A time-line of black Africa

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

1000 BC: the Queen of Sheba visits king Solomon of Israel
300 BC: the city of Axum is founded
50: Axum rules Eritrea
300: Axum conquers southern Arabia
320: the Syrian monk Frumentius converts Ethiopian emperor Ezana to Christianity
500: Axum conquers southern Sudan
525: King Ella Kaleb of Axum annexes Yemen
5xx: Polynesian people settle Madagascar
5xx: the Christian kingdom of Dongola rules over Sudan
6xx: Arabs colonize East African trade towns including Zanzibar
710: Arabs invade Eritrea and destroy the Axumite empire
8xx: the empire of Ghana controls Mali, Mauritania, Guinea and Senegal
982 BC: Menelik I, son of the Queen of Sheba, becomes Ethiopia's first emperor
1000: Queen Yodit defeats the last Axumite king Del Na'od
1000: Timbuktu is founded in Africa by Muslim traders
1076: Almoravids from Morocco defeat the kingdom of Ghana and seize Mali and Mauritania
10xx: Great Zimbabwe is the capital of a wealthy Shona kingdom that trades with Asia
10xx: the Shona empire forms between the Limpopo and Zambezi rivers
1137: the Zagwe Dynasty is founded in Ethiopia and the capital is moved from Axum to Lalibela
1250: Sudan (Dongola) is conquered by the Mamaluks of Egypt
1250: Sundiata Keita founds the empire of Mali
1270: Yekuno Amlak ends the Zagwe dynasty and founds the Solomonic dynasty in Ethiopia
12xx: the empire of Ghana rules over Mali and Senegal
12xx: the Mali empire expands to Guinea
130x: kingdoms of Kongo, Luba, Kuba, Lunda in the Congo
130x: Mali emperor Mansa Musa hires Arab architects to rebuild Timbuktu and Djenne
13xx: the kingdoms of Ife, Oyo, Benin in Nigeria engage in the slave trade
130x: the empire of Mali expands to the Atlantic
132x: Amda Siyon becomes negus of Ethiopia and expands the empire
1325: Mansa Musa, the king of Mali, makes his pilgrimage to Mecca carrying 500 slaves and 100 camels
1349: Yaji is the first Muslim ruler of Kano (north Nigeria)
1380: The Kanembu found a state in Bornu (Chad and Niger)
14xx: Bantu people invade the eastern half of South Africa
14xx: Gao raids Mali's capital Niani
1424: prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal sends the first expedition to Africa
1430: Portugal trades slaves within Africa
1436: Afonso de Baldaya reaches Rio de Oro on behalf of prince Henrique the Navigator of Portugal
1444: the first public sale of African slaves by Europeans takes place at Lagos, Portugal
1460: Portugal settles the islands of Cape Verde
1464: Gao invades all of Mali and Sunni Ali founds the empire of Songhai with capital in Gao
1468: Songhai takes Timbuktu
1472: Portugal explores Gabon and Sao Tome
1482: Portugal founds the first European trading post in continental Africa (Elmina, Gold Coast)
1488: Moroccans invade the African kingdom of Mali
1495: Cape Verde becomes a Portuguese colony
1520: Portugal establishes a trade post in Mozambique
15xx: Portugal raids Eastern Africa trade towns
15xx: the Shonas found the Rozwi state
15xx: Tutsis from Ethiopia establish a feudal system in the Hutu lands (Rwanda and Burundi)
1500: Portugal "discovers" Madagascar
1506: a Christian, Nzinga Mbemba, becomes king of the Kongo Kingdom
1533: Muslim general Ahmad Gran invades Ethiopia
1542: Portugal helps Ethiopia repel an Arab invasion
1571: Portugal attacks Mali
1575: Mali defeats Portugal
1575: Portugal establishes a trade post in Luanda (Angola) to buy slaves for Brazil
1591: the Songhay/Gao empire collapses after a Moroccan invasion
160x: BAntu people invade Namibia
16xx: kingdoms of Kanembornu and Hausa in Niger
1632: Fasiladas founds the modern empire of Ethiopia with capital in Gondar
1637: Holland captures Portugal's main trading post in Africa, Elmina
1641: Holland captures Portugal's trading posts in Sao Tome and Luanda
1648: Portugal recaptures Sao Tome and Luanda
1651: Britain occupies Gambia
1652: Holland establishes a trade post at the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), which develops into a colony of "boers" with its own language (Afrikaans)
1659: France invades Senegal
1660: Portugal defeats the kingdom of Kongo and renames it Zaire
1663: Abyssinia defeats Portugal
1674: Arabs invade Mauritania
1699: Arabs from Oman invade Zanzibar
17xx: the Ashanti kingdom conquers Ghana with capital at Kumasi, and thrives on the slave trade
17xx: the Muslim kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi (Chad) trade slaves captured in the south
1763: Britain conquers Senegal from France
1776: Ibrahim Sori seizes power in Futa Jallon (Guinea) and converts it to Islam
1779: the Boers are defeated by the Xhusa in the first Bantu war (South Africa)
1783: Britain cedes Senegal to France
1787: Britain founds Sierra Leone as a colony for freed slaves ("krios")
1789: Uthman Don Fodio founds the caliphate of Sokoto, strictly Islamic, and leads Muslim uprising in northern Nigeria and Cameroon
1792: king Andrianampoinimerina of the Merinas invades half of Madagascar and moves his capital to Antananarive
1794: Britain conquers the Seychelles
1796: After France invades Holland, Holland surrenders Melaka/Malacca, Sri Lanka and the Cape of Good Hope to Britain
18xx: the Zulus under king Shaka invade nearby kingdoms in South Africa causing mass migrations (difaqane)
1800: 20,000 slaves from central Africa are sold every year in Egypt
1806: Britain annexes the Dutch colony of the Cape (South Africa)
1807: Britain abolishes the slave trade
1810: king Andrianampoinimerina of Merina dies and is succeeded by king Radama I who continues to expand his rule over Madagascar
1810: Britain conquers Mauritius
1816: Ahmad Lobbo founds the new state of Massina in Mali
1817: Uthman Don Fodio retires to a religious life and is succeeded by Muhammad Bello as the caliph of Sokoto (northern Nigeria)
1820: king Moshoeshoe founds the Sotho kingdom of Basutoland to escape the Zulu expansion
1820: Britain dispatches 5,000 settlers to the Cape
1820: Britain recognizes Madagascar's independence under the Merina king
1821: Massina establishes a new capital in Hamdallahi
1822: Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Sudan on behalf of the Ottoman empire
1822: US philanthropists found the state of Liberia for freed slaves
1828: king Radama I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by queen Ranavalona I
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1830: Mzilikazi founds the Ndebele state
1830: Egpyt founds a new capital for Sudan, Khartoum
1831: Teodros becomes king of Ethiopia with a program to conquer Jerusalem and Mecca and to abolish Islam
1832: Oman moves its capital to the slave trade center of Zanzibar
1834: Britain abolishes slavery in South Africa, and 40,000 black slaves are technically free
1834: Mailikazi of the Nbedele people invades the Rozwi state
1836: Fleeing British authority, Boers migrate ("the Great Trek"), massacring thousands of Zulus and kidnapping hundreds of black children, and found the Orange Free State and the Transvaal
1837: Umar seizes power and founds a new dyansty in Bornu
1839: king Sabhuza I of Swaziland dies and the boers invade the country
1843: Britain annexes Natal (South Africa)
1843: Swazi, leader of the Barabuza, declares the independence of Swaziland
1844: Youstol Dispage Frompiero discovers inverted correlation
1847: Liberia becomes independent under Joseph Roberts, which recreates slavery
1849: Libreville is founded as an enclave for freed slaves
1850: Arabs sell into slavery about 100,000 Africans per year
1851: Britain seizes Lagos in Nigeria
1852: Al-Hajj Umar launches a jihad against pagan people and founds an Islamic state in Dingiray (Senegal)
1855: Kasa becomes emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia
1861: queen Ranavalona I of Merina (Madagascar) dies and is succeeded by king Radama II
1862: king Radama II of Merina (Madagascar) is assassinated and is succeeded by queen Rasoherina, wife of the assassin, prime minister Rainilaiarivony
1865: 15,000,000 Africans have been deported in the Americas since the slave trade began, and 30-40 million have died before reaching the Americas (17 million have been deported by Arab traders to the Muslim world)
1866: diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1866: Diamond deposits are discovered at Kimberley, South Africa
1867: Diamonds are discovered in South Africa
1868: Lij Kasa conquers Amhara, Gojjam, Tigray and Shoa in Ethiopia
1868: Madagascar's queen Rahoserina dies and is succeeded by Ranavalona II, still married to the same prime minister Rainilaiarivony
Apr 1868: British general Robert Napier defeats Ethiopia at Magdala and the Ethiopian emperor Theodore commits suicide
1868: Basutoland/Lesotho becomes a British colony
1868: Tewodros of Ethiopia is defeated by the British and commits suicide
1869: Italy buys land in Eritrea
1870: the Ndebele relocate their capital to Bulawayo
1870: Huge diamond mines are discovered near the Orange River in South Africa
1870: Guinea Bissau becomes a separate Portuguese colony from Cape Verde
1871: Kimberley attracts thousands of miners and becomes the biggest man-made hole in the world (2,722 kg of diamonds would be extracted by 1914)
1872: the chieftain Tigrayan becomes emperor Yohannes IV of Ethiopia
1874: Britain defeats the Ashanti kingdom (Ghana) and the Gold Coast becomes a British protectorate
1877: Transvaal becomes a British colony
Jan 1879: Zulu warriors armed with spears massacre the British army at the battle of Isandhlwana
Jul 1879: Britain defeats the Zulus at Ulundi in South Africa, imprisons their ruler Cetewayo and disintegrates their empire
Dec 1880: Britain fights the first war against the Boers in South Africa
Mar 1881: Britain signs a peace treaty with Paul Kruger's Boers acknowledging their independence in Transvaal
1881: Muhammad Ahmad, leader of the Mahdists, rebels against Egypt and establishes an Islamic state in Sudan
1881: Futa Jallon becomes a French protectorate
1883: Samory Toure founds the Islamic kingdom of Wasulu (Niger)
1883: Madagascar's queen Ranavalona II dies and is succeeded by Ranavalona III, still married to the same prime minister Rainilaiarivony, the real leader of the country while France forces Madagascar to accept a protectorate
1884: German explorer Carl Peters begins to colonize Tanganyika
1884: Cameroon becomes a German protectorate
1885: France colonizes Central Africa
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over Bechuanaland (Botswana)
1885: Britain establishes a protectorate over the Delta region in Nigeria
1885: Sudan's Mahdists defeat British troops sent to regain Sudan for Egypt and Muhammad Ahmad establishes an Islamic theocratic state over Sudan
1885: Italy occupies Massawa in Eritrea
1885: an international conference at Berlin awards Congo to the king of Belgium, Mozambique and Angola to Portugal, Namibia and Tanzania to Germany, Somalia to Italy, most of western Africa to France, and Egypt, Sudan, Nigeria, Uganda, Kenya, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana to Britain
1886: Leopold II of Belgium establishes the Congo Free State over Kongo/Zaire and enacts a policy of ethnic cleansing that would reduce the population from 20 million to 8 million by 1908 because of disease, torture or executions
1886: George Goldie founds the Niger Company to administer Nigeria on behalf of Britain
1886: The kingdom of Shewa conquers the Oromo lands
1886: Britain establishes a protectorate over Zanzibar, still dominated by Arabs
1886: Gold is discovered in the Boer stronghold of Transvaal, South Africa
1888: British investors in South Africa form De Beers Consolidated Mines to control the diamond trade
1888: The British East African Company acquires Kenya
1889: Yohannes IV of Ethiopia dies in battle and is succeeded by emperor Menelik II, king of Shewa, who establishes Addis Abeba as Ethiopia's new capital
1889: Cecil Rhodes begins to colonize the Southern African regions (Rhodesia, South Africa) for the British
1889: Italy invades Eritrea
1890: Rhodes conquers the Ndebele state (which becomes known as Rhodesia) and founds Salisbury (Harare) and is appointed prime minister of the Cape colony In South Africa
1890: Namibia becomes a German colony
1890: the Tutsi kingdom of Rwanda and Burundi becomes the German colony Ruanda-Urundi
1890: Frederick Lugard is appointed military administrator of Uganda by Britain
1891: Nyasaland becomes a British protectorate
1891: France invades the kingdoms of Niger and Guinea
1891: Somaliland is divided between Italy and Britain
1892: The gold rush brings a railway to Johannesburg in South Africa
1893: Swaziland becomes a British protectorate
1893: France occupies Dingiray (Senegal)
1893: Buganda becomes a British protectorate
1894: Kenya becomes a British colony
1894: Togo becomes a German protectorate
1894: the kingdom of Dahomey is annexed by French West Africa
1894: Belgium conquers eastern Congo from the Arabs
1895: Frances forces the Merina queen to abdicate
1895: Italy invades Ethiopia
1896: Italy is defeated by Ethiopia at Adwa/Adua and only Eritrea becomes an Italian colony
1896: Madagascar becomes a French colony
1896: France conquers southern Chad and Mauritania
1896: Britain attacks Sudan again
1896: France occupies Ouagagougou (Upper Volta)
1898: British general Herbert Kitchener conquers Sudan from the Mahdists at the Battle of Omdurman and massacres thousands of Sudanese tribesmen, returning theoretically Sudan to Egypt which is theoretically under the Ottomans, and encourages southern Sudan to convert to Christianity and ban Arab customs
1898: Muhammad Abdille Hassan resists British occupation in Somaliland
1898: France conquers Samory Toure's kingdom
1898: France conquests French Sudan (Mali)
1899: 26,000 Boer civilians die in concentration camps during the war between Britain and the Boers
1899: About 25% of the gold of the world comes from the mines of Johannesburg, South Africa
1899: Britain buys Nigeria from the Niger Company
1900: The French found Fort-Lamy in Chad (later renamed N'Djamena)
1900: Britain creates an apartheid system in Kenya importing whites from South Africa, Canada and Australia
1900: Britain extends its control from Buganda on the entire territory of Uganda
1901: British Ghana incorporates northern territories
1902: Lourenco Marques becomes the capital of Mozambique
May 1902: Boers and British sign a peace treaty granting autonomy to South Africa and creating segregation for blacks
1903: France imposes a "head tax" on Cote d'Avoir's population
1903: Britain sends Indians to work on a railway in Kenya
1904: 12,000 British settlers live in Rhodesia
1904: Lothar von Trotha massacres the Herero and Namaqua in Namibia in 1904-1907
1904: German troops massacre 65,000 members of the Herero tribe in Namibia
1904: Brazzaville becomes the capital of French Central Africa
1905: France occupies all of Madagascar
1905: The Maji Maji revolt against Germany in Tanganyka
1906: Guinea becomes part of French West Africa
1908: at the end of the Congo war, the native population has decline by 10-20 million (at least 8 million were killed) and Congo has become a colony of Belgium
1910: The British colonies of Transvaal, Orage Free State, Natal and Cape unite in the Union of South Africa
1910: Gabon (Libreville) is separated from Congo (Brazzaville) but remains a French colony in central Africa
1910: Middle Congo becomes a colony of French Equatorial Africa
1912: the African National Congress is founded to promote the rights of blacks in South Africa
1913: Menelik of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Lij Iyasu
1914: Togo is occupied by Britain and France
1914: Britain unites south and north Nigeria (the north being a caliphate ruling over the Fulani-Hausa ethnic group while the south is still divided into many tribal groups) and Frederick Lugard is appointed governor of the new colony
1915: South Africa inherits Namibia from Germany
1916: Britain conquers Tanganyika from Germany
1916: Britain incorporates Darfur into Sudan
1916: France conquers northern Chad (kingdoms of Ouadai and Baguirmi)
1916: Lij Iyasu of Ethiopia is deposed and is succeeded by Menelik's daughter, Zawditu
1916: Belgium conquers Rwanda and Burundi from Germany
1917: Britain suppresses a rebellion in Southern Sudan
1918: France and Britain conquer Cameroon
1919: Upper Volta becomes a separate territory of French West Africa
1920: Britain drops incendiary bombs on rebels in Southern Sudan
1920: There are 20,000 Indians in Kenya
1922: the British settlers of Rhodesia vote to secede from South Africa
1924: the British governor of Sudan, Lee Stack, is assassinated in Cairo
1925: Sudan completes the Sennar Dam on the Blue Nile
1925: Belgium creates African's first national park, Virunga National Park, in Congo Kinshasa
1926: Andre Matswa forms the liberation movement of French Congo
1926: France makes Niamey, a town of 3,000 people, the capital of Niger
1927: South Africa makes it illegal to have casual sex with a person of the other race
1927: Hastings Banda emigrates from Nyasaland to the USA to study
1928: Britain massacres 200 tribesmen in Bahr-al_Jabal, Southern Sudan
1930: Zawditu of Ethiopia dies and is succeeded by Ras Tafari Makonnen, who becomes emperor Haile Selassie I
1930: USA and Britain cut off diplomatic relations with Liberia, which still practices slavery
1930: France completes the railway in the Congo that cost the lives of 17,000 African workers
1931: white Kenyan archaeologist Louis Leakey discovers human stone tool fossils in the Olduvai Gorge of Kenya
1931: Jomo Kenyatta emigrates from Kenya to Britain to study
1934: racial laws forbid blacks from running any business in Rhodesia
1934: South Africa becomes independent
Oct 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia
1937: The Graduates' General Congress is formed to demand independence from Britain in Sudan
1937: The US-educated Nnamdi Azikiwe or "Zik" returns to Nigeria
1941: Britain liberates Ethiopia
1943: William Tubman becomes president of Liberia, a state in which only 3% of the population is free
1944: Felix Houphouet-Boigny founds the Syndicat Agricole Africain in Cote d'Avoire
1944: Sayyid al-Rahman, son Muhammad Ahmad and new leader of the Mahdists, founds the Umma Party in Sudan opposed to the union with Egypt
1944: The Nigerian nationalists Zik and Herbert Macaulay found the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroon
1945: Eritrea becomes a British protectorate
1946: Barthlemey Boganda starts a movement for the independence of Central Africa
Jun 1946: Pastor Ravelojaona and Gabriel Razafintsalama found the Democratic Party of Madagascar while Philibert Tsiranana founds the Party of the Marginalized of Madagascar
1946: France separates Mauritania and Senegal
Mar 1947: The Democratic Movement for Malagasy Reform launches an insurrection
1947: Jomo Kenyatta leads the liberation movement of Kenya
1948: the white government of South Africa creates apartheid to segregate blacks from whites
1948: Kwame Nkrumah founds the Convention People's Party in Ghana
Dec 1948: France quells the insurrection in Madagascar after tens of thousands of people have died in executions, tortures and starvation
1949: South Africa bans mixed-race marriages
1950: Nkrumah organizes a general strike in Ghana and is arrested by the British
1952: Eritrea and Ethiopia are federated in one country under Haile Selassie
1952: The Mau Mau guerrillas pledge to drive white people out of Kenya
1953: Northern Rhodesia, Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland are united in a federation
1953: Ibos and Yorubas riot in Kano, Nigeria
1953: Ismail al-Azhari wins elections in British Sudan and becomes prime minister appointing mostly northern Sudanese to the government
Dec 1953: Britain has arrested 150,000 Mau Mau insurgents
1954: Julius Nyerere founds the Tanganyka African National Union
1954: The CPP wins general elections in British Ghana but the Ashanti start their own National Liberation Movement
1956: British Togo votes to be annexed to Ghana
1956: Amilcar Cabral founds an independence movement in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde
1956: The Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) is founded
1956: Britain grants full independence to Sudan, a country with more than 400 languages/dialects and more than 50 ethnic groups that mainly relies on exports of cotton, but the Christian south rebels against the Muslim rulers
1957: Ghana, under Nkrumah, becomes the first black African country to win independence from a European colonizer
1957: Ethiopia abolishes the Arabic and Eritrean languages
1958: Guinea becomes independent under Sekow Toure, who creates a Maoist one-party state and carries out widespread "purges"
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1958: Kenneth Kaunda forms a liberation movement in Northern Rhodesia (Zambia)
1958: Mauritania becomes independent
1958: Sudanese general Ibrahim Abboud overthrows the civilian government, abolishes political parties and imposes Arabic and Islam on the south
1958: The All-African Peoples Conference is held in Accra, calling for the liberation of the whole continent
1958: Liberia outlaws racial discrimination
1958: Patrice Lumumba founds the liberation movement of Congo
1959: Tutsis kill Hutu leaders, starting riots that will kill 100,000 Tutsis
1959: Boganda is killed in a mysterious plane crash in Central Africa
1959: end of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya (13,000 Kenyans and 100 Europeans dead)
1960: British and Italian Somaliland gain independence and merge to form Somalia
1960: Mali becomes independent under Modibo Keita
1960: Senegal becomes independent under Leopold Senghor
1960: Central Africa becomes independent under David Dacko
1960: Mauritania becomes independent under Mokhtar Ould Daddah
1960: Gabon becomes independent under Mba and enjoys an economic boom
1960: Benin becomes independent
1960: Chad becomes independent under dictator Francois Tombalbaye
1960: Niger becomes independent under Hamani Diori
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under prime minister Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
1960: Belgian Congo (Zaire) becomes independent, with Patrice Lumumba as prime minister and Joseph Kasavubu as president, while the province of Katanga declares its independence under Moise Tshombe
1960: Herman Toivo Ya Toivo form the South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO), the Namibia liberation movement
1960: the white police of South Africa kills 67 blacks during anti-apartheid demonstrations in Sharpeville
1960: Madagascar becomes independent under Philibert Tsiranana
1960: French Congo (Brazzaville) becomes independent under Fulbert Youlou
1960: Nigeria becomes independent under Abubakar Tafawa Balewa
1960: the African National Congress is banned in South Africa and Nelson Mandela launches armed resistance against the white regime
1960: Cote d'Avoire becomes independent under Houphouet-Boigny and enjoys an economic boom
1960: Keita of Mali is deposed by a coup led by Moussa Traore
1960: Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) becomes independent under Maurice Yameogo
1960: French Togo becomes independent under Sylvanus Olympio
1961: Tanganyika becomes independent under Julius Nyerere
1961: Lumumba is assassinated in Congo (Zaire)
1961: Cameroon becomes independent under Ahmadou Ahidjo
1961: Anti-Portuguese riots and guerrilla in Angola by the Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA), sponsored by the communists, and the Uniao Nacional paraa a Independencia Total de Angola (UNITA), sponsored by South Africa
June 1962: The Frente de Libertacao do Mocambique (Frelimo), led by Eduardo Mondlane, starts a liberation war against Portugal in Mozambique
1962: Ethiopian emperor Haile Sellassie dissolves the Eritrean parliament and annexes the country, while Eritreans begin an independence war
1962: Nelson Mandela is arrested in South Africa
1962: Milton Obote leads Uganda to independence under the Buganda king Edward Mutesa
1962: Rwanda becomes independent under Gregoire Kayitanda, a Hutu, while Tutsis start a guerrilla war
1962: Burundi becomes independent under Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV
1962: Christians in the south of Sudan start a civil war (the "Anya Nya" movement)
1963: the first conference of the Organisation of African Unity is held in Addis Ababa
1963: Chad's government outlaws all opposition parties, triggering civil war with Frolinat
1963: Olympio overthrown and killed in Togo
1963: Alphonse Massamba-Debat seizes power in Congo Brazzaville and steers the country towards socialism
1963: the federation of the Rhodesias dissolves
1963: Katanga accepts integration in the Congo (Zaire) and president Joseph Kasavubu appoints Moise Tshombe prime minister
1963: Tuaregs of the Sahara stage a failed insurrection in Mali
1964: Nothern Rhodesia becomes independent and is renamed Zambia
1964: Nyasaland becomes independent and is renamed Malawi under Hastings Banda who declares himself president for life
1963: Zanzibar becomes an independent sultanate
1963: Kenya becomes independent under Kenyatta
Dec 1963: Africans overthrow the Arab sultanate of Zanzibar
1964: Kenyatta outlaws all parties but his own
Nov 1964: Sudan's dictator Abboud is forced to resign and Sudan returns to civilian rule under the young Oxford-educated Sadiq al-Mahdi
1964: Zanzibar is united to Tanganyika to become Tanzania
1964: Pierre Mulele leads the Simba rebellion in Congo
1964: Samora Machel leads Frelimo's first military attacks against the Portuguese in Mozambique
1964: Mauritania becomes a one-party state under the People's Party
1965: Lumumba of Congo is overthrown by Belgium and USA that install Joseph Desire Mobutu (later renamed Mobutu Sese Seko)
1965: Gambia becomes independent under Dawda Jawara
1965: Riots in Nigeria
1965: Hutus win the elections in Burundi but Tutsi king Mwambutsa IV refuses to appoint a Hutu prime minister
1965: white leader Ian Smith declares the independence of (Southern) Rhodesia, not recognized by Britain
1966: Yameogo of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed by Maurice Lamizana
1966: Milton Obote seizes power in Uganda deposing the Buganda heir Edward Mutesa
1966: Senghor proclaims Senegal a one-party socialist state
1966: Mobutu of Congo hangs former prime minister Evariste Kimba and cabinet members in front of a large crowd
1965: Seretse Khama wins the first national elections and becomes prime minister of Bechunaland
1966: Bechuanaland becomes independent under Seretse Khama and changes name to Botswana
1966: Ntare V deposes his father Mwambutsa IV in Burundi but is overthrown by Michel Micombero in a military coup
1966: SWAPO of Namibia launches guerrilla attacks against the occupying troops of South Africa
1966: Jean-Bedel Bokassa ousts Dacko in Central Africa and installs a brutal dictatorship with help from France
1966: Balewa is overthrown and killed in a failed military coup by general Ironsi and is succeeded by colonel Yakubu Gowon
1966: Basutoland declares independence and changes name to Lesotho
1966: Kwame Nkrumah is overthrown in Ghana by the army
May 1967: Ojukow declares Biafra independent from Nigeria, following massacres of Ibos and sparking a civil war
1967: the two factions involved in the Nigerian civil war agree to a 48-hour ceasefire so they can watch Pele play an exhibition game in Lagos
1967: Mba dies and El Hadj Omar Bongo seizes power in Gabon with help from Morocco, turning the richest African country into a one-party corrupt mess
1967: Nyere turns Tanzania into a Maoist state, thereby destroying the economy and turning Tanzania into one of the poorest countries in the world
1967: Gnassingbe Eyadema seizes power in Togo
1968: Swaziland becomes independent
1968: Samora Machel proclaims Marxism-Leninism as the ideology of Frelimo in Mozambique
1968: Pierre Mulele is arrested in Congo, tortured and killed (his limbs amputated one by one)
1968: Sierra Leone becomes independent under Siaka Stevens
1968: the United Nations imposes economic sanctions on the racial government of Rhodesia, while Joshua Nkomo, Abel Muzorewa, Ndabaningi Sithule, and Robert Mugabe start guerrilla warfare
1968: France saves Tombalbaye of Chad from Muslim rebels
1968: Massamba-Debat is ousted in a coup by Marien Ngouabi
1968: Moussa Treore seizes power in Mali
1968: Mauritius gains independence from Britain
1969: minister Tom Mboya is assassinated in Kenya
1969: Eduardo Mondlane, leader of Frelimo in Mozambique, is assassinated
October 1969: Somalia's general Muhammad Siad Barre seizes power in Somalia and turns Somalia into a communist dictatorship
1969: Francisco Macias Nguema seizes power in Equatorial Guinea
May 1969: Sudanese colonel Jaafar Muhammad al-Numairi/Nimeiri overthrows the civilian government and sets out to ban political parties but grants autonomy to the south
1970: Nigeria re-annexes Biafra after one million people died
1970: The Eritrean People's Liberation Front is founded to fight for the independence of Eritrea from Ethiopia
1970: Sudan's army defeats an attempted coup by the Mahdists
Jan 1971: Muslim general Idi Amin stages a coup in Uganda with the support of Nubian forces of the Ugandan army and becomes the dictator of a mostly Christian country (300,000 people will die in 8 years of political violence and starvation)
1971: Sudan's army defeats an attempted coup by the communists
1971: Mobutu renames Congo as Zaire
1971: Tubman of Liberia dies and is succeeded by William Tolbert
1972: Gabriel Ramanantsoa seizes power in Madagascar and steers the country towards socialism
1972: Sudan grants autonomy to the south who elects its own president, Abel Alier
1972: Nigeria switches to driving on the right
1972: Mathieu Kerekou seizes power in Dahomey and turns it into a socialist state
1972: Kaunda outlaws all opposition parties, introduces socialism and turns Zambia into one of the poorest countries in the world
1972: Libya occupies northern Chad in cahoots with Chad's dictator Tombalbaye
1972: 1,000 Tutsis (including king Ntare V) are massacred in Burundi, and in retaliation the Burundi government kills 150,000 Hutus
1972: general Juvenbal Habyarimana stages a coup in Rwanda
1973: France sends troops to help quell Chad's revolt
March 1973: Black September kills three Western diplomats in Sudan, including the USA ambassador to Sudan
1973: King Sobhuza II abrogates Swaziland's independence constitution and creates an absolute monarchy
1973: El-Ouali leads a group of Sahrawi (Western Saharan) students to form the "Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el Hamra and Rio de Oro", or Polisario, fighting for independence from Spain
1974: 200,000 people die of famine in Ethiopia
1974: Mali and Burkina Faso (Upper Volta) fight a border war
September 1974: Haile Selassie of Ethiopia is deposed in coup while Mengistu Haile Mariam seize power and turns the country into a communist state (end of the empire of Ethiopia)
1974: Guinea Bissau gains independence from Portugal under president Luis de Almeida Cabral
1974: Hundreds of people die of starvation in Somalia
1974: Seyni Kountche seizes power in Niger
1975: Didier Ratsiraka seizes power in Madagascar and establishes a socialist state
Feb 1975: The Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF), representing the ethnic group Tigrayans which makes up about 6% of the population, is founded in Ethiopia to fight against the dictatorship
1975: Cape Verde gains independence from Portugal
1975: Somalia executes Muslim religious leaders, grants equal rights to women, improves literacy and sedentarizes nomads
1975: Tombalbaye of Chad is deposed by Felix Malloum
1975: Spain withdraws from Western Sahara, Morocco invades Western Sahara and the Polisario proclaims the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and begins an independence war against Morocco
1975: Mozambique becomes independent under Samora Machel of Frelimo, who creates a socialist state, but 600,000 people die of starvation in the next ten years
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1975: Nigerian leader Gowon is overthrown by Murtala Ramat Mohammed, who moves the capital to Abuja
January 1975: Angola becomes independent but civil war erupts between UNITA, led by Jonas Savimbi, and MPLA, led by Agostinho Neto, who becomes Angola's first president
March 1975: Cuba and the Soviet Union send "advisors" to the MPLA in Angola
October 1975: South Africa intervenes on the side of UNITA in Angola
1975: The Comoros gain independence from France
1976: Lourenco Marques is renamed Maputo
1976: Tsadkan Gebretensae joins the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF)
1976: the Ebola virus is first identified in western Sudan and in a region of Congo
1976: Sudan has 18 million people
1976: Sadiq al-Mahdi attempts a coup in Sudan with help from Libya
1976: white police massacres 600 blacks during an anti-apartheid uprising in Soweto, South Africa
1976: colonel Jean Baptiste Bagaza, a Tutsi, seizes power in Burundi
July 1976: Israeli commandos storm an Air France plane hijacked by Palestinian terrorists in Entebbe, killing all the Palestinians and scores of Ugandan soldiers that were protecting them
October 1976: Mengitsu of Ethiopia orders the execution of 100,000 dissidents over four years of "red terror"
1976: Renamo is formed by white Rhodesian officers to fight the government of Mozambique
Sep 1976: Belgian scientist Peter Piot discovers an epidemics near the Ebola river in the Congolese rainforest that kills 300 people in the village of Yambuku
February 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia liquidates his political rivals and assumes absolute power
Mar 1977: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades Zaire from Angola to overthrow Mobutu, but the coup is repelled by Moroccan troops and Egyptian aircrafts assembled by France
July 1977: Somalia invades the Ogaden region of Ethiopia
August 1977: Mengitsu of Ethiopia declares "total war" against the Eritrean secessionists
1977: Bokassa, known for cannibalism, appoints himself emperor of Central Africa in a ceremony, sponsored by France, that costs the equivalent of the country's entire gross national product
1977: France, Belgium and Morocco help Mobutu repel an Angolan attack on Zaire
1977: Sudan signs a mutual defense treaty with Egypt, thus becoming de facto an ally of the USA
1977: Ngouabi of Congo Brazzaville is assassinated in a coup and Massamba-Debat (instigator of the coup) is executed, while Joachim Yhombi-Opango becomes the new president
1977: Riots in Guinea against Toure's communist government
May 1978: The Front for the National Liberation of the Congo (FNLC) invades Zaire again, and massacres 80 Europeans and 200 Africans, and this time is repelled by France's Foreign Legion
1978: the Soviet Union and Cuba send troops to support Mengitsu's regime
March 1978: Ethiopia with help from the Soviet Union and Cuba regains the Ogaden from Somalia
1978: Daddah of Mauritania is deposed by Mohammed Khouna Haidallah
1978: South Sudan's regional elections are won by general Joseph Lagu
1978: Kenyatta of Kenya dies and is succeeded by Daniel Arap Moi, who establishes an even more brutal dictatorship
1978: Abel Muzorewa succeeds Ian Smith in Rhodesia
1978: France attacks the Polisario to defend Mauritania's president
1979: Alhaji Shehu Shagari of the National Party (representing the Muslim North) wins the elections in Nigeria
September 1979: Angola's president Agostinho Neto dies and is succeeded by Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA
1979: Francisco Macias Nguema is overthrown in Equatorial Guinea (50,000 have died) by his nephew Teodoro Obiang
1979: Jerry Rawlings leads the revolution in Ghana against corrupt officers
1979: Goukouni Oueddei seizes power in Chad, the first Muslim leader of the country, with help from Libya, starting a civil war that almost destroys the capital
1979: France overthrows Bokassa (after it is revealed that he ordered the massacre of 100 children) and re-installs Dacko as president of Central Africa
1979: Uganda attacks Tanzania, but Tanzania defeats Uganda and ousts president Amin
1979: Denis Sassou Nguesso, supported by Angolan troops, seizes power in Congo Brazzaville
1980: Robert Mugabe wins elections in Rhodesia and declares the independent country of Zimbabwe
1980: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's president Luis de Almeida Cabral and installs general Joao Bernardo Vieira
1980: Seretse Khama dies and vice-president Ketumile Masire succeeds him as the new president of Botswana
1980: Senghor resigns and Abdou Diouf is elected president of Senegal
1980: Mauritania recognizes the Polisario
1980: Samuel Doe overthrows and kills Tolbert in Liberia (the native population runs the country for the first time in its history)
1980: Obote wins rigged elections in Uganda and Yoweri Museveni starts a guerrilla war
1980: Lamizana of Upper Volta (Burkina Faso) is deposed
1980: Mugabe wins the first free elections in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and creates a one-party socialist state
1980: Libya sends troops to support Chad against the French-backed rebels of Hissene Habre (thousands of civilians die)
1982: North Korean troops help Rhodesia crush a rebellion led by Joshua Nkomo that leaves thousands dead
1982: South Africa builds a nuclear weapon
1982: Moi declares a one-party socialist dictatorship in Kenya
1981: Hissene Habre seizes power in Chad
1981: Andre Kolingba ousts Dacko in Central Africa
1982: Swaziland king Sobhuza II dies, leaving 600 children to contend the throne
1982: Ahidja retires and Paul Biya becomes president of Cameroon
1983: Thomas Sankara seizes power in Upper Volta and changes its name to Burkina Faso
1983: Sudan mandates Islamic shariha law on the entire country and Christian leader John Garang leads the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA), helped by Ethiopia, in a new civil war against the Sudanese government
1983: Drought causes a famine that will kill 500,000 people in three years in Sudan
1983: Christian leader John Garang leads the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) in a new civil war against the Sudanese government
1983: Renamo (supported by Rhodesia and South Africa) starts guerrilla war against Frelimo in Mozambique
1983: Nkomo starts guerrilla warfare against Mugabe, and Mugabe retaliates with mass executions
Dec 1983: Shagari is overthrown by the military in Nigeria and Muhammadu Buhari becomes the new dictator
1984: 900,000 people die in Ethiopia of famine
1984: Haidallah of Mauritania is overthrown by Maaouya Ould Taya
1984: Sekou Toure of Guinea dies and Lansana Conte succeeds him
1984: France sponsors a coup against Cameroon's Biya that fails but kills hundreds
1984: Famine in Mozambique kills 100,000 people
1985: Ibrahim Babangida seizes power in Nigeria
1985: Every major country of the world has AIDS cases
1985: After mass graves of dissidents are discovered, Obote of Uganda is removed in a military coup led by Tito Okello
1985: Nyere of Tanzania retires and is succeeded by Ali Mwinyi
1985: Nimeiri/Numairi is deposed in Sudan by general Abd al-Rahman Siwar al-Dhahab
1986: Machel of Mozambique dies in an airplane crash and is succeeded by Joaquim Chissano
1986: Wole Soyinka is awarded the Nobel Prize, the first one in Africa
1986: Botswana posts the second highest growth rate in the world
1986: Joseph Momoth succeeds Siaka Stevens in Sierra Leone
1986: Museveni's guerrillas, helped by Paul Kagame's exiled Rwandan fighters of the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), conquer Uganda's capital
1986: Dacko creates a one-party state in Central Africa
1986: riots in Zambia stemming from poverty
1986: a successor to king Sobhuza II is chosen in Swaziland, Mswati II
1986: al-Barakat is established in Somalia to facilitate the transfer of money from emigrants abroad to their relatives in Somalia
1986: Sadiq al-Mahdi becomes prime minister of Sudan but the Islamic Front (Muslim Brotherood) of Turabi controls the government
1986: Abebech Gobena opens an organization in Ethiopia to help orphans, Abebech Gobena Children's Care and Development Association (Agohelma)
Feb 1987: A bus crash kills 35 near Nsukka in Nigeria
1987: Ndura Waruinge and Maina Njenga found Mungiki, a religious sect that promotes traditional moral values and the Mau Mau view of African nationalism
1987: Seyni Kountche of Niger dies and Ali Seybou succeeds him
1987: South African troops invade Angola to support Savimbi's rebels
1987: major Pierre Buyoya seizes power in Burundi
1987: Thomas Sankara of Burkina Faso is overthrown and executed by Blaise Campaore
1987: Mugabe and Nkomo reach an agreement that ends the civil war in Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)
1987: the Mungiki sect in Kenya has more than a million members
1987: France expels Libya from Chad
1988: 20,000 Hutus are massacred by Tutsis in Burundi
1988: civil war erupts in Somalia between Barre and the Isaqs (Somaliland)
December 1988: South African and Cuban troops withdraw from Angola
1989: DeKlerk wins national elections in South Africa on a democratic program
1989: Sudanese general Umar al-Bashir seizes power with support from Hassan al-Turabi's Islamic Front and from Iran, bans all political parties and creates a totalitarian Islamic state
1989: riots erupt in Mauritania between Arabs and blacks, and thousands of blacks are expelled to Senegal
1989: a ceasefire is signed between Morocco and the Polisario
1989: Charles Taylor leads rebels against Doe's government of Liberia, the beginning of Liberia's civil war
1989: SWAPO wins the first free elections in Namibia
1989: People riot against Didier Ratsiraka's economic policies in Madagascar
1989: Joseph Kony founds the Christian terrorist movement the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA)
1990: Namibia becomes independent under president Sam Nujoma
July 1990: The MPLA converts Angola to a market economy
1990: pro-democracy riots in Cote d'Avoire
1990: civil war in Senegal
1990: the Tuaregs of Niger rebel against the government
1990: Tutsi rebels helped by Uganda invade Rwanda but are repelled by Zaire, Belgium and France
1990: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe against Edgar Tekere's pro-capitalist and democratic party
1990: king Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho is deposed by her son Letsie III
1990: Habre of Chad (responsible for the death of 40,000 dissidents) is overthrown by Idriss Deby with help from Libya
1990: Tuaregs revolt against Mali
1990: Nelson Mandela is released from jail in South Africa
1990: Frelimo in Mozambique abandons socialism in favor of capitalism
Oct 1990: Paul Kagame's RPF invade Rwanda from Uganda
May 1991: the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front, led by Meles Zenawi and dominated by the Tigray People's Liberation Front of Tsadkan Gebretensae, and the Eritrean People's Liberation Front (EPLF) remove Mengitsu from power, and the 36-year-old Meles becomes Africa's youngest head of state, leading a government mainly consisting of the Tigray ethnic group that constitute only 6% of Ethiopia's population
1991: Antonio Mascarenhas Monteiro wins elections in Cape Verde
1991: Barre is deposed in Somalia but civil war erupts among the Somali clans, while Somaliland declares independence under president Mohamed Ibrahim Egal
1991: Seybou is deposed in Niger
1991: Eritrean rebels conquer Eritrea under Isaias Afwerke
1991: the brutal dictatorship of Mobutu causes riots in Zaire
1991: South Africa repeals the apartheid laws
1991: Traore of Mali is deposed by Amadou Toure
1991: Frederick Chiluba wins the first free elections in Zambia
1991: Foday Sankoh leads an invasion of Sierra Leone by Sierra Leonean dissidents, mercenaries and forces of Liberia's rebel Charles Taylor
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1992: Chissano of Mozambique and Renamo leader Alfonso Dhaklama sign a peace agreement that ends the civil war (900,000 people have been killed)
1992: Valentine Strasser deposes Joseph Momoh and seizes power in Sierra Leone
1992: the United Nation sends troops (led by the USA) in Somalia to stop fighting by clans that has claimed 300.000 lives, but local warlords led by Muhammad Aideed expel them
1992: Albert Zafy wins the first free elections in Madagascar
1992: Biya wins rigged elections in Cameroon
1992: Alpha Konare wins the first free elections in Mali
1992: Jose Eduardo Dos Santos of the MPLA wins the first free elections in Angola, but Savimbi refuses to recognize the result and resumes the civil war
1992: Pascal Lissouba wins the first free elections in Congo Brazzaville
1992: Jerry Rawlings wins the first democratic elections in Ghana
1993: Eritreans vote to become independent
Feb 1993: Paul Kagame's RPF kills thousands of Hutus in northern Rwanda
Aug 1993: Rwanda's president Juvenbal Habyarimana and Paul Kagame's RPF sign a peace accord
1993: Houphouet-Boigny dies after ruling Cote d'Avoire for 33 years, and is succeeded by Henri Konan Bedie
1993: Bongo barely wins the first free elections in Gabon
1993: end of the civil war in Senegal
1993: Felix Patassie wins the first free elections in Central Africa
1993: Moi wins the first democratic elections in Kenya, despite having destroyed its economy
1993: Mahamane Ousmane wins the first free elections in Niger
1993: Melchior Ndadaye wins the elections in Burundi and becomes the first Hutu president, but is assassinated by Tutsis in a coup that leaves thousands dead and starts a civil war that would kill 200.000 people
1993: a senior Bin Laden associate negotiate the purchase of enriched South African uranium with the mediation of Sudanese officials
1993: Omar Hassan al-Bashir is appointed president of Sudan while Hassan al-Turabi remains the most powerful man in the country
1993: Moshood Abiola wins the elections but general Sani Abacha seizes power in Nigeria
1994: Nelson Mandela wins the first free elections in South Africa and becomes its first black president
1994: Mozambique's president Chissano, who has received an honorary degree from a Hindu University, introduces mandatory meditation for all soldiers and police officers
1994: South Africa's right-wing movement AWB, led by supremacist leader Eugene Terreblanche, carries out a bombing campaign that kills 21 people
1994: Yahya JAmmeh deposes Jawara in Gambia
Apr 1994: a moderate Hutu, Cyprien Ntaryamira, is appointed president of Burundi, but is assassinated together with the president of Rwanda, Juvenbal Habyarimana
1994: Jean Kambanda leads the government of Rwanda and Theoneste Bagosora defines its strategy while 800,000 Tutsis are slaughtered by Hutus and the RPF slaughters Hutus
Jul 1994: Tutsi rebels conquer Rwanda, led by Paul Kagame , while the RPF, led by Kayumba Nyamwasa massacres more than 50,000 Hutus
1994: Banda is defeated in Malawi's first free elections and Bakili Muluzi becomes president
1994: South Africa has the highest rate of murders in the world (67 per 100,000 people)
1995: Benjamin Mkapa wins the first free elections in Tanzania
1995: Malawi's former president Hastings Banda is tried for killing more than 10,000 people during his rule
Apr 1995: Rwanda's RPF, led by led by Kayumba Nyamwasa, massacres 4,000 Hutus in the refugee camp of Kibeho
1995: Serial killer Moses Sithole is arrested in South Africa after raping and killing 38 women
1995: Meles Zenawi wins elections in Ethiopia
1995: Konare's government of Mali signs a peace agreement with the Tuareg rebels
1995: Abacha executes oppposition leaders in Nigeria
1995: The Ebola virus kills entire villages in Congo Kinshasa (Zaire)
1995: White palaeontologist Richard Leakey leads the opposition in Kenya
1996: A meningitis epidemics kills thousands of people in Burkina Faso
1996: Ethiopian troops raid an al-Qaeda base in Somalia
1996: A puritanical Muslim sect in the Ruwenzori mountains of western Uganda founds the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF)
1996: Ahmed Tejan Kabbah wins elections in Sierra Leone, but is deposed by general Johnny Paul Koroma
1996: warlord Muhammad Aideed of Somalia dies and is succeeded by his son Hussein
1996: Zafy is deposed by parliament and Didier Ratsiraka wins the new elections in Madagascar
1996: Rwanda invades Congo/Zaire to fight Hutu militias
1996: Mugabe wins rigged elections in Zimbabwe after all other candidates withdraw
1996: colonel Ibrahim Mainassara seizes power in Niger
1996: a ferry sinks in Lake Victoria killing about 600 people
1996: Museveni wins the first free elections in Uganda
1996: an Islamic militant of Takfir wal Hijra kills 12 people in a Sudanese mosque
June 1996: Following the Khobar Towers attack, Sudan expels Osama bin Laden
1996: Pierre Buyoya seizes power again in Burundi, while Hutu rebels conduct a guerrilla war that kills 100,000 people
1996: Army unites rebel in Central Africa
1997: Patasse and the rebel soldiers sign a peace treaty in Central Africa
1997: Charles Taylor wins rigged elections in Liberia and his opponent Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf has to flee the country
1997: Kofi Annan of Ghana becomes the secretary general of the United Nations
1997: the government of Niger and the Tuareg rebels sign a peace treaty
1997: Somali factions sign a peace treaty
1997: Laurent-Desire Kabila, helped by Rwanda, wins Congo/Zaire's civil war while Mobutu is abroad, and Jean-Pierre Bemba and other Mobutu officials flee the capital
1997: Rwandan troops, pursuing Hutu militias, invade Congo/Zaire
Aug 1997: Rwanda's RPF, led by Kayumba Nyamwasa, massacres thousands of Hutus in Mahoko
Oct 1997: Rwanda's RPF, led by Kayumba Nyamwasa, massacres 10,000 Hutu refugees in Kayove-Bisizi, Kanama, Karambo, Rwerere, Mutura and Rubavu
Dec 1997: Rwanda's RPF, led by Kayumba Nyamwasa, stages a massacre of Congolese Tutsi refugees
1997: Denis Sassou-Nguesso becomes president of Congo Brazzaville after military confrontation
1998: Ethiopia and Eritrean fight a border war
1998: Masire retires and vice-president Festus Gontebanye succeeds him as president of Botswana
1998: Nigerian troops restore president Tejan Kabbah in Sierra Leone, but Foday Sankoh continues the civil war
1998: an oil pipeline explodes in Nigeria killing more than 500 people
1998: Civil war in Chad between the forces of president Deby and the rebels led by Youssouf Togoimi
1998: Jean Kambanda of Rwanda is convicted of genocide by the United Nations tribunal
1998: Namibia, Angola and Zimbabwe send troops to the Congo/Zaire to support Laurent Kabila against rebels backed by Uganda and Rwanda
1998: Nigerian dictator Abacha dies
1998: the U.S.A. bombs Sudan for helping terrorists and Afghanistan's camps where Osama bin Laden trains his militants
1998: two truck bombs destroyed the American embassies in Kenya and Tanzania, killing 213 people in Kenya and 11 in Tanzania
1998: Puntland declares its independence from Somalia under the presidency of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed
1998: Ernest Wamba dia Wamba leads the Rally for Congolese Democracy (RCD), backed by Uganda and Rwanda and based in Goma, in a rebellion against Kabila in Congo Kinshasa, while Jean-Pierre Bemba founds the Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC) in the east of Congo Kinshasa
1999: Rwanda installs Emile Ilunga as head of the RCD in Congo Kinshasa and Wamba flees to Kisangani, protected by Uganda
Jan 1999: A bomb by Muslim terrorists kills two people at a restaurant in Cape Town, South Africa to protest the showing of the film "The Siege"
1999: Olusegun Obasanjo wins democratic elections in Nigeria
1999: A coup deposes Guinea Bissau's dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira
1999: Umar al-Bashir has Turabi arrested in Sudan
1999: general Robert Guei seizes power in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
1999: Liberia supports rebels of Sierra Leone led by Sam Bockarie, a deputy of Foday Sankoh
1999: Mainassara of Niger is assassinated and succeeded by Daouda Wanke
1999: Thabo Mbeki wins the elections in South Africa and succeeds Mandela as president
1999: South African president Thabo Mbeki declares AIDS drugs dangerous
1999: Tandja Mamadou wins democratic elections in Niger
2000: 2,000 people are killed in fighting between Muslims and Christians in the Nigerian city of Kanduna
2000: mass killing in Kanungu, Uganda, is carried out by members of Joseph Kibwetere's Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God (more than 700 dead)
2001: Opposition leader John Kufuor wins the elections in Ghana and becomes its new president, while Rawlings retires peacefully
2001: Pedro Pires wins elections in Cape Verde
2000: Abdoulaye Wade wins the first free elections in Senegal and replaces Diouf
2000: rebel Foday Sankoh is captured in Sierra Leone, but civil war continues
2000: the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD), supported by Guinea, is formed by Liberian refugees and exiles to fight Charles Taylor's government
2000: Squatters seize hundreds of white-owned farms in Zimbabwe
2000: Islamic law ("sharia") is introduced in several states of Nigeria
2000: Laurent Gbagbo wins rigged elections in Cote d'Avoire (Ivory Coast)
2000: A peace treaty is signed between Ethiopia and Eritrea after 80,000 have been killed
2000: the USA approves a law (AGOA) to eliminate tariffs on hundreds of items for African countries
2000: 425 people are infected by the ebola virus in Uganda and more than half of them die
May 2000: Christian churches are destroyed by the Sudanese government
Dec 2000: an Islamic militant of Takfir wal Hijra kills 20 people in a Sudanese mosque
2000: Carlos Cardoso, a journalist who exposed corruption in Mozambique, is murdered
2000: The Union of Islamic Courts is founded in Somalia and Aden Hashi Ayro organizes its armed militia, Al-Shabaab
Sep 2001: Riots between Christians and Muslims around Nigeria's Jos leave 913 people dead
2001: Tycoon Marc Ravalomanana wins the elections in Madagascar but Ratsiraka refuses to concede
2001: the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) dissolves and is replaced by the African Union
2001: Riots in Nairobi's slums
2001: Laurent Kabila of Zaire (DR Congo) is killed by a bodyguard and succeeded by his son Joseph Kabila, supported by Angola
2001: the Sudanese government arrests several leaders of the Islamist party (Popular National Congress), including its leader Hassan al-Turabi
2001: Nigerian army soldiers kill 200 civilians in retaliation for the murder of soldiers in Benue state
2001: an Ebola epidemic spreads in Congo Brazzaville and Gabon
2001: the party of Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya, the Democratic and Social Republican Party (PRDS), wins democratic elections
2001: African nations launch the "New Plan for Africa's Development" (Nepad) to foster progress and democracy
2001: Following Al Qaeda's terrorist attacks, the USA shuts down al-Barakat causing the economic collapse of Somalia
2001: Mohammed Yusuf founds the Islamist terrorist group Boko Haram in northern Nigeria
2002: 100 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Lagos during riots between Muslims and Christians
Sep 2002: A militia from the Ngiti tribe carries out a massacre at Nyankunde Christian Hospital in Congo, killing more than one thousand people
2002: Mohamed Ibrahim Egal of Somaliland dies and is succeeded by Dahir Riyale Kahin
Apr 2002: The Constitutional Court of Madagascar recognizes tycoon Marc Ravalomanana as the new president
2002: Ivory Coast's president Laurent Gbagbo accepts to share power with Alassane Ouattara, leader of the opposition, but soldiers mutiny, form three rebel groups and start a civil war, splitting the country between the Muslim north (rebels) and the Christian south (government)
2002: France sends "peacekeeping" troops to Ivory Coast
2002: Somali factions sign a truce deal after decades of civil war
2002: almost 2,000 people die in Senegal when a ferry capsizes
2002: Togoimi and Deby sign a peace deal, ending the civil war in Chad
2002: Alpha Konare steps down as president of Mali and Amadou Toumani Toure wins the new elections
2002: Jonas Savimbi, leader of UNITA, is killed and the Angolan civil war ends
2002: Levy Mwanawasa wins elections in Zambia and becomes the new president
2002: 90 Somalis die on a boat from Somalia to Aden
2002: 200 people are killed in the Nigerian city of Kanduna by Islamic fanatics protesting against a Miss World pageant
2002: Mugabe loses national elections in Zimbabwe but declares himself the winner and approves the "acquisition" of thousands of white farms
2002: France sends troops to restore order in Cote d'Avoir, following an armed uprising
2002: "Ninja" rebels, led by Pastor Ntumi, stage a rebellion against government of Congo Brazzaville
2002: the Burundi government and the Hutu rebels sign a ceasefire agreement
2002: Jean-Pierre Bemba's Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC) kill at least 60,000 members of Pygmy tribes in the east of Congo Kinshasa
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 :www.scaruffi.com/service/terms.html>Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
Jan 2002: The Sudanese government and the Christian rebels of the SPLA sign a ceasefire agreement
2002: Francois Bozize leads a rebellion against Patasse in Central Africa, and Libya sends troops to defend the government together with Jean-Pierre Bemba's MLC of bordering Congo Kinshasa, which commit atrocities against civilians
2002: about 42 million people are infected with AIDS (70% in Africa), 3.1 million people died of AIDS in 2002 alone, and half of them are women
2003: Mwai Kibaki wins the elections in Kenya and replaces Moi
2003: Mungiki cult members kill 23 people in Kenya
2003: Hundreds of people are killed during ethnic fights in the oil-producing region of the Niger Delta in Nigeria
2003: Francois Bozize captures the capital of Central Africa and deposes Patasse
2002: the Congolese Liberation Movement carries out cannibalism, rape, torture and murder in the Congo province of Ituri
2003: fierce battles between the army of Burundi and rebels of the Forces for the Defense of Democracy
2003: both Sam Bockarie and Johnny Paul Koroma flee from Sierra Leone to Liberia
2003: Hutu politician Dominitien Ndayizeye becomes the new leader of Burundi while Hutu rebels of the Forces for National Democracy (FNL) attack the capital killing hundreds of people
2003: 1,000 people die in fierce tribal fighting in eastern DR Congo (Zaire) as Ugandan troops pull out of Congo
2003: Charles Taylor of Liberia is indicted for war crimes by a United Nations court, while LURD soldiers close in on the capital, and is forced to step down by USA pressure and take asylum in Nigeria
2003: Isaias Samakuva is elected leader of Angola's former rebel movement UNITA
2003: A transitional government of national reconciliation is created in DR Congo/Zaire (president Joseph Kabila, Abdoulaye Yerodia Ndombasi for the old Kinshasa government, Azarias Ruberwa for the Rwandan-backed RCD-Goma, the largest rebel group, Jean-Pierre Bemba for the Ugandan-backed Congolese Liberation Movement (MLC), the second largest rebel group, and Arthur Z'Ahidi Ngoma for the Kinshasa political opposition).
