Gottfried Leibniz
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Nature
Philosophy of Language

  • Panpsychism
  • Only minds exist
  • There are infinite minds
  • Humans are not the only ones to have minds
  • Everything has a mind
  • Matter is made of minds
  • Minds come in degrees, starting with matter (whose minds are very simple) and ending with God (whose mind is infinite)
  • Reality is the set of all finite minds (or "monads") that God has created
  • A monad is capable of perceiving other monads and of changing its state of knowledge
  • Thought is just a kind of "perceiving".
  • Some perceptions are "unconscious" (inert matter only has unconscious perceptions)
  • When knowledge (awareness) increases, we feel pleasure. When knowledge decreases, we feel pain.
  • All monads want to increase their knowledge
  • We are born with the concepts of God and Mathematics
  • Monads have free will but their actions have been determined by God
  • There is no cause-effect relationship between events: God has pre-determined the harmony of the universe. Monads cannot influence each other. Monads are "clocks that strike hours together".
  • Space is an illusion: we perceive as "close" what we "know" better (are aware of)
  • "Lingua characteristica": universal language based on the laws of Logic
  • The disparate disciplines of human knowledge can be unified by translating them into a universal language: a small set of primitive signs and a set of combinatorial rules to operate on them
  • The answer to any question could be obtained by a mechanical procedure of applying the rules to the signs
  • Many possibly worlds: ideas in the mind of God (we live in the best of possible worlds)
  • Evil exists so that we can appreciate goodness

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )