A brief History of Classical Music
through its essential compositions

(compiled by Piero Scaruffi)


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Synopses of classical musicians
These are the composers born in the 19th century Click here to go back to the beginning

Opera


Vincenzo Bellini (Naples, 1801): Norma (1831)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Les Troyens (1858)
Michail Glinka (Russia, 1804): Russlan and Ludmilla (1842)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Il Trovatore (1853)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Rigoletto (1851)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): La Traviata (1853)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Don Carlos (1884)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Aida (1871)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Otello (1887)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Falstaff (1893)
Charles Gounod (France, 1818): Faust (1859)
Jacques Offenbach (France, 1819): Orphee Aux Enfers (1858)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Der Fliegende Hollaender (1843)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Tannhaeuser (1845)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Lohengrin (1850)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Die Walkuere (1856)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Das Rheingold (1857)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Siegfried (1857)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Tristan und Isolde (1859)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Die Meistersinger von Nuernberg (1867)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Gotterndammerung (1874)
Richard Wagner (Germany, 1813): Parsifal (1882)
Emilio Arrieta (Spain, 1823): "Marina" (1871)
Boris Smetana (Czech, 1824): The Bartered Bride (1866)
Alexander Borodin (Russia, 1833): Knyaz Igor (1887)
Georges Bizet (France, 1838): Carmen (1875)
Modest Mussorgsky (Russia, 1839): Boris Godunov (1874)
Modest Mussorgsky (Russia, 1839): Khovancina (1886)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Eugene Onegin (1879)
Arthur Sullivan (Britain, 1842): Mikado (1885)
Jules Massenet (France, 1842): Manon (1884)
Nikolaj Rimsky-Korsakov (Russia, 1844): The Legend of the Invisible City of Kitezh (1907)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): L'Enfant et les Sortileges (1925)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): Jenufa (1903)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): Diary of One Who Disappeared (1919)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): Katja Kabanova (1921)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): The Cunning Little Vixen (1924)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): The Makropulos Case (1925)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): From The House of the Dead (1928)
Ruggiero Leoncavallo (Italy, 1858): I Pagliacci (1892)
Giacomo Puccini (Italy, 1858): Madame Butterfly (1904)
Giacomo Puccini (Italy, 1858): Turandot (1926)
Giacomo Puccini (Italy, 1858): La Boheme (1896)
Mikhail Matyushin (Russia, 1861): Pobeda nad Solntsem/ Victory over the Sun (1913)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Pelleas et Melisande (1902)
Pietro Mascagni (Italy, 1863): Cavalleria Rusticana (1890)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Salome (1905)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Elektra (1909)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Der Rosenkavalier (1911)
Ferruccio Busoni (Italy, 1866): Doktor Faust (1924)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Moses und Aron (1951)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Erwartung (1909)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Padmavati (1918)
Johann Strauss (Austria, 1825): Die Fledermaus (1874)
Franz Lehar (Hungary, 1870): Die Lustige Witwe/ The Merry Widow (1905)
George Enescu (Romania, 1881): Oedipe (1936)
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungary, 1882): Hary Janos (1926)
Gianfrancesco Malipiero (Italy, 1882): Torneo Notturno (1929)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): King Roger (1924)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Oedipus Rex (1927)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): The Rake's Progress (1951)
Charles Griffes (USA, 1884): The Kairn of Koridwen (1916)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Wozzeck (1921)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Lulu (1935)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): The Love of Three Oranges (1921)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): The Fiery Angel (1927)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): War and Peace (1941)
Arthur Honegger (Switzerland, 1892): Le Roi David (1921)
Alois Haba (Czech, 1893): Matka/ Mother (1929)
Douglas Moore (USA, 1893): Ballad Of Baby Doe (1956)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Cardillac (1926)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Mathis der Maler (1935)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Die Harmonie der Welt (1957)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Duenna (1947)
Virgil Thomson (USA, 1896): Four Saints in Three Acts (1934)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Die Tote Stadt (1920)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Das Wunder der Heliane (1926)
George Gershwin (USA, 1898): Porgy And Bess (1935)

Instrumental


Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Grand Messe de Morts/ Requiem (1837)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Te Deum (1855)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Damnation de Faust (1864)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Harold in Italie (1834)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Romeo et Juliet (1839)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): L'Enfance Du Christ (1854)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Symphonie Fantastique (1829)
Hector Berlioz (France, 1803): Les Nuits D'Ete` (1841)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Lieder Ohne Worte
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Symphony 3 "Scottish" (1842)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Symphony 4 "Italian" (1833)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Quartet 2 in F minor op.13 (1823)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Quartet 6 in F minor op.80 (1847)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Quartet 4 in E minor op.44 (1837)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Violin concerto (1844)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Octet (1825)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Concerto in E Major for Two Pianos
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Concerto for Violin, Piano and String Orchestra in D Minor (1823)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Piano Concerto No. 1 in G minor (op. 25 (1831)
Felix Mendelssohn (Germany, 1809): Piano Concerto No. 2 in D minor, Op. 40 (1837)
Sebastian Yradier (Spain, 1809): La Paloma (1855)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Carnaval (1835)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Fantasia in C Major op.17 (1836)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Kreisleriana (1838)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Piano quintet op.44 (1842)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Piano Concerto op.54 (1845)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Piano trio op.63 (1847)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Cello Concerto op.129 (1850)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Symphony 3 (1850)
Robert Schumann (Germany, 1810): Symphony 4 (1851)
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Etudes op.10 (1832)
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Ballad op.23 (1831)
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Ballad op.38
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Ballad op.47
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Ballad op.52
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Impromptu op.29
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Impromptu op.36
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Impromptu op.51
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Fantasy-impromptu op.66
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Nocturnes
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Preludes
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Sonata op.4
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Sonata in B Flat Minor op.35
Fryderyk Chopin (Poland, 1810): Sonata op.58
Ferdinand Hiller (Germany, 1811) : Die Zerstorung Jerusalems/ The Destruction of Jerusalem (1840)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Etude d'Execution Trascendante (1839)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Totentanz (1849)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Sonata in B minor (1853)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Faust Symphony (1854)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Dante Symphony (1856)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Annees de Pelerinage (1877)
Ferencz Liszt (Hungary, 1811): Via Crucis (1879)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Requiem (1874)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): String Quartet in E Minor (1873)
Giuseppe Verdi (Milan, 1813): Four Sacred Pieces (1897)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Duo Op. 21 for violin and piano (1841)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Grande Sonate "Les Quatre Ages" Op. 33 (1847)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Symphony for Solo Piano (1856)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Concerto for Solo Piano (1856)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Sonate de Concert for cello and piano Op. 47 (1857)
Charles-Valentin Alkan (France, 1813): Marcia Funebre sulla Morte d'un Pappagallo for three oboes, bassoon and voices (1859)
Niels Gade (Denmark, 1817): Octet (1848)
Stanislaw Moniuszko (Poland, 1819): Halka (1848)
Cesar Franck (France, 1822): Symphony in D minor (1888)
Cesar Franck (France, 1822): Grand Piece Symphonique Op. 17 (1862)
Joachim Raff (Switzerland, 1822): Symphony 5 (1872)
Edouard Lalo (France, 1823): Cello Concerto (1876)
Boris Smetana (Czech, 1824): Ma Vlast/ My Country (1879)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 3 (1873)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 4 (1874)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 5 (1877)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 6 (1881)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 7 (1883)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 8 (1887)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Symphony 9 (1889)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Mass 1 in D minor (1864)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Mass 2 in E minor (1866)
Anton Bruckner (Austria, 1824): Mass 3 in F minor (1868)
Ludwig Minkus (Russia, 1826): La Bayader/ The Temple Dancer) (1877)
Ludwig Minkus (Russia, 1826): Don Quixote (1869)
Alexander Borodin (Russia, 1833): Symphony 2 (1876)
Alexander Borodin (Russia, 1833): String Quartet No. 2 in D major "Nocturne" (1881)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Piano Quintet in F minor op.34a (1864)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): String Quintet in G major op.111 (1890)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Clarinet Quintet in B minor op.115 (1891)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Piano Trio in B major, Op. 8 (1854)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): String Sextet No. 1 in B-flat major, Op. 18 (1860)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): String Sextet No. 2 in G Major, Op. 36 (1865)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Piano Trio op.87 (1882)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Piano Trio op.101 (1886)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Deutsche Requiem (1868)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Violin sonata op.78 (1878)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Violin sonata op.100 (1886)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Violin sonata op.108 (1887)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): String Quintet No. 1 in F major, op. 88 (1882)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Clarinet sonatas op.120 (1894)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Vier Ernste Gesaenge (1896)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Quartet No. 1 in F major op.88 (1882)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Violin concerto (1878)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Double Concerto (1887)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Symphony 1 (1876)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Symphony 2 (1877)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Symphony 3 (1883)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Symphony 4 (1885)
Johannes Brahms (Germany, 1833): Piano Concerto 2 (1881)
Camille Saint-Saens (France, 1835): Symphony 3 in C "Organ Symphony" (1886)
Camille Saint-Saens (France, 1835): Piano Concerto 5 (1896)
Henryk Wieniawski (Poland, 1835): Violin Concerto 2 in D minor (1862)
Leo Delibes (France, 1836): Coppelia (1870)
Milij Balakirev (Russia, 1837): Islamey (1868)
Milij Balakirev (Russia, 1837): Symphony 1 (1867)
Max Bruch (Germany, 1838): Violin Concerto 1 (1868)
Modest Mussorgsky (Russia, 1839): Night on Bald Mountain (1867)
Modest Mussorgsky (Russia, 1839): Pictures at An Exhibition (1874)
Johan Svendsen (Norway, 1840): Symphony 2 (1876)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Piano Concerto 1 (1875)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): The Swan Lake (1876)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Symphony 4 (1877)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Violin Concerto in D major (1878)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Symphony 5 (1888)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): The Sleeping Beauty (1889)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): The Nutcracker (1892)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Symphony 6 (1893)
Pyotr Tchaikovsky (Russia, 1840): Trio op.50 for violin, cello and piano (1882)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Symphony 7 (1885)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Symphony 8 (1889)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Symphony 9 (1893)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Cello Concerto in B Minor (1895)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Stabat Mater (1877)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Te Deum (1892)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Requiem Mass (1891)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): Piano Quintet 2 Op.81
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): String Quartet 12 in F "American" (1893)
Antonin Dvorak (Czech, 1841): String Quintet 3 in E flat (1893)
Edvar Grieg (Norway, 1843): Piano concerto (1868)
Edvar Grieg (Norway, 1843): Peer Gynt (1875)
Edvar Grieg (Norway, 1843): Quartet (1878)
Nikolaj Rimsky-Korsakov (Russia, 1844): Scheherazade (1888)
Charles Widor (France, 1845): Mass (1880)
Gabriel Faure` (France, 1845): La Bonne Chanson (1892)
Gabriel Faure` (France, 1845): Requiem (1887)
Gabriel Faure` (France, 1845): Quintet 2 in C Minor op.115

Decadent Era


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Zdenek Fibich (Czech, 1850): Quintet (1894)
Xaver Scharwenka (Poland, 1850): Piano Concerto 1 (1877)
Vincent d'Indy (France, 1851): Symphonie Cevelone (1886)
Vincent d'Indy (France, 1851): Symphonie De Bello Gallico (1918)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): Glagolitic Mass (1926)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): Sinfonietta (1926)
Leos Janacek (Czech, 1854): String Quartet 2 (1928)
Ernest Chausson (France, 1855): Concert for Violin, Piano and String Quartet, Op.21 (1891)
Sergei Taneyev (Russia, 1856): At the Reading of a Psalm (1915)
Edward Elgar (Britain, 1857): Falstaff (1913)
Edward Elgar (Britain, 1857): Dream of Gerontius (1900)
Eugene Ysaye (Belgium, 1858): Solo Violin Sonatas (1924)
Dame Ethyl Smyth (Britain, 1858): The Wreckers (1906)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 1 (1888)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 2 (1895)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 3 (1896)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 4 (1900)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 5 (1902)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 6 (1904)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 7 (1905)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 8 (1907)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Das Lied von der Erde (1908)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 9 (1910)
Gustav Mahler (Austria, 1860): Symphony 10 (1911)
Ignacy Paderewski (Poland, 1860): Sonata Op 21 (1903)
Ignacy Paderewski (Poland, 1860): Variations and Fugue (1903)
Hugo Wolf (Germany, 1860): Lieder
Frederick Delius (Britain, 1862): A Mass of Life (1905)
Frederick Delius (Britain, 1862): Double Concerto for violin and cello (1920)
Frederick Delius (Britain, 1862): Cello Sonata (1917)
Frederick Delius (Britain, 1862): Cello Concerto 1921)
Frederick Delius (Britain, 1862): Violin Concerto (1916)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Suite Bergamasque (1890)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Piano Trio in G major (1880)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Quartet (1893)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Prelude a l'Apres-midi d'un Faune (1894)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Nocturnes (1899)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): La Mer (1905)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Children's Corner (1908)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Le Martyre de Saint-Sebastien (1911)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Jeux (1912)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Preludes (1913)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Images for Piano (1907)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): Etudes (1915)
Claude Debussy (France, 1862): En Blanc et Noir (1915)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Don Juan (1889)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Tod und Verklaerung (1889)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Also Sprach Zarathustra (1896)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Till Eulenspiegels Lustige Streiche (1895)
Richard Strauss (Germany, 1864): Don Quixote (1897)
Alexander Gretchaninov (Russia, 1864): Passion Week
Alexander Gretchaninov (Russia, 1864): Symphony 5 (1936)
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Symphony 5 (1895)
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Symphony 6 (1896
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Symphony 7 (1903)
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Symphony 8 (1906)
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Violin Concerto (1903)
Alexander Glazunov (Russia, 1865): Raymonda (1898)
Paul Dukas (France, 1865): L'Apprendi Sorcier (1897)
Paul Dukas (France, 1865): Ariane et Barbe-bleue (1906)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 1 (1900)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 2 (1902)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 4 (1911)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 5 (1919)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 6 (1923)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Symphony 7 (1924)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Finladia (1900)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Tempest (1925)
Jan Sibelius (Finland, 1865): Tapiola (1926)
Carl Nielsen (Denmark, 1865): Symphony 5 (1916)
Vasili Kalinnikov (Russia, 1866): Symphony 2 (1898)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Parade (1917)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Musique d'Ameublement (1917)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Tenture de Cabinet Prefectoral (1923)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Socrates (1920)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Relache (1924)
Erik Satie (France, 1866): Vexations to be played 840 times in succession (1893)
Ferruccio Busoni (Italy, 1866): Fantasia Contrappuntistica (1912)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Le Festin de L'Araignee (1912)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Symphony 2 (1921)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Serenade (1925)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Suite en Fa (1926)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Concert pour Petit Orchestre (1927)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Symphony 3 (1930)
Albert Roussel (France, 1869): Symphony 4 (1934)
Vitezslav Novak (Czech, 1870): De Profundis (1940)
Alexander von Zemlinsky (Austria, 1871): Die Seejungfrau (1903)
Alexander von Zemlinsky (Austria, 1871): Lyrische Symphonie (1923)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 1 "Sea" (1910)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 2 "London" (1914)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 3 "Pastoral" (1922)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 4 (1935)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 6 (1946)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 7 "Antartica" (1952)
Ralph Vaughan Williams (Britain, 1872): Symphony 8 (1955)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Symphony #3 "Divine Poem" (1905)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Poem of Ecstasy (1908)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Prometheus (1910)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Piano sonata "White Mass" (1911)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Piano sonata "Black Mass" (1913)
Alexander Scriabin (Russia, 1872): Piano sonata 10 (1913)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Piano Concerto 2 (1900)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Piano Concerto 3 (1909)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Symphony 2 (1906)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): The Bells (1913)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Vespers (1915)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Symphony 3 (1936)
Sergej Rachmaninov (Russia, 1873): Piano Concerto 4 (1937)
Max Reger (Germany, 1873): Sextet (1910)
Charles Ives (USA, 1874): Three Places in New England (1914)
Charles Ives (USA, 1874): Holidays (1913)
Charles Ives (USA, 1874): Piano Sonata 2 "Concord" (1915)
Charles Ives (USA, 1874): Symphony 3 (1904)
Charles Ives (USA, 1874): Symphony 4 (1916)
Gustav Holst (Britain, 1874): The Planets (1916)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Verklaerte Nacht (1899)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Gurre-Lieder (1901)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Quartet 1 (1905)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Kammersymphonie 1 (1906)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Quartet 2 for Soprano and String Quartet op. 10 (1908)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Pierrot Lunaire (1912)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Die Glueckliche Hand (1913)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Quartet 3 (1927)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Variations for Orchestra (1928)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Quartet 4 (1936)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Violin Concerto (1936)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): String Trio (1946)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): A Survivor from Warszaw (1947)
Arnold Schoenberg (Austria, 1874): Piano Concerto (1947)
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Franz Schmidt (Austria, 1874): Das Buch mit dem Sieben Siegeln (1938)
Reinhold Gliere (Russia, 1875): Symphony 3 (1911)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Quartet (1903)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Ma Mere L'Oye (1908)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Daphne and Chloe (1911)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Trois Poemes de Mallarme` (1913)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): La Valse (1920)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Concerto for the Left Hand (1930)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Piano concerto in G (1931)
Maurice Ravel (France, 1875): Sonata for Violin and Piano (1927)
Manuel de Falla (Spain, 1876): El Amor Brujo/ Love the Magician (1915)
Manuel de Falla (Spain, 1876): Noches En Los Jardines de Espana (1916)
Manuel de Falla (Spain, 1876): El Sombrero de Tres Picos/ The Three-Cornered Hat (1917)
Manuel de Falla (Spain, 1876): El Retablo de Maese Pedro (1923)
Manuel de Falla (Spain, 1876): Harpsichord Concerto (1926)
Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari (Italy, 1876): Violin Concerto (1943)
Havergal Brian (Britain, 1876): Symphony 10 (1954)
Havergal Brian (Britain, 1876): Symphony 20 (1962)
Erno von Dohnanyi (Hungary, 1877): Ruralia Hungarica (1924)
Ernest Bloch (Switzerland, 1880): Schelomo (1916)
Ernest Bloch (Switzerland, 1880): Symphony (1955)
Nikolai Medtner (Russia, 1880): Sonata Pf #5 in E minor "Night Wind" (1911)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 1 (1908)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Bluebeard's Castle (1911)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 2 (1917)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Violin sonata 1 (1922)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Violin sonata 2 (1923)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): The Miraculous Mandarin (1919)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Piano Sonata (1926)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Piano concerto 1 (1926)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 3 (1927)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 4 (1928)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Cantata Profana (1930)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Piano concerto 2 (1931)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Violin concerto 2 (1938)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Concerto for Orchestra (1943)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 5 (1934)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Music for Strings, Percussion and Celesta (1936)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Sonatas for two Pianos and Percussion (1937)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Quartet 6 (1939)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Divertimento (1939)
Bela Bartok (Hungary, 1881): Piano concerto 3 (1945)
Nikolai Miaskovsky (Russia, 1881): Quartet 11 (1949)
Nikolai Miaskovsky (Russia, 1881): Symphony 15 (1934)
George Enescu (Romania, 1881): Octet for Strings in C major, Op. 7 (1900)
George Enescu (Romania, 1881): Dixtuor in D major, for wind instruments, Op. 14 (1906)
George Enescu (Romania, 1881): Piano Quintet in A minor, Op. 29 (1940)
George Enescu (Romania, 1881): Chamber Symphony for 12 instruments, Op. 33 (1954)
Artur Schnabel (Austria, 1882): Sonata violin solo (1919)
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungary, 1882): Sonata for solo cello (1915)
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungary, 1882): Psalmus Hungaricus (1932)
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungary, 1882): Missa Brevis (1944)
Zoltan Kodaly (Hungary, 1882): Te Deum (1936)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): L'Oiseau de Feu (1910)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Petrushka (1911)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Le Sacre du Printemps (1913)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): L'Histoire du Soldat (1918)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Pulcinella (1920)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Les Noces (1923)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Apollo Musagetes (1928)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Symphony of Psalms (1930)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Jeu de Cartes (1937)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Dumbarton Oaks (1938)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Symphony in C Major (1940)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Sonata for Two Pianos (1944)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Ebony Concerto (1945)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Symphony in Three Movements (1945)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Cantata (1952)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Canticum Sacrum (1955)
Igor Stravinskij (Russia, 1882): Threni (1958)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Stabat Mater (1926)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Violin concerto 1 (1916)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Symphony 3 (1916)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Demeter (1917)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Symphony 4 concertante (1932)
Karol Szymanowski (Poland, 1882): Violin concerto 2 (1933)
Percy Grainger (Australia, 1882): The Warriors (1913)
Percy Grainger (Australia, 1882): Random Round (1912)
Percy Grainger (Australia, 1882): The Immovable Do (1933)
Anton Webern (Austria, 1883): Symphonie (1928)
Anton Webern (Austria, 1883): Concerto for nine instruments (1934)
Anton Webern (Austria, 1883): Quartet (1938)
Anton Webern (Austria, 1883): Cantata 1 (1939)
Anton Webern (Austria, 1883): Cantata 2 (1943)
Edgar Varese (France, 1883): Hyperprism (1923)
Edgar Varese (France, 1883): Ionisation (1931)
Edgar Varese (France, 1883): Ecuatorial (1934)
Edgar Varese (France, 1883): Deserts (1954)
Edgar Varese (France, 1883): Poeme Electronique (1958)
Arnold Bax (Britain, 1883): Winter Legends (1930)
Arnold Bax (Britain, 1883): Symphony 6 (1934)
Egon Wellesz (Austria, 1885): Symphony 1 (1945)
Egon Wellesz (Austria, 1885): Alkestis (1923)
Egon Wellesz (Austria, 1885): Symphony 5 (1956)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): String Quartet (1910)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Chamber Concerto (1925)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Lyric Suite (1926)
Alban Berg (Austria, 1885): Violin Concerto (1935)
Paul Paray (France, 1886): Messe du Cinquieme Centenaire de la Mort de Jeanne d'Arc (1931)
Florence Price (USA, 1887): Symphony #1 (1932)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 2 (1924)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 4 (1926)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 8 (1925)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 10 (1925)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 9 (1929)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 11 (1928)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Choros No. 12 (1929)
Hector Villa-Lobos (Brazil, 1887): Symphony 7 (1945)
Kurt Schwitter (Germany, 1887): Ursonate (1932)
Matthijs Vermeulen (Holland, 1888): Symphony 2 (1919)
Matthijs Vermeulen (Holland, 1888): Symphony 6 (1958)
Cyrillus Kreek (Estonia, 1889): Reekviem (1927)
Cyrillus Kreek (Estonia, 1889): Setu Sumfoonia (1953)
Jacques Ibert (France, 1890): Escales (1922)
Jacques Ibert (France, 1890): Symphonie Marine (1931)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): The Butterfly that Stamped (1926)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Quartet for Clarinet, French Horn, Violoncello and Side-drum (1924)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Greek Passion (1961)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Symphony 6 (1953)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Piano Concerto 2 (1934)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Double Concerto for strings and timpani i (1938)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Harpsichord Concerto (1938)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Concerto da Camera (1941)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Symphony 1 (1942)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Violin Concerto 2 (1943)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Sonata for violin and piano 3 (1944)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Symphony 4 (1945)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Cello Concerto 2 (1945)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Sinfonietta (1951)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Rhapsody Concerto for viola and orchestra (1952)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Symphony 6 (1953)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Concerto for Violin and Piano (1953)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Piano Sonata (1954)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Oboe Concerto (1955)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Piano Concerto 4 (1956)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Parables (1957)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Field Mass (1939)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Piano Concerto 5 (1957)
Bohuslav Martinu (Czech, 1890): Fantasia for Theremin, Oboe, String Quartet and Piano H. 301 (1944)
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Frank Martin (Switzerland, 1890): Petite Symphonie Concertante (1945)
Gosta Nystroem (Sweden, 1890): Symphony 2 (1935)
Gosta Nystroem (Sweden, 1890): Symphony 3 (1947)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Colour Symphony (1922)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Morning Heroes (1930)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Checkmate (1937)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Miracle in the Gorbals (1944)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Adam Zero (1946)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Meditations on a Theme of John Blow (1955)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): The Beatitudes (1962)
Arthur Bliss (Britain, 1891): Cello Concerto (1970)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Piano Concerto 2 (1913)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Piano Concerto 3 (1918)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Symphony 1 (1918)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Symphony 2 (1925)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Symphony 3 (1928)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Piano Concerto 5 (1932)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Peter and the Wolf (1934)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Romeo and Juliet (1936)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Aleksandr Nevsky (1939)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Piano Sonata 7 (1942)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Simphony 5 (1944)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Piano Sonata 8 (1944)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Symphony 6 (1947)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Violin Sonata No. 2 (1944)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Sinfonia Concertante (1952)
Sergej Prokofev (Russia, 1891): Toccata in D minor (1916)
Giorgio Ghedini (Italy, 1892): Concerto dell'Albatro (1945)
Arthur Honegger (Switzerland, 1892): Pastoral d'Ete (1920)
Arthur Honegger (Switzerland, 1892): Pacific 231 (1923)
Arthur Honegger (Switzerland, 1892): Symphonie Liturgique (1946)
Arthur Honegger (Switzerland, 1892): Cello Concerto (1929)
Darius Milhaud (France, 1892): Le Boeuf Sur le Toit (1920)
Darius Milhaud (France, 1892): La Creation du Monde (1924)
Herbert Howells (Britain, 1892): Stabat Mater (1965)
Hilding Rosenberg (Sweden, 1892): Symphony 4 (1940)
Hilding Rosenberg (Sweden, 1892): Symphony 5 (1944)
Hilding Rosenberg (Sweden, 1892): Symphony 6 (1951)
Laszlo Lajtha (Hungary, 1892): Symphony 7 (1957)
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Piano Sonata #4 (1929)
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Sequentia cyclica super "Dies irae" ex Missa pro defunctis (1948-49),
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Concertino non grosso for String Sextet with Piano obbligato quasi continuo (1968)
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Opus Clavicembalisticum (1930)
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Piano Symphony #2 (1954)
Kaikhosru Sorabji (Britain, 1892): Piano Symphony #4 (1964)
Rued Langgaard (Denmark, 1893): Music Of The Spheres (1918)
Lili Boulanger (France, 1893): Faust and Helene (1912)
Lili Boulanger (France, 1893): Psalm 130 (1917)
Alois Haba (Czech, 1893): Quartet 2 (1921)
Leo Ornstein (Russia, 1893): Quintet piano (1927)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): The Day of Existence for narrator, full orchestra and mixed chorus (1916)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): 24 Preludes for two pianos in quarter tones (1934)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): Ainsi parlait Zarathoustra for 4 pianos in quarter tones (1936)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): String Quartet #2 (1931)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): Cosmos for 4 pianos in quarter tones (1940)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): Sonata for viola & two pianos in quarter tones (1959)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): Integrations for 2 pianos in quarter tones (1962)
