The Nature of Consciousness

Piero Scaruffi

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These are excerpts and elaborations from my book "The Nature of Consciousness"

Phenomenal Externalism

Fred Dretske ("Phenomenal externalism, or if meanings ain't in the head, where are qualia?", 1996) and the Canadian philosopher Ted Honderich expanded phenomenalism. The mind is not confined inside the skull, but it extends to include whatever tools are used.  Not only is there no boundary between subject and object but, according to the US philosopher Andy Clark and the Australian philosopher David Chalmers ("The Extended Mind", 1998), the subject leaks out into the object: my mind literally spreads to the tools that i use in order to carry out my cognitive processes.


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