Additions to the Bibliography on Mind and Consciousness
compiled by Piero Scaruffi
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Kafatos, Menas & Nadeau Robert: CONSCIOUS UNIVERSE (Springer Verlag, 1990)
Kaku, Michio: "Hyperspace" (Oxford University Press, 1994)
Kaku, Michio: "The Future of the Mind" (Doubleday, 2014)
Kandell Abraham: FUZZY MATHEMATICAL TECHNIQUES (Addison Wesley, 1986)
Kanerva Pentti: SPARSE DISTRIBUTED MEMORY (MIT Press, 1988)
Most of the study is a computational analysis of the feasibility of a very large address space whose units of address decoding are linear threshold functions (neurons).
Kaplan David: THEMES FROM KAPLAN (Oxford Univ Press, 1989)
Indexicals include the personal pronouns, the demonstrative pronouns, some adverbs ("here", "now", "tomorrow"), etc, i.e. words whose referent depends on the context of use (whose meaning provides a rule which determines the referent in terms of the context). The logic of demonstratives, based on first-order predicate logic, is a theory of word meaning, not speaker's meaning, based on linguistic rules shared by all linguistic users.
Indexicals are "directly referential", i.e. refer directly to individuals without the mediation of Fregean sense (unlike nonindexical definite descriptions, which denote their referent through their sense). Kaplan's indexicals are similar to Kripke's "rigid designators", expressions that designate the same thing in every possible world in which they exist and designate nothing elsewhere. Indexicals provide directly that the referent in every circumstance is fixed to be the actual referent. In Kaplan's case, though, the expression is the "device" of direct reference.
Kaplan distinguishes between the "character" of a linguistic expression (its grammatical meaning, i.e. what the hearer learns when she learns the meaning of that expression) and its "content" in a context (the proposition, the primary bearer of truth-values, the object of thought). Indexicals have a context-sensitive character, nonindexicals have a fixed character. Characters are functions that map contexts into contents.
The theory of direct reference for indexicals includes: the language system (to which meanings and characters belong), the contexts of uses (through which referents are assigned to expressions) and the circumstances of evaluation (at which truth-values are allocated to sentential referents).
Karmiloff-Smith Annette: BEYOND MODULARITY (MIT Press, 1992)
Kastner, Ruth: "The Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" (Cambridge Univ Press, 2013)
Katz Jerrold: THE METAPHYSICS OF MEANING (MIT Press, 1990)
Katz replaces Frege's referentially defined notion of sense with a notion defined in terms of sense properties and relations internal to the grammar of the language, thereby accomplishing a separation of sense structure and logical structure (a separation of grammatical meaning from reference and use).
Katz thinks that words' meaning can be decomposed in atoms of meaning that are universal for all languages.
This may well be the most detailed critique ever of Wittgenstein's thought.
Katz Jerrold: AN INTEGRATED THEORY OF LINGUISTIC DESCRIPTIONS (MIT Press, 1964)
Katz Jerrold: THE PHILOSOPHY OF LANGUAGE (Harper & Row, 1966)
Katz Jerrold: SEMANTIC THEORY (Harper & Row, 1972)
"The logical form of a sentence is identical with its meaning as determined compositionally from the senses of its lexical items and the grammatical relations between its syntactic constituents."
Kaufmann Arnold & Gupta Madan: INTRODUCTION TO FUZZY ARITHMETICS (Van Nostrand Reinhold)
Kauffman Stuart: THE ORIGINS OF ORDER (Oxford University Press, 1993)
Kauffman Stuart: AT HOME IN THE UNIVERSE (Oxford Univ Press, 1995)
Kauffman Stuart: REINVENTING THE SACRED (Basic, 2008)
Kaye Jonathan: PHONOLOGY (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1989)
Kearns Michael & Varizani Umesh: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL LEARNING THEORY (MIT Press, 1994)
Keenan, Julian: THE FACE IN THE MIRROR (2003)
Keil Frank: SEMANTIC AND CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT (Harvard Univ Press, 1979)
Keil Frank: CONCEPTS, KINDS AND COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT ( (Cambridge University Press, 1989)
In contrast with stage-based developmental theories, Keil argues for the continuity of cognition across development. Continuity is enforced by native constraints on developmental directions.
Perceptual procedures through which objects are categorized are not part of the categories: an animal is a skunk if its mother is a skunk regardless of what it looks like.
Keil refines Quine's ideas. Natural kinds are not defined by a set of features or by a prototype: they derive their concept from the causal structure that underlies them and explains their superficial features. They are defined by a "causal homeostatic system", which tends to stability over time in order to maximize categorizing. Nominal kinds (e.g., "odd numbers") and artifacts (e.g., "cars") are similarly defined by the theories they are embedded in, although such theories are qualitatively different. There is a continuum between pure nominal kinds and pure natural kinds with increasing well-definedness as we move towards natural kinds. What develops over time is the awareness of the network of causal relations and mechanisms that are responsible for a natural kind's essential properties. The theory explaining a natural kind gets refined over the years.
Keller, Evelyn: THE CENTURY OF THE GENE (Harvard Univ Press, 2000)
Kelso Scott & Mandell Arnold: DYNAMIC PATTERNS IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS (World Scientific, 1988)
Hermann Haken discusses the dualism between pattern recognition and pattern formation.
Kelso shows that the brain exhibits processes of self-organization that obey to nonlinear dynamics features (multistability, abrupt phase transitions, crises and intermittency). The human behavior is therefore also subject to nonlinear dynamics.
Kelso Scott: DYNAMIC PATTERNS (MIT Press, 1995)
Kessel Frank: SELF AND CONSCIOUSNESS (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1993)
Kim Jaegwon: MIND IN A PHYSICAL WORLD (MIT Press, 1998)
Kim Jaegwon: SUPERVENIENCE AND MIND (Cambridge University Press, 1993)
The world has a structure: the existence of an object and its properties depend on, or are determined by, the existence and the properties of other objects. With Hume, "causation is the cement of the universe". Supervenience is a type of relation between objects that occurs between their properties: if two individuals are alike in all their physical properties, then they must be alike also in their nonphysical properties, i.e. the set of valuational (nonphysical) properties supervenes on the set of nonvaluational (physical) ones.
"Supervenience" theory assumes that objects with the same physical properties also exhibit the same mental properties. A causal relation between two states can be explained both in mental terms and in physical terms. The mental and the physical interact only to guarantee consistence. The mental supervenes on the physical, just like the macroscopic properties of objects supervene on their microscopic structures.
In general, supervenience is a relation between two sets of properties over a single domain (e.g., mental and physical properties over the domain of organisms). Weak supervenience occurs when indiscernibility with respect to a class of properties entails indiscernibility with respect to another class of properties. Strong supervenience claims that if individuals share the same physical properties, then they must share the same mental properties. Global supervenience occurs when worlds that are indiscernible with respect to an individual are also indiscernible with respect to another individual.
Kim is a physicalist (the world is a physical world governed by physical laws) and a mental realist (mentality is a real feature of the world and has the power to cause events of the world). His goal is to understand how the mind can "cause" anything in the physical world.
Kirkham Richard: THEORIES OF TRUTH (MIT Press, 1992)
Kirschner, Mark and Gerhart, John: THE PLAUSIBILITY OF LIFE (2005)
Kitchener Robert: PIAGET'S THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE (Yale University Press, 1986)
Kittay Eva: METAPHOR (Clarendon Press, 1987)
Klahr David: PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS OF LEARNING AND DEVELOPMENT (MIT Press, 1987)
Kleene Stephen: INTRODUCTION TO METAMATHEMATICS (North-Holland, 1964)
Koch Christof: "Consciousness" (MIT Press, 2012)
Koch Christof: THE QUEST FOR CONSCIOUSNESS (Roberts, 2003)
Kodratoff Yves: INTRODUCTION TO MACHINE LEARNING (Morgan Kaufman, 1988)
Klopf Harry: THE HEDONISTIC NEURON (Hemisphere, 1982)
In his neural model cognition and emotion cohexist and complement each other. Emotion provides the sense of what organisms need. Cognition provides the means for achieving those needs.
Koestler Arthur: THE GHOST IN THE MACHINE (Henry Regnery, 1967)
Kohonen Teuvo: ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY (Springer Verlag, 1977)
Kohonen Teuvo: SELF-ORGANIZATION AND ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY (Springer Verlag, 1984)
Kohonen built a psychologically-plausible model of how the brain represents topographically the world, with nearby units responding similarly. His model is therefore capable of self-organizing in regions.
Kohonen's connectionist architecture, inspired by Malsburg's studies on self-organization of cells in the cerebral cortex, is able to perform unsupervised training, i.e. it learns categories by itself.
Instead of using Hebb's learning, Kohonen assumes that the overall synaptic resources of a cell are approximately constant and what changes is the relative efficacies of the synapses. A neural network has learned a new concept when the weights of connections converge towards a stable configuration. This model exhibits mathematical properties that set it apart: the layering of neurons plays a specific role (the wider the intermediate layer, the faster but the more approximate the process of categorization).
A variant of Hebb's law yields competitive behavior.
Kohonen also reviews classical learning systems (Adaline, Perceptron) and holographic memories.
Kohonen Teuvo: SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS (Springer Verlag, 1995)
Kolmogorov Andrei: SELECTED WORKS (Reidel, 1998)
Kolodner Janet & Riesbeck Christopher: EXPERIENCE, MEMORY, AND REASONING (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1986)
Kolodner Janet: CASE-BASED REASONING (Morgan Kaufmann, 1993)
Kolodner Janet: RETRIEVAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES IN CONCEPTUAL MEMORY (Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984)
Kosko Bart: NEURAL NETWORKS AND FUZZY SYSTEMS (Prentice Hall, 1992)
Kosko Bart: FUZZY THINKING (Hyperion, 1993)
Even probability theory still assumes that properties are crisp. And probability (according to Kosko's "subsethood" theorem) can be interpreted as a measure of how much the whole (the space of all events) is contained in the part (the event). Kosko shows how logical paradoxes such as Russell's can be interpreted as "half truths" in the context of fuzzy logic. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle (the more a quantity is accurately determined, the less accurately a conjugate quantity can be determined, which holds for position and momentum, time and energy) can be reduced to the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality (which is related to Pythagora's theorem, which is in turn related to the subsethood theorem).
Applications such as fuzzy associative memories, adaptive fuzzy systems and fuzzy cognitive maps are discussed at length.
Kosko even discusses why the universe exists (because otherwise the fuzzy entropy theorem would exhibit a singularity) and speculates that the universe is information and maybe God himself is information.
Too much autobiography and too many references to eastern religion try to make the book more accessible but probably merely detract from the subject.
Kosslyn Stephen: IMAGE AND MIND (Harvard University Press, 1980)
Based on numerous psychological experiments, Kosslin maintains that mental imagery is pictorial in character, i.e. that mental imagery involves scanning an internal picture-like entity. Mental images can be inspected and classified using pretty much the same processes used to inspect and classify visual perceptions.
To explain the structure of mental imagery Kosslyn puts forth a representational theory of the mind of a "depictive" type, as opposed to Fodor's propositional theory and related to Johnson-Laird's models. Kosslyn thinks that the mind can build visual representations, which are coded in parts of the brain, and which reflect what they represent. Such representations can be inspected by the mind and transformed (rotated, enlarged, reduced).
There exist two levels of visual representation: a "geometric" level, which allows one to mentally manipulate images, and an "algebric" one, which allows one to "speak" about those images.
Kosslyn thinks that mental imagery achieves two goals: retrieve properties of objects and predict what would happen if the body or the objects should move in a given way. Reasoning on shapes and dimensions is far faster when we employ mental images rather than concepts.
Kosslyn Stephen: GHOSTS IN THE MIND'S MACHINE (W. Norton, 1983)
Kosslyn Stephen & Koenig Olivier: WET MIND (Free Press, 1992)
Chapters on neural computation, vision, language, movement, memory.
Kosslyn Stephen: IMAGE AND BRAIN (MIT Press, 1994)
Kosslyn's proposal for the resolution of the imagery debate is an interdisciplinary theory of high-level vision in which perception and representation are inextricably linked. Visual perception (visual object identification) and visual mental imagery share common mechanisms.
Visual processing is decomposed in a number of subsystems, each a neural network: visual buffer (located in the occipital lobe), attention window (selects a pattern of activity in the visual buffer), two cortical visual systems, the ventral system (inferior temporal lobe, encodes object properties) and the dorsal system (posterior paretal lobe, encodes spatial properties), associative memory (which integrates the two classes of properties), information lookup subsystem (dorsolaterla prefrontal cortex, accesses information about the most relevant object in associative memory), attention shifting subsystems (frontal, parietal and subcortical areas, directs the attention window to the appropriate location). The subsystems may overlap and exchange feedback. More detailed analysis of the visual recognition process identify more specialized subsystems. The model is therefore gradually extended to take into account the full taxonomiy of visual abilities.
Mental imagery shares most of this processing architecture with high-level visual perception.
During the course of the development of the theory, a wealth of psychological and neurophysiological findings is provided.
Kotre John: WHITE GLOVES (Norton, 1996)
Koza John: GENETIC PROGRAMMING (MIT Press, 1992)
Koza John: GENETIC PROGRAMMING II (MIT Press, 1994)
Kripke Saul: NAMING AND NECESSITY (Harvard University Press, 1980)
Kuipers Benjamin: QUALITATIVE REASONING (MIT Press, 1994)
Qualitative reasoning is viewed as a set of methods for representing and reasoning with incomplete knowledge about physical systems. A qualitative description of a system allows for common sense reasoning that overcomes the limitations of rigorous logic. Qualitative descriptions capture the essential aspects of structure, function and behavior, at the expense of others. Since most phenomena that matter to ordinary people depend only on those essential aspects, qualitative descriptions are enough for moving about in the world.
Kuipers presents his QSIM algorithm and representation for qualitative simulation. His model deals with partial knowledge of quantities (through landmark values and fuzzy values) and of change (by using discrete state graphs and qualitative differential equations). A qualitative differential equation is a quadruple of variables, quantity spaces (one for each variable), constraints (that apply to the variables) and transitions (rules to define the domain boundaries).
The framework prescribes a number of constraint propagation techniques, including for higher-order derivatives and global dynamics. First of all, it is necessary to build a model which includes all the elements needed for simulating the system (close-world assumption). Then the model can be simulated. The ontological problem is solved drawing from varius techniques (Forbus' qualitative process theory, Sussman's device modeling approach, DeKleer's "no function in structure").
Kulas Jack, Fetzer James & Rankin Terry: PHILOSOPHY, LANGUAGE AND ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (Kluwer, 1988)
Kulas provides a historical introduction to the field, starting with Aristotle.
Kuppers Bernd-Olaf: INFORMATION AND THE ORIGIN OF LIFE (MIT Press, 1990)
Kurzweil, Ray: "The Age of Intelligent Machines" (1990)
Kurzweil, Ray: "The Age of Spiritual Machines" (1999)
Kurzweil, Ray: "The Singularity is Near" (2005)
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