Ivan Wyschnegradsky (Russia, 1893): The Eternal Stranger for voices, mixed choir, 4 pianos in quarter tones, percussions and orchestra (1960)
Aaron Avshalomoff (Russia, 1894): Flute concerto (1948)
Ervin Schulhoff (Czech, 1894): Symphony 5 (1938)
Ervin Schulhoff (Czech, 1894): Concerto 2 (1923)
Walter Piston (USA, 1894): Concerto for Viola and Orchestra (1957)
Borys Lyatoshinsky (Ukraine, 1895): Symphony 2 (1936)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Nobilissima Visione (1938)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Kammermusik 1 op.24 (1921)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd (1946)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Violin Concerto (1939)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Piano Concerto (1945)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Cello Concerto (1940)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Horn Concerto (1949)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Symphony for Concert Band (1951)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Organ Concerto (1962)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Quartet for Clarinet, Violin, Cello and Piano (1938)
Paul Hindemith (Germany, 1895): Kammermusiken 1-7 (1927)
Carl Orff (Germany, 1895): Carmina Burana (1937)
Boris Lyatoshinsky (Ukraine, 1895): Symphony No 2 (1936)
Boris Lyatoshinsky (Ukraine, 1895): Ukrainian Quintet (1942)
Virgil Thomson (USA, 1896): Symphony on a Hymn Tune (1928)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Violin Concerto (1943)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Piano Concerto (1951)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): The Plague (1965)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Symphony 3 "Collages" (1960)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Quartet 2 (1962)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Concerto for Orchestra (1965)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Symphony 4 (1967)
Roberto Gerhard (Spain, 1896): Concerto for harpsichord, strings and percussion (1956)
Howard Hanson (USA, 1896): Symphony 7 (1977)
Roger Sessions (USA, 1896): "When Lilacs Last In The Dooryard Bloom'd" (1970)
Roger Sessions (USA, 1896): Concerto for Orchestra (1981)
Roger Sessions (USA, 1896): Symphony 7 (1967)
Josip Stolcer-Slavenski (Croatia, 1896): Sonata for violin and organ (1922)
Josip Stolcer-Slavenski (Croatia, 1896): Chaos (1932)
Josip Stolcer-Slavenski (Croatia, 1896): Sinfonija Orijenta (1934)
Josip Stolcer-Slavenski (Croatia, 1896): Music in the Natural Tonal System (1937)
Knudage Riisager (Denmark, 1897): Qarrtsiluni (1942)
Harald Saeverud (Norway, 1897): Symphony 7 (1944)
Harald Saeverud (Norway, 1897): Symphony 9 (1965)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Sinfonietta (1912)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Piano Concerto for Left Hand (1923)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Piano quintet (1930)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Violin Concerto (1947)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Cello Concerto (1950)
Erich Korngold (Austria, 1897): Symphony in F# Major (1950)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Tides of Manaunaum (1912)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Quartet for Flute, Oboe, Cello, and Harpsichord (1954)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Ongaku (1957)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Quartet 1 - Romantic (1917)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Quartet 2 - Euphometric (1919)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Atlantic (1931)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Ostinato Pianissimo for Percussion Ensemble (1934)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Quartet 3 - Mosaic (1935)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Persian Set (1957)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Symphony 11 (1953)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Tiger (1930)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1928)
Henry Cowell (USA, 1897): Sinfonietta (1928)
George Gershwin (USA, 1898): Rhapsody in Blue (1924)
George Gershwin (USA, 1898): Concerto in F (1925)
George Gershwin (USA, 1898): An American in Paris (1928)
Hans Eisler (Germany, 1898): Fourteen Modes to Describe Rain (1941)
Roy Harris (USA, 1898): Symphony 9 (1963)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Concert Champetre (1928)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Les Biches (1923)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Aubade (1929)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Concerto for two pianos (1932)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Organ Concerto (1938)
Francis Poulenc (France, 1899): Trois Mouvements perpetuels (1918)
Georges Auric (France, 1899): La Belle et la Bète (1946)
Yngve Skold (Sweden, 1899): Symphony No 2 (1937)
Alexander Tcherepnin (Russia, 1899): Piano Concerto 5 (1963)
Alexander Tcherepnin (Russia, 1899): Triple Concertino for violin, cello, piano and orchestra (1965)
Jon Leifs (Iceland, 1899): Fine (1963)
Jon Leifs (Iceland, 1899): Saga Symphony (1942)
Pancho Vladigerov (Bulgaria, 1899): Sonatina Concertante (1934)

Composers born before the 18th century

Composers born in the 18th century

Composers born in the 19th century

Composers born after 1899

Composers born after 1929

Composers born after 1949


See the note at the bottom of this page about the country credited for the musician (it is not necessarily the country where the musician was born, and not the country that exists today but didn't exist back then).

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Note about crediting the country: The country that i list next to the name is not necessarily the country of birth. First of all, i have decided that the country of birth should reflect the status at the time, unless the person physically grew up somewhere else. For example, Italy's national hero Garibaldi was NOT born in France, even though Nice today is French. He was born in Nice, Italy, because back then Nice was Italian. Septimius Severus was a Roman, not a Libyan. Kafka was an Austrian, even though today Prague is not in Austria. Otherwise we should change the birthplace of people every time the borders change. Of course, if i had the space, i would specify the region: Prokofev was born in the Russian province of Ukraine, Stalin was born in the Russian province of Georgia, etc... but i would still write Garibaldi was born in the Italian province of Piedmont (because Nice back then was part of Piedmont). So i prefer to look at the original borders, not today's borders (which will change tomorrow).
This rule needs to be corrected for "accidental" births: the Italian poet Ungaretti was born in Egypt but he grew up in Italy; the US astronaut Michael Collins was born in Rome but he grew up in the USA; Natalie Portman is not an Israeli; Keanu Reeves is not a Lebanonese; Emma Watson is not a French; Nicole Kidman is not a Hawaiian; the singer Freddie Mercury was not a Kenyan. Even this rule can be tricky to apply: Muzio Clementi was born and raised in Italy but moved to England as a teenager.
The biggest problem is with the West European empires that stretched over multiple continents and were never really one country: was Tagore a British or Indian poet? Was Doris Lessing a Rhodesian or British writer? I am leaning towards writing British Empire. If you only write "India" or "Rhodesia", you mislead. Lessing was not an African writer, and Tagore was born in Kolkata which became part of India only after the British left (previously it was part of the Mughal empire, a Muslim empire that never called itself "India").
For people born centuries ago the discussion becomes even more complicated. We routinely think of Vivaldi as being "Italian" and Bach as being "German". Neither Italy nor Germany existed at the time. Vivaldi was born in the state of Venezia/Venice. Bach was born in a tiny state that was part of the Holy Roman Empire. Torelli was born in Verona, which belonged to the Republic of Venice. Tartini was born in a town that belonged to the Republic of Venice although today it is part of the country of Slovenia. Monteverdi was born in the state of Milan (which was under Spanish domination) but he started his career in Venice. Southern Italy was part of the Kingdom of Naples, which changed hands a few times but was mainly a Spanish colony.
Not being very fluent in old German history, i simply write "Germany" when the artist mostly worked in a German-speaking city belonging to the Holy Roman Empire.