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**These are excerpts and elaborations from my book "The Nature of Consciousness"**

David Hilbert, a German mathematician of the beginning of the 20 A formal system employs the
language of propositions (statements that can only be true or false and can be
combined by binary operators such as “not”, “and” and “or”) and predicates
(statements with a variable that can be quantified existentially or
universally, i.e. can be only true or false relative to “at least” one value of
the variable or “for every” value of the variable). For example, the fact that
Piero Scaruffi is a 51-year old writer could
be expressed as: “writer (Piero) AND age (Piero, 51)”. The fact that teachers
are poor can be expressed with the expression: "FOR EVERY x, teacher(x)
-> poor (x)"; that translates as: every individual that satisfies the
predicate "teacher" also satisfies the predicate "poor".
The fact that some teachers are obnoxious can be expressed as: "FOR AT
LEAST ONE x teacher(x) -> obnoxious (x)". The language of Logic is not
very expressive but it lends itself to logical reasoning, i.e. deduction. This generation of
mathematicians basically pushed logical calculus to the forefront of the tools
employed to investigate the world. The apparatus of formal systems became the
apparatus that one must use to have any scientific or philosophical discussion.
Implicit in their program was the belief that the laws of logic “were” the laws
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