Baruch Spinoza
(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )

Philosophy of Mind
Philosophy of Nature
Philosophy of Language

  • Power of reason
  • God has infinite attributes, two substances cannot share attributes, thus there is only one substance: God
  • Monism instead of dualism: only one substance and it is God/Nature
  • Pantheism: Nature is God
  • God/Nature has extension, thought and an infinite number of super-human attributes
  • Things and souls are dependent on other things and souls for their existence, thus they cannot be separate substances
  • Things and souls are (finite) aspects (modes) of that one (infinite) substance
  • God/Nature is both mental and physical ("Deus sive Natura")
  • Every "mode" is also both mental and physical
  • "Mind and body are one and the same individual conceived now under the attribute of thought and now under the attribute of extension"
  • Double-aspect theory: mind and matter are not substances albeit aspects of the same substance
  • The only substance is neither physical nor mental
  • Descartes' problem is solved because mind and body do not need to interact
  • Both mind and body strive (conatus) to defend themselves from destructive forces: the body wants to increase its survival through action, the mind wants to increase its understanding through reason
  • As the mind understands more and more, it comes to realize that everything that exists (including the mind itself) "must" be the way it is, because everything is but an aspect of God
  • We are free to understand that we are "modes" of existence of God, but we are not free to change God, therefore we do not have free will
  • Immortality is becoming one with God/Nature, realizing the eternity of everything ("intuition")
  • The human mind is the idea of the human body
  • Mind and body are mutually dependent processes that mimick each other
  • A person's actions should not be aimed at pleasing a God, but rather at acting in harmony with Nature
  • Salvation is living in harmony with Nature
  • Knowledge and meditation lead to a superior form of salvation: a direct intuition of reality and of the human condition
  • Suffering and death are natural phenomena that we must accept

(Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi | Legal restrictions - Termini d'uso )