Georg Hegel
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Nature
Philosophy of History
Philosophy of Society

  • Knowledge is possible even beyond Kant's antionomies
  • Spiritual nature of all reality
  • Only the absolute exists, everything else is an illusion
  • The absolute is both the infinite universe and infinite pure mind
  • Metaphysics is logic ("what is rational is real and what is real is rational")
  • Dialectical method (progress is the result of the conflict of opposites)
  • Any attempt to state the reality of something else (thesis) results in a contradiction (antithesis) that can only be resolved (synthesis) at a higher level, where both are true, which yields a new thesis, for which there exists an anti-thesis, which can be resolved in a synthesis, etc. All the way to the highest level, the absolute
  • Reality (nature as well as human history) is the dialectical unfolding of the absolute
  • As we understand more of the absolute, the absolute knows more of itself
  • Art investigates the absolute through forms of beauty
  • Religion investigates the absolute through symbols
  • Philosophy investigates the absolute through logic
  • The dialectical process progresses towards the absolute's full self-knowledge, which is the ultimate goal of everything ("God is God only in so far as he knows himself")
  • The absolute is thought that thinks itself
  • History is due to the conflict of forces/nations
  • An entity lays down a challenge, which becomes a thesis
  • An antithesis arises
  • A synthesis resolves the two on a higher plane
  • (eg, "revolution" is opposed by "reaction" and the synthesis is a new social order)
  • The human condition is one of alienation, because the individual sees herself as being distinct, instead of being united with the absolute
  • Philosophy's mission: to emancipate people from millennia of alienation

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )