Karl Marx
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of History
Philosophy of Society

  • What is the value of a product (time/cost of producing it vs price people are willing to pay for it)
  • The capitalist class exploits the working class by keeping the "surplus value" produced by the working class
  • By reinvesting the "surplus value" the capitalist class increases its control of society
  • The working class is "alienated" because producer and product are separated
  • Private property is the result of the process of alienation, and viceversa
  • The working class is further alienated because the capitalists own the production system
  • The interest of capitalists is to maximize profits
  • Society is divided into two antagonistic classes: proletariat (workers) and bourgeoisie (owners of production)
  • The division of labor alienates workers from the product of their labors
  • Workers do not own the product of their work
  • Workers give more than they receive
  • Socialism: all citizens own the means of production
  • Just distribution of wealth and services
  • Human needs, not profits
  • Communism: full equality, class-less society
  • The economic system of a civilization (the way the civilization produces goods) determines the organization of its society
  • Society is organized in social classes that struggle for power
  • Hegel's dialectics must be applied to classes instead of nations
  • Hegel's idealistic dialectics recast as "materialistic" dialectics (historical/dialectic materialism)
  • The history of humanity is the history of class struggles
  • All nations go through five economic stages: slavery, feudalism, capitalism, socialism (collective ownership of property), communism (rule of the people)
  • The ultimate goal of history is a class-less society of peers (Hegelian synthesis = communism)
  • Society with government (as a separate institution) will evolve into communism
  • The working-class shall overthrow the capitalist class

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )