Bertrand Russell
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Nature

  • No substance ("neutral monism"): everything in the universe is made of space-time events, and events are neither mental nor physical (both matter and mind are meaningless over-simplifications of reality)
  • Matter is less material than Newton thought, and the spirit is less spiritual than Berkley thought
  • They are different ways of organizing space-time
  • What truly exists is "events"
  • The difference between matter and mind is simply the "causal" relationships that are brought to bear
  • Sensations are both material and mental
  • A sensation is part of the object that can be constructed out of it
  • A sensation is also part of the mind in whose biography the perception occurred
  • An object is defined by all the appearances that emanate from the place where it is towards minds
  • A mind is defined by all the appearances that start from objects and reach it
  • Consciousness allows us to perceive some of the processes that occur in our brain
  • What a neurophysiologist really sees while examining someone else's brain is a part of her own brain
  • The irreducibility of the mental to the physical is an illusion: the mental and the physical are different ways of knowing the same thing, the former by consciousness and the latter by the senses
  • Consciousness gives us immediate, direct knowledge of what is in the brain, whereas the senses can observe what is in the brain
  • The mental is a transparent grasp of the intrinsic character of the brain.
  • Consciousness is just another sense
  • The proposition (a logical artifact) vs the sentence (its description in natural language)
  • A name "signifies" a concept, a concept "denotes" an object
  • Calculus of classes (a class is the set of objects by which a function is satisfied)
  • Logical reconstruction of Mathematics
  • The second theorem of the 110th chapter of the second volume proves that 1+1=2
  • Paradox in Frege's system of Logic:
  • The class of all the classes that are not members of themselves is both a member and not a member of itself (the barber who shaves all barbers who do not shave themselves)
  • A predicate cannot be predicated of itself
  • Theory of types (logical contradictions can be resolved at a higher level)

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )