Gibson's biological theory, Hintikka argues that perception is intentional because it is informational. Possible-world semantics is advanced as a promising candidate for a general theory of intentionality.
Hintikka, Jaakko: THE GAME OF LANGUAGE (Reidel, 1983)
The existence of a winning strategy for either player can be expressed in the form of a higher-order sentence. This sentence asserts the existence of the relevant Skolem functions. Game-theoretical semantics is therefore a translation of first-order languages into higher-order languages. Game-theoretical semantics can be easily extended to intensional logic as a successive step to possible-world semantics. The transition to natural languages is performed by substituting proper names for entire quantifier phrases. In natural languages the application of game rules is governed by second-order principles.
Hintikka, Jaakko: LOGIC OF EPISTEMOLOGY (Kluwer Academics, 1989)
Hintikka, Jaakko & Sandu Gabriel: ON THE METHODOLOGY OF LINGUISTICS (Blackwell, 1990)
Hintikka, Jaakko: ASPECTS OF METAPHOR (Kluwer Academics, 1994)
Hinton, Geoffrey & Anderson James: PARALLEL MODELS OF ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989)
D. Willshaw's "Holography, associative memory and inductive generalization" notes similarities between neural networks and holograms (such as information is not localized but spread over the entire system).
Hirst, William: MAKING OF COGNITIVE SCIENCE (Cambridge, 1988)
Hobbs, Jerry & Moore, Robert: FORMAL THEORIES OF THE COMMONSENSE WORLD (Ablex Publishing, 1985)
Pat Hayes' "The Naive Physics Manifesto" defines "measure space" for each quantity (length, weight, date, temperature) as a space in which an ordering relationship holds. Measurement spaces are usually conceived as discrete spaces, even if the quantities they measure are in theory continous. In common use things like birth dates, temperatures, distances, heights and weights are always rounded. Unlike McCarthy's situations, Hayes' "histories" (connected pieces of space-time) have a restricted spatial extent, thereby avoiding some of the inconveniences of situations. Hayes' logistic approach was very influential in formalizing and axiomatizing common sense knowledge.
The elementary unit of measure for common sense is not the point, but the interval. Which interval makes sense depends on the domain: history is satisfied with years (and sometimes centuries), but birth dates require the day and track and fields races need tenths of seconds.
The relationships between intervals differ from relationships between points. Two intervals can partially overlap. An interval can be open or closed. Points require Physics' differential equations, but intervals can be handled with a logic of time that deals with their ordering relationship.
The book includes Johan DeKleer's "A Qualitative Physics Based on Confluences", Robert Moore's "A Formal Theory of Knowledge and Action" and James Allen's "A Model of Naive Temporal Reasoning".
Allen's representation of time is based on intervals, not instants. Intervals may be related in several ways: one being before, after or equal to another.
Hobson, Allan: THE CHEMISTRY OF CONSCIOUS STATES (Little & Brown, 1994)
Hobson, Allan: DREAMING AS DELIRIUM (MIT Press, 1999)
Hobson, Allan: THE DREAMING BRAIN (Basic, 1989)
Hoffmeyer, Jesper: SIGNS OF MEANING IN THE UNIVERSE (Indiana Univ. Press, 1996)
Hofstadter, Douglas: FLUID CONCEPTS AND CREATIVE ANALOGIES (Basic, 1995)
Hofstadter Douglas & Dennett Daniel: THE MIND'S I (Bantam, 1982)
Hofstadter, Douglas: GODEL ESCHER BACH (Vintage, 1980)
Hofstadter, Douglas: I AM A STRANGE LOOP (Basic, 2007)
Hogan, James-Patrick: Mind Matters; Exploring the World of Artificial Intelligence (Del Rey, 1998)
Holland John et al: INDUCTION (MIT Press, 1986)
Classifier systems are message-passing variants of production systems. A classifier system learns syntactically rules (or "classifiers") to guide its performance in the environment. A classifier system consists of three main components: a production system, a credit system (such as the "bucket brigade") and a genetic algorithm to generate new rules.
Analogical reasoning is considered as a special case of induction.
Holland, John Henry: ADAPTATION IN NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL SYSTEMS (MIT Press, 1992)
Holland, John: HIDDEN ORDER (Addison Wesley, 1995)
Horgan, John: THE END OF SCIENCE (Broadway, 1996)
Hughes, Howard: SENSORY EXOTICA (MIT Press, 1999)
Humphrey, Nicholas: CONSCIOUSNESS REGAINED (Oxford Univ Press, 1983)
Consciousness provides humans with an explanatory model of their own behavior. Psychological skills are a biologically adaptive trait in human beings: the best psychologists are the best survivors. The best psychologists are those who have the widest range of personal experience.
Humphrey, Nicholas: A HISTORY OF THE MIND (Simon & Schuster, 1993)
Humphrey claims that to be conscious is to feel sensations, as opposed to perceptions. Sensations are to be found at the boundary between the organism and the world and at the boundary of past and future. One "senses" a circle of light hitting the retina; one "perceives" the sun in the sky. One can have sensations about perceptions and perceptions about sensations. Animals have developed two ways of representing the interaction between the body and the world: affect-laden sensations and affect-neutral perceptions.
Sensation and perception are separate and parallel forms of representation. Consciousness is about sensation. Humphrey develops a theory of sensations, feelings and actions. The last stage of the evolutionary journey is a "sensory reverberating feedback loop" within the brain. Then consciousness arises.
Humphreys, Glyn: UNDERSTANDING VISION (Blackwell, 1992)
Hutchinson, George Evelyn: AN INTRODUCTION TO POPULATION ECOLOGY (Yale University Press, 1978)
The whole theory is based on two postulates: the principle of abiogenesis (every living organism has originated from at least one parent of like kind to itself, "omne vivum ex vivo"); and the postulate of upper limit (there is an upper limit to the number of beings that can utilize a given finite space). They are both reflected in Verhulst's "logistic", a mathematical model for a continously growing population with an upper limit. There exist a number of variants of the original logistic, mainly to take into account factors such as competition and coexistence.
Any sulf-sustaining biological community must include on population of photosynthetic plants at its lower level. Herbivores feed on this level and form a new level, on which primary carnivores feed and form a new level, on which secondary carnivores feed, etc. Each level is smaller (not only in number but also in biomass) than the lower one, thereby originating a pyramidal structure.
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