2003: rebel Foday Sankoh of Sierra Leone dies in jail
2003: the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), led by Joseph Kony, responsible for abducting thousands of children during the civil war, kills about 60 people in Uganda
2003: more than 250 people die when a boat capsizes in the Democratic Republic of Congo
2003: Domitien Ndayizeye is appointed president of Burundi by a coalition government in an effort to end the civil war
2003: former Madagascar prime minister Tantely Andrianarivo is sentenced to 12 years of hard labour for abuse of office
2003: Darfur rebels demanding autonomy launch attacks against the Sudanese government
Aug 2003: Taylor and the rebels sign a peace agreement that finally ends Liberia's civil war and Gyude Bryant is appointed interim president
2003: 20,000 murders are committed in South Africa in one year, the second highest rate in the world after Colombia
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 192 people in Uganda (february)
2004: Defeated in Uganda, the ADF moves its operations to neighboring DR Congo/Zaire
2004: Ethiopia's economy grows about 10% yearly between 2004 and 2011
2004: Arab militias (JAnjaweed militias led by Sheik Musa Hilal) carry out massive atrocities in Sudan's Darfur region
2004: Sudan and John Garang's Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA) sign a peace deal, ending a civil war that cost the lives of two million people
2004: Sudanese government and southern rebel sign a peace deal, and ex-rebel leader John Garang becomes Sudan's vice-president
2004: Angola's economy grows 17% a year on average between 2004 and 2008
Nov 2004: Ali Gedi is appointed prime minister of Somalia
2004: a woman, Tanzania's Getrude Mangella, is elected president of the Pan African parliamen
2004: the Lords Resistance Army (LRA) kills 42 people in Uganda (may)
2004: hundreds of Muslims are massacred by Christians in Yelwa, Nigeria
2004: Hutu rebels massacre 156 Congolese Tutsi refugees in Burundi
2004: France dectroys the entire airforce of Ivory Coast, guilty of accidentally killing a few of its soldiers
2004: 39.4 million people have AIDS worldwide
2004: The government and the rebels of Senegal make peace
2004: Djibouti becomes a counter-terrorism base for the USA
Aug 2004: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 152 Banyamulenge Congolese refugees at Gatumba in Burundi
Dec 2004: Armando Guebuza of Frelimo, one of the richest men in the country, wins presidential elections in Mozambique, succeeding Chissano who wants to devote himself to peace missions
2005: Namibia president Sam Nujama retires and is succeeded by Hifikepunye Pohamba
2005: Sudanese vice-president and former rebel leader John Garang dies in a helicopter crash
2005: Former dictator Joao Bernardo Vieira wins elections in Guinea Bissau
2005: Riots following disputed elections in Ethiopia won again by Meles Zenawi cause about 200 deaths
2005: Niamey has 750,000 people, three times what it had in 1980
2005: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and his son Faure Gnassingbe but is forced by international pressures to resign
2005: A deadly ebola-like virus kills 174 people in two weeks in Angola
2005: More than one million people are left homeless in Zimbabwe after police destroys their illegal homes
2005: Burundi's former Hutu rebel group FDD, led by Pierre Nkurunziza, win the first free parliamentary elections in Burundi
2005: bandits raid the village of Turbi in Kenya killing 76 people
2005: a miiltary council overthrows Mauritania's president Maaouiya Ould Taya
2005: Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf wins the first democratic elections in Liberia and becomes the first woman elected head of state in Africa
2005: Rebels supported by Sudan kill more than 100 people in Chad
2005: Jakaya Kikwete wins presidential elections in Tanzania
2005: Bitange Ndemo is placed in charge of information technology in Kenya and launches a program of modernization
2006: Government troops carry out ethnic cleansing in the north of the Central African Republic
2006: The Sudanese government funds its war in Darfur via the French bank BNP Paribas
2006: former dictator Charles Taylor is returned by Nigeria to Liberia where he is wanted for war crimes
2006: Nigeria pays off its foreign debt, the first African nation to do so
Jun 2006: Islamists of the Union of Islamic Courts led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed take control of Somalia's capital
Dec 2006: Ethiopia helps the Somali government of Ali Gedi expel the Union of Islamic Courts from Mogadishu
2006: Chad repels an attack by Janjaweed rebels on its capital, N'Djamena
Sep 2006: Agathon Rwasa signs a peace deal with Burundi's government
2006: First democratic elections are held in DR Congo/Zaire, won by president Joseph Kabila
2006: The Ugandan government signs a truce with the Lord's Resistance Army, that moves to nearby countries
2006: A pipeline blast kills 260 in Nigeria
Dec 2006: Laurent Nkunda founds the National Congress for the Defence of the People leads a rebellion in eastern Congo Kinshasa to protect Tutsi tribes from Hutu bandits
2007: The government of Ivory Coast and the rebels sign a peace accord
2007: Ernest Koroma wins democratic elections and becomes president of Sierra Leone
2007: Inflation reaches 1,594% in Zimbabwe
2007: Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi wins the first democratic elections in Mauritania
2007: Africa's economy grows 5.7% yearly
Mar 2007: The first suicide attack by Al-Shabaab in Somalia's Mogadishu kills 73 people
2007: Battles between Ethiopian soldiers and Islamists kill more than 1,000 people in Somalia
2007: Janjaweed rebels kill 400 civilians of Chad near the border with Sudan
2007: a French judge accuses Paul Kagame of having plotted the killing of former president Juvenbal Habyarimana that sparked the genocide of 1994
2007: Umaru Yar'Adua of the north wins elections in Nigeria and Obasanjo retires
2007: 74 people are killed in Ethiopia by the Ogaden National Liberation Front
2007: Kenyan police kill 21 members of the banned Mungiki sect
2007: Kenya's Safaricom launches the mobile payment system M-Pesa
2007: Riots erupt between Shhites and Sunnis in Sokoto, Nigeria
2007: Ebola outbreak in DR Congo Zaire
2007: Tuareg rebels of Niger begin military operations under the name Niger Movement for Justice
2007: Southern Africa's largest shopping mall opens in Soweto, South Africa
2007: Gnassingbe Eyadema dies and Togo holds its first democratic elections
2007: riots erupt in Kenya after rigged elections get Mwai Kibaki reelected as president of Kenya over opposition leader Raila Odinga (1,500 people die)
2007: 5.4 million people have died in Congo since 1998 due to war, famine and disease
Mar 2007: A fire at the Malhazine armoury in Mozambique's capital Maputo kills more than 100 people and destroys 14,000 homes
Dec 2007: five French tourists are killed by Al Qaeda (Mauritania)
2008: Kenya's president Mwai Kibaki and opposition leader Raila Odinga form a coalition government with the latter joining as prime minister
2008: Bosco Ntaganda's militia kills 150 civilians in Congo Kinshasa's Kiwanji
2008: The last rebel group surrenders in Burundi
2008: Zimbabwean president Robert Mugabe's ruling ZANU-PF party loses parliamentary elections for the first time in 28 years but Mugabe intimidates opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai to withdraw from the presidential run-off, while unemployment reaches 80% and inflation 100,000%
2008: The USA bombs Somalia to kill an Al Qaeda leader, Aden Hashi Ayro
2008: Zimbabwean inflation hits 2.2 million per cent
2008: A roadside bomb kills more than 20 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
May 2008: A US air strike kills Al Shabaab's leader Ayro who is succeeded by Ahmed Godane
2008: A military coup led by general Mohamed Ould Abdelaziz ousts Mauritania's democratically elected president Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdallahi
2008: Zambia's president Levy Mwanawasa dies and is succeeded by vice-president Rupiah Banda
2008: Zimbabwe's inflation hits 11,250,000%
2008: The ruling Movimento Popular de Libertacao de Angola (MPLA) wins parliamentary elections in Angola
September 2008: Islamic extremists kill 12 soldiers in Mauritania
September 2008: South Africa's president Mbeki resigns following a scandal and is succeeded by Kgalema Motlanthe
Sep 2008: Islamic extremists kill 12 soldiers in Mauritania (Mauritania)
October 2008: Several car bombs kill 29 people in Hargeisa, Somaliland
Oct 2008: Shirwa Ahmed, a Somali-American, blows himself up in Somalia killing 20 other people
November 2008: A study by the Harvard School of Public Health claims that former South African president Thabo Mbeki is responsible for 330,000 AIDS-related deaths
November 2008: Somali pirates seize a Saudi oil tanker
November 2008: Muslim riots erupt after a Christian-backed party is declared the winner of elections in Nigeria's Plateau state
November 2008: Hundreds of people are killed in the central Nigerian city of Jos during fights between Christians and Muslims
November 2008: Riots involving Christians and Muslims leave 761 dead in Nigeria's Jos
December 2008: Guinea's president Lansana Conte dies and the military led by Moussa Dadis Camara seize power
December 2008: More than 600 people are killed at the border with DR Congo/Zaire by Ugandan rebels of the Lord's Resistance Army
December 2008: Opposition candidate John Atta Mills wins a tight presidential election in Ghana
December 2008: Somali pirates, mostly based in Puntland, collect at least $120 million in 2008 after seizing dozens of foreign ships
Dec 2008: Zimbabwe's inflation reaches 200% a day (230 million percent a year)
2008: South Africa establishes the "Joburg Art Fair", the largest art fair of Africa
2008: The skeletons of a previously unknown two-million-year-old humanlike species, Australopithecus Sediba, are found in South Africa
Jan 2009: Zimbabwe adopts multiple hard currencies to replace the Zimbabwe dollar
2009: Erik Hersman founds the iHub in Kenya for high-tech startups
2009: N'djamena has almost one million people, twice what it had in 1993
Jan 2009: Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamud "Farole" is elected president of Puntland
jan 2009: Somalia's president Abdullahi Yusuf resigns amid chaos, Ethiopia pulls out of Somalia and Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed is elected president of Somalia while the Islamist movement al-Shabab led by sheik Ahmed Godane takes control of the south of the country and other Islamist groups join in the movement Hizbul Islam (who most powerful figure is warlord Hassan Dahir Aweys) to fight the Somali government of Sheikh Sharif Ahmed
jan 2009: Madagascar's president Marc Ravalomanana fire's Antananarivo's mayor Andry Rajoelina, starting riots that cause the death of more than 100 people
jan 2009: The Rwandan government, cooperating with the government of Congo, arrests former Congolese rebel leader Laurent Nkunda, who is succeeded by Bosco Ntaganda at the head of the CNDP (National Congress for the Defence of the People)
feb 2009: Zimbabwe's opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai is sworn in as prime minister in a unity government with president Robert Mugabe
mar 2009: Madagascar's president Ravalomanana resigns and is replaced by opposition leader Andry Rajoelina, a former disc jockey turned media magnate, following anti-government riots that kill more than 100 people
mar 2009: Congolese rebel leader Bosco Ntaganda signs a peace agreement with the Congolese government and becomes a general in the army
mar 2009: Bissau's president Vieira is shot dead by rebel soldiers
apr 2009: Islamist opposition leader Sheikh Hassan Dahir Aweys returns to Somalia after two years in exile
may 2009: Islamist groups al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam launch a joint attack to oust Somalian president Sheik Sharif, laying a siege to Mogadishu that costs hundreds of lives
may 2009:Jacob Zuma is elected president of South Africa
jun 2009: president Bongo of Gabon dies and is replaced by Rose Francine Rogombe
jun 2009: a minister and 35 people are killed by a suicide car bomb attack in Somalia
jul 2009: protesters demonstrate against Niger's president Tandja Mamadou who wants to extend his term as president
jul 2009: attacks on police stations by Boko Haram, an anti-Western Islamic movement led by Mohammed Yusuf, leave hundreds dead in Nigeria's northern states, and Yusuf is killed by the police but soon replaced by Abubakar Shekau
jul 2009: Sub-Saharan Africa's main exporters of oil are Angola, Nigeria, Sudan and Equatorial Guinea
Sep 2009: Ali Ben Bongo, son of El Hadj Omar Bongo, is elected president in rigged elections, igniting riots
Apr 2009: Murle tribesmen kill 177 people, mainly women and children, of the Lou Nuer tribe in southern Sudan
Aug 2009: Murle tribesmen kill 185 people, mainly women and children, of the Lou Nuer tribe in southern Sudan
Sep 2009: Murle tribesmen kill more than 100 people, mainly women and children, of the Dinka Hol tribe in southern Sudan
Sep 2009: Guinean troops kill more than 150 people during opposition protests against Moussa Dadis Camara
2009: More than 2,000 people are killed in ethnic clashes in South Sudan's Jonglei state
Mar 2009: Lou Nuer tribesmen kill 453 people, mainly women and children, of the Murle ethnic group in Jonglei state, southern Sudan
Dec 2009: A suicide bomb attack in Somalia kills 20 people including four government ministers
Dec 2009: Madagascar's president Andry Rajoelina appoints a military prime minister, Vital-Albert Camille
Dec 2009: Tens of members of the religious cult Kala Kato are killed in riots in the northern Nigerian state of Bauchi
2009: More than 3,000 white farmers have been murdered in South Africa since the end of apartheid in 1994
2009: Nigerian forces attack the stronghold of the Islamic group Boko Haram in Maiduguri
2009: Bending to pressures from mainland China, South Africa refuses to issue a visa to the Dalai Lama to attend an international peace conference
Jan 2010: More than one thousand people are killed in clashes between Christians and Muslims in the Nigerian city of Jos
Jan 2010: The Guinean army surrenders power to a civilian, Jean-Marie Dore
Jan 2010: Nuer tribesmen kill more than 100 members of Dinkas in southern Sudan
Feb 2010: Nigeria's ill president Umaru Yar'Adua hands power over to his vice-president, Goodluck Jonathan, from the south
Feb 2010: The army overthrows Niger's president Mamadou Tandja, who was trying to extend his term in office
Feb 2010: 500 people are killed, mostly women and children, when Islamic pastoralists attack a village south of Jos in Nigeria
Mar 2010: Muslim Hausa-Fulani herders massacre 354 Christians in Dogo-Nahawa village near Nigeria's Jos
May 2010: Human-rights activist Floribert Chebeya is killed in Congo Kinshasa
May 2010: May 2010, with over 400 deaths, is the bloodiest month in Darfur (Sudan) since peacekeeping forces were deployed in december 2007
Jun 2010: Pierre Nkurunziza wins Burundi's rigged elections in which he was the only candidate and opposition leader Agathon Rwasa goes into hiding
Jun 2010: A twin bombing in Uganda's capital Kampala by Somali Islamists of al-Shabab kills 74 people who are watching the World Cup final
Jul 2010: Ntabo Ntaberi's Nduma Defense of Congo attacks villages in Congo Kinshasa's province of North Kivu, raping about 400 people and killing almost 300
Aug 2010: Kenya adopts a new constitution after a referendum
Aug 2010: Rebels gang-rape more than 240 women in Congo Kinshasa
Aug 2010: Islamists kill 30 people at a hotel in Somalia's capital
Sep 2010: Car bombs placed by Henry Okah and others of the Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta, or MEND, kill 12 people in Nigeria's capital Abuja
Nov 2010: Somali-USA citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed becomes Somalia's new prime minister
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alpha Conde wins presidential elections in Guinea
Nov 2010: Opposition leader Alassane Ouattara wins presidential elections in Ivory Coast but Laurent Gbagbo is sworn in again as president, causing riots
Dec 2010: Hizbul Islam (The Party of Islam) surrenders its Mogadishu territory to the Shabab militia in Somalia
Dec 2010: Following a series of bomb blasts on Christmas Eve in two Christian communities in Nigeria's Jos, more than 200 people are killed in religious fighting with Muslims
Dec 2010: Pirates take a record 1181 hostages in 2010, of which 1016 off the coast of Somalia, hijacking 53 ships of which 49 off the coast of Somalia
2010: Famine kills nearly 260,000 people, half of them children, in Somalia from 2010 to 2012
Jan 2011: South Sudan votes for secession from Sudan
2011: Rwanda sentences to jail former RPF commander Kayumba Nyamwasa for terrorist acts
2011: Dadaab in Kenya near the border with Somalia is the world's largest refugee camp with more than 500,000 people
Feb 2011: Congo's colonel Kibibi Mutware is convicted of sending his troops to rape, beat up and loot from the population of Fizi on New Year's Day
Feb 2011: African Union peacekeepers, Ethiopian troops and Somali government militias stage a coordinated offensive against the Islamist group Shabab
Mar 2011: About 1,000 people are killed as rebels attack the government in Ivory Coast and France bombs government troops
Apr 2011: French troops arrest Ivory Coast's president Gbagbo and deliver him to his opponent Alassane Ouattara, who becomes the new president of the country
Apr 2011: Goodluck Jonathan wins national elections in Nigeria
May 2011: Nigerian Islamist group Boko Haram carries out terrorist attacks in the northern city of Bauchi that kill 14 people
Jun 2011: The first suicide bombing in Nigeria's history, claimed by Islamist group Boko Haram, kills eight people, and bombs set by the Islamic group Boko Haram kill 25 people in the northeastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri
June 2011: Mauritanian and Malian soldiers raid an al-Qaeda camp in western Mali (Mali)
Jun 2011: Sudan kills hundreds of rebels in the Nuba mountains of Southern Kordofan state and then disposes of the bodies in mass graves
Jun 2011: Renegade Congolese soldiers rape 121 women in the eastern village of Nakiele
Jul 2011: 197 people drown in the Red Sea when a boat carrying Sudanese migrants to Saudi Arabia sinks
Jul 2011: South Sudan becomes an independent country with capital in Juba and run by Salva Kiir Mayardit
Aug 2011: The Murle tribe kills 600 men and women of the Nuer tribe in South Sudan over a cattle dispute
Aug 2011: A car bomb by Boko Haram kills 18 people at the United Nations building in the Nigerian capital Abuja
Sep 2011: About 200 people die when a ship sinks off the coast of Zanzibar
Sep 2011: A fire kills 61 people in a slum of Kenya's capital Nairobi
Sep 2011: Agathon Rwasa's militia massacres 36 government supporters in Burundi in retaliation for the government's campaign of targeted assassinations of the opposition
Oct 2011: More than 60 people are killed by a suicide bomb in the Somali capital of Mogadishu
Oct 2011: Liberian-born women Ellen Johnson Sirleaf and Leymah Gbowee win the Nobel Peace Prize
Oct 2011: Kenya sends troops into Somalia after al-Shabab militants kidnap foreign nationals in Kenya
Oct 2011: The world's population is 7 billion up from 1 billion in 1850 and less than 3 billion in 1950.
2011: Malaria kills a child every 45 seconds in Africa
Oct 2011: Michael Sata, who campaigned to protect workers from exploitation by mainland China, wins presidential elections in Zambia
Nov 2011: Multiple coordinated attacks by Boko Haram in Damaturu and Maiduguri (northeastern Nigeria) kill at least 63 people
Dec 2011: North Sudan kills Khalil Ibrahim, the leader of Darfur's main rebel group, the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM)
Dec 2011: Boko Haram kills 40 people in Nigeria on Christmas Day
Dec 2011: More than 150 people are held hostage in Somalia, mostly sailors from foreign ships seized for ransom by pirates
Jan 2012: Boko Haram kills scores of Christians in northern Nigeria
Jan 2012: Three huge bomb explosions target police and government offices in Nigeria's second-largest city Kano killing 185 people
Jan 2012: Tuareg rebels stage a rebellion against Mali
Jan 2012: The Nuer tribe kills 1000 men and women of the Murie tribe in South Sudan in retaliation for the 2011 massacre
Mar 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 10 people at a Catholic church in Jos, Nigeria
Mar 2012: Mali's democratically elected president Amadou Toumani Toure is deposed by rebel soldiers under the command of Amadou Sanogo who then surrenders power to parliament speaker Dioncounda Traore while Tuareg rebels occupy the north of the country
Mar 2012: Opposition leader Macky Sall wins democratic elections in Senegal
Mar 2012: A Sudanese court sentences Meriam Yahya Ibrahim to death because she married a Christian man, but the government later sets her free
Mar 2012: Congolese general Bosco Ntaganda starts his own militia backed by Rwanda, the M23
Apr 2012: Malawi's president Bingu wa Mutharika dies and is replaced by female vice-president Joyce Banda
Apr 2012: A suicide car bomber kills 38 Christians in Kaduna, Nigeria, on Easter sunday
Apr 2012: South Sudan invades Sudan's Heglig oil field
May 2012: Tuareg rebels and Al Qaeda declare the independent state of Azawad in northern Mali
May 2012: Church bombings kill at least 15 people in Nigeria
Jun 2012: Islamists destroy ancient tombs Mali's Timbuktu
Jun 2012: Islamists kill 15 Christians in churches in Kenya
Jul 2012: Islamists kill 56 Christians in Christian villages in north Nigeria
Jul 2012: More than 100 people have die near the Nigerian village of Okogbe while trying to steal fuel from a petrol tanker that crashed
Jul 2012: Ghana's president John Atta Mills dies and is succeeded by vice-president John Dramani Mahama
Aug 2012: At least 19 people are killed in a gun attack on a church in the central Nigerian city of Kogi
Aug 2012: About 60 miners die in northeastern Congo
Aug 2012: 34 striking miners are killed by police in South Africa
Aug 2012: Ethiopian prime minister Meles Zenawi dies and his replaced by his deputy Hailemariam Desalegn
Aug 2012: At least 112 people are killed in ethnic clashes between the Orma and Pokomo groups in south-eastern Kenya
Aug 2012: Mali forms new unity government under interim prime minister Modibo Diarra
Aug 2012: The first Somali parliament in two decades is inaugurated in Mogadishu and Hassan Mohamud is elected president
Sep 2012: Gunmen kill 26 people (mostly students) in college hostel in Mubi, north-eastern Nigeria
Nov 2012: More than 30 police officers are killed by villagers in Samburu County of Kenya over cattle theft
Nov 2012: Jean-Marie Runiga's M23 militia seizes the town of Goma in eastern DR Congo/Zaire
Nov 2012: Former rebels of the Central African Republic create the Seleka coalition against president Francois Bozize and occupy the north of the country
2012: Tanzania's manufacturing has grown about 7.5% yearly since 1997
Jan 2013: France attacks the Islamists that rule northern Mali
2013: Congo Kinshasa defeats the M23 rebels and their leader Bosco Ntaganda, wanted for war crimes, surrenders to the US embassy in Rwanda
Mar 2013: Uhuru Kenyatta wins presidential elections in Kenya despite accusations of masterminding ethnic cleansing
Mar 2013: Seven foreign workers are killed in the northern Bauchi state of Nigeria by the Islamist group Ansaru
Mar 2013: At least 28% of South African schoolgirls are HIV positive compared with 4% of boys
Mar 2013: Five explosions at a bus park in northern Nigeria's Kano kill at least 25 people
Mar 2013: France kills the leader of Mali's Islamists, Abdelhamid Abou Zeid
Mar 2013: Michel Djotodia's (mainly Muslim) Seleka rebels overthrow president Francois Bozize in the (mainly Christian) Central African Republic
Apr 2013: At least 20 people are killed in a series of bomb and gun attacks in the Somalian capital Mogadishu
Apr 2013: King Mswati III of Swatziland has 14 wives and 27 children
Apr 2013: More than 200 people are killed in Baga by the Nigerian army fighting Islamists
May 2013: Two car bombs by the group of Algerian terrorist Mokhtar Belmokhtar target an army base and a French uranium plant in Niger
Jun 2013: After France expels the Islamists from nothern Mali, the government of Mali signs a ceasefire deal with the Tuareg separatist rebels that started the civil war
Jun 2013: Senegal arrests Chad ex-president Hissene Habre, who is wanted for atrocities during his rule
Jul 2013: Islamist extremists kill 22 students and torch a school in Nigeria's north-eastern Yobe
Jul 2013: Former prime minister Ibrahim Boubacar Keita is elected president of Mali
Aug 2013: Islamic militants of Boko Haram kill 44 people praying at a mosque in in Konduga (northeast Nigeria) and 12 people at Ngom village and scores of vigilantes in the town of Monguno in Borno state
Sep 2013: Islamic militants of Somalia's Al-Shabab storm a shopping centre in Kenya's capital Nairobi and kill 67 people
Sep 2013: Boko Haram gunmen kill 50 students at a college dormitory in Yobe state of north-eastern Nigeria
Oct 2013: The USA tries to kill the Kenyan-born terrorist Ikrima (Abdulkadir Mohamed Abdulkadir) in Somalia
Oct 2013: Boko Haram militants wearing army uniforms kill 19 motorists in Nigeria's Borno state
Oct 2013: Three Europeans are killed and burned by a mob in Madagascar because suspected of killing a child and trafficking in organs
Nov 2013: Killings escalate in Central African Republic between (mainly Muslim) Seleka militia and (mainly Christian) "anti-Balaka" militia and France sends troops to restore order
Nov 2013: Islamist gunmen kill 19 people in a police station run by African Union forces north of Somalia's capital
Nov 2013: More than thousand people have been killed in Central African Republic in fights between (mainly Muslim) Seleka militia and (mainly Christian) "anti-Balaka" militia and France sends troops to restore order
Dec 2013: Nelson Mandela's funerals are attended by more than 90 heads of state
Dec 2013: Thousands of people are killed in clashes between the government and followers of Riek Machar in the South Sudanese capital of Juba
Dec 2013: A remotely controlled bomb kills eight people in a restaurant of the Somali capital Mogadishu and a few days later two car bombs kill 10 people at a hotel
Dec 2013: The Congolese government repels attacks by rebels on the capital Kinshasa and on Lubumbashi, the main city of mineral-rich Katanga province
Dec 2013: Uganda officially criminalizes homosexuality
2013: Nigeria leads the world in kidnappings (more than 500)
2013: Reports surface that tens of thousands of Eritreans have been abducted and taken to Egypt's Sinai to be tortured and ransomed since 2007
2013: Three of sons of Ibrahim Zakzaky, leader of the Shiite, pro-Iranian, Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN), are killed by the Nigerian army
Jan 2014: Nigeria officially criminalizes same-sex relationships
Jan 2014: Central African Republic's parliament elects Catherine Samba-Panza as interim president
Jan 2014: Islamist militants of Boko Haram attack two villages in Nigeria's north-east killing more than 70 people
Jan 2014: A former finance minister, Hery Rajaonarimampianina, wins Madagascar's first presidential election since the 2009 coup
Feb 2014: Islamist militants of Boko Haram attack the northeasten village of Izghe in Nigeria killing 106 people one week after killing nine soldiers in an ambush, and then attack a school in the town of Buni Yadi killing dozens of pupils and then kill at least 39 people and destroy the entire village of Mainok
Feb 2014: Two senior officials and nine attackers are killed when Al-Shabab attacks Somalia's presidential palace
Mar 2014: A French missile strike kills Mali's Islamist leader Oumar Ould Hamaha, known as Red Beard
Mar 2014: At least 100 villagers are killed in Nigeria's central Kaduna state in racial attacks by Muslims, while Nigeria's army kills some 600 detainees who had escaped in Maiduguri
Mar 2014: Outbreak of ebola in Guinea that spreads to Sierra Leone and Nigeria
Mar 2014: Nigeria's GDP ($0.5 trillion) passes South Africa's and Nigeria becomes Africa's biggest economy
Apr 2014: A bomb at a crowded bus station on the outskirts of Nigeria's capital Abuja kills more than 70 people
Apr 2014: Islamist group Boko Haram kidnaps 276 teenage schoolgirls from the Nigerian town of Chibok
Apr 2014: Hundreds of people are killed because of their ethnicity after South Sudan rebels seize the oil hub of Bentiu
Apr 2014: A bomb kills 88 people in Nigeria's capital Abuja
May 2014: At least 10 people are killed as al-Shabab militants attack Somalia's parliament
May 2014: At least 14 people have been killed in a bomb attack in Mubi in north-eastern Nigeria
May 2014: Peter Mutharika wins presidential elections in Malawi
Jun 2014: Terrorists attack two villages near the town of Mpeketoni in Kenya, killing more than 50 people and kidnapping 12 women
Jun 2014: A bomb kills 21 people in Nigeria's capital Abuja and a bomb kills 18 people in Maiduguri
Jun 2014: About 30 people are killed in two attacks by al-Shabab in the Northern Kenyan village of Hindi
Jun 2014: About 60 people are killed in an attack on a police station in western Uganda (41 of which attackers)
Jul 2014: Boko Haram seize the city of Damboa in north-east Nigeria
Sep 2014: An air strike by the USA kills the leader of the Somali Islamist group al-Shabab, Ahmed Godane
Sep 2014: China commits 700 troops to defend oilfields in South Sunda
Sep 2014: A suicide car bomber kills twelve people in an attack aimed at African Union (AU) troops in Somalia
Sep 2014: Boko Haram kills 15 people at a teacher training college in Kano and scores at a rural market in Mainok, Nigeria
Sep 2014: Kenya's Dennis Kimetto breaks the marathon world record in Berlin, winning the race in a time of 2 hours and 3 minutes
Sep 2014: Ivory Coast adopts the educational tablet computer Qelasy, a "digital backpack" for schoolchildren, created by Thierry N'Doufou
Oct 2014: More than 7,000 people, mostly women, have been infected with ebola in West Africa (Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia) and more than 3,400 people have died including 370 health-care workers
Oct 2014: DR Congo/Zaire's army starves to death about 100 former fighters and their families in a remote demobilization camp
Oct 2014: An Ugandan Islamist group, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), stage massacres of civilians in the DR Congo/Zaire villages near Beni
Oct 2014: Boko Haram kidnaps dozens of women and girls from two villages in Nigeria's north-eastern Adamawa
Oct 2014: Zambian white vice-president Guy Scott is named acting president following the death of president Michael Sata
Oct 2014: Demonstrators against Burkina Faso's president Blaise Compaore set fire to parliament and the president resigns, replaced by interim prime minister Michel Kafando
Nov 2014: Dozens of students are killed by a suicide bomber at a boys school in the north-eastern Nigerian town of Potiskum
Nov 2014: A plague outbreak kills 40 people in Madagascar
Nov 2014: Ugandan Islamist group ADF (Allied Democratic Forces) kills more than 200 people in two months near the Ugandan border
Nov 2014: The Somali Islamist group al-Shabab attacks a bus in Kenya's Mandera region killing the 36 non-Muslims on board, and in retaliation the Kenyan military announces the killing of more than 100 al-Shabab militants
Nov 2014: The ADF attacks DR Congo/Zaire's village of Beni and kills more than 200 villagers
Nov 2014: Boko Haram militants attack the village of Azaya Kura in Nigeria's Borno state killing at least 45 people, and then ambush and kill 48 people near the village of Doron Baga at the border with Chad; Boko Haram then massacres more than 100 people at Kano's central mosque; two female suicide bombers kill 44 people in Maiduguri
Dec 2014: al-Shabab militants kill 36 non-Muslim quarry workers in Kenya's Mandera region
2014: Ethiopia's GDP grows by more than 10%
Dec 2014: Boko Haram raids Baga, the site of a Nigerian army massacre in 2013, and the last town in the Borno North area under government control, killing hundreds of people
Dec 2014: Gambia averts a coup attempt
Dec 2014: Cameroon arrests adults as well as children in Guirvidig's madrasas, accusing the teachers of training children for Boko Haram
2014: Boko Haram has killed more than 2,000 people in 2014 and controls 70% of Nigeria's Borno state
2014: Ethiopia's manufacturing has grown about 10% yearly since 2006
2014: Boko Haram, having killed 6644 people in five countries in 2014, is the deadliest of all Islamist groups
2014: Fulani militants have killed 1,229 people in Nigeria in 2014
Nov 2014: Hage Geingob is elected president of Namibia
Jan 2015: The USA arrests Dominic Ongwen, deputy commander of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), in Uganda
Jan 2015: A ten-year old suicide bomber kills 19 people in Maiduguri, in Nigeria's Borno state, followed by other underage suicide bombers in other cities
Jan 2015: Boko Haram destroys the towns of Baga and Doron Baga in Nigeria, killing hundreds of people
Jan 2015: Boko Haram kidnaps dozens of people in villages of north Cameroon
Jan 2015: The ebola outbreak has killed 8,429 out of 21,296 people infected
Jan 2015: Boko Haram has killed about 16,000 people since 2001 in Nigeria
Jan 2015: Muslim mobs burn 45 churches in Niger to protest against cartoons "offending" Mohammed published in France (by an atheist magazine)
Jan 2015: South Sudan's president Salva Kiir and rebel commander Riek Machar agree on peace after tens of thousands of people have been killed
Jan 2015: Boko Haram kills about 100 people in Cameroon's border town of Fotokol, and Cameroon joins Nigeria in fighting Boko Haram
Feb 2015: Boko Haram attacks Chad for the first time, and Chad begins a military offensive against Boko Haram
Mar 2015: Boko Haram kills at least 45 people in the village of Njaba in Borno state, north-east Nigeria
Mar 2015: Boko Haram's suicide bombers kill more than 50 people in Maiduguri in north-eastern Nigeria followed by a female suicide bomber who kills at least 12
Mar 2015: Boko Haram's leader Abubakar Shekau pledges allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria
Mar 2015: Gilles Cistac, a journalist who supports the opposition Renamo, is murdered in Mozambique
Mar 2015: Boko Haram fighters kill dozens of Nigerian women whom they had kidnapped and forced to marry them in the town of Bama
Mar 2015: Boko Haram militants kidnaps more than 400 women and children from the northern Nigerian town of Damasak
Mar 2015: Former military ruler Muhammadu Buhari wins Nigeria's presidential elections over sitting president Goodluck Jonathan, the first time that the opposition wins a presidential election in Nigeria
Apr 2015: Al-Shabab militants led by Mohamed Kuno, aka Mohamed Mohamud aka Dulyadeyn, kill 147 non-Muslims at the university of Garissa in north-eastern Kenya
Apr 2015: Boko Haram militants disguised as preachers kill 24 people at a mosque in Nigeria's Kwajafa
Apr 2015: Al-Shabab militants attacks a government complex in Somalia's capital Mogadishu, killing at least 10 people
Apr 2015: A group of Muslim migrants from Ivory Coast, Senagal, Mali and Guinea Bissau throw overboard Christians to drown in the Mediterranean
Apr 2015: Boko Haram rebels kill hundreds of people in the northeast Nigerian town of Damasak
Apr 2015: Liberia is declared ebola-free after the ebola outbreak has killed 11,000 people in West Africa
Apr 2015: A Tunisian fishing vessel carrying illegal African emigrants to Europe capsizes off the coast of Libya, killing more than 1,000 people
May 2015: The DR Congolese/Zaire army kills 16 Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) rebels but the ADF kills two United Nations peacekeepers
May 2015: Central African Republic's warring factions sign a national peace agreement
May 2015: Burundi's general Godefroid Niyombare stages a coup to overthrow president Pierre Nkurunziza amid popular protests against the president's rule, but the coup fails
May 2015: Madagascar's parliament impeaches president Hery Rajaonarimampianina
Jun 2015: A suicide attack kills 26 people inside a mosque in Nigeria's Maiduguri
2015: A United Nations report indicates that Eritrea under dictator Isaias Afwerke has been committing crimes against humanity, while Eritreans constitute almost 25% of all illegal immigrants reaching Europe via sea
Jun 2015: Boko Haram suicide bombers kill 33 people in Chad's capital N'Djamena and Boko Haram fighters kill more than 40 people in several attacks in Niger
Jun 2015: A female 12-years-old suicide bomber kills 10 people at Nigeria's Wagir market
Jun 2015: Mali and Tuareg rebels sign a peace deal
Jun 2015: Al-Shabab kills 30 at an African Union military base in Somalia
Jul 2015: Boko Haram gunmen kill 118 people in the northwestern Nigerian city of Kukawa, a girl blows herself up in a mosque in in Malari village, six suicide bombers attack the village of Zabamari, a suicide bomber attacks a church in Potiskum, and other killings take place around Borno state for a total of more than 200 dead, plus a twin bomb attack on the central Nigerian city of Jos that kill 44, a suicide bomber kills 25 in Zaria, scores are killed in attacks on Kalwa and Gwollam villages in Borno state
Jul 2015: Al-Shabab kills 14 workers in northern Kenya
Jul 2015: Boko Haram slits the throats of 26 civilians in Chad
Jul 2015: Suicide attacks by Boko Haram kill more than 30 people in northern Cameroon towns and kidnap more than 100
Aug 2015: Islamists seize hostages in a hotel in central Mali and 12 people are killed
Aug 2015: Jean Bikomagu, who led the Tutsi armed forces during Burundi's civil war, is assassinated, the latest victim of a series of killings since contested presidential elections
Aug 2015: About 150 people drown in a river or are shot dead fleeing Boko Haram gunmen in Kukuwa-Gar, a village in Nigeria's northeastern Yobe state
Sep 2015: Two Boko Haram suicide bombings kill at least 30 in north Cameroon
Sep 2015: Muslims kill 21 Christians in the Central African Republic's capital Bangui
Sep 2015: A military coup replaces Burkina Faso's interim president Michel Kafando with Gilbert Diendere but the coup fails
Sep 2015: Boko Haram suicide bombers kill more than 140 people in Nigeria's Maiduguri and Monguno
Oct 2015: Teenage female suicide bombers from Boko Haram kill 9 people in Nigerian's Maiduguri, and another attack kills 38 in Chad's Baga Sola town
Oct 2015: Tanzania's governing CCM party's candidate John Magufuli, a Christian, wins presidential election and begins a policy of repression of the opposition
Nov 2015: Al-Shabab militants kill 15 people in the Somali capital Mogadishu, including Abdikarim Dhagabadan, the general who drove al-Shabab out of the city in 2011
Nov 2015: Boko Haram suicide bombers kill more than 30 people at a Yola market and kill 10 Shiites near Kano in northwest Nigeria
Nov 2015: Boko Haram suicide bombers kill 9 people in Cameroon's town Fotokol
Nov 2015: Islamists of Al-Qaeda affiliate organization Al-Mourabitoum, led by Mokhtar Belmoktar, kill 22 people at a hotel in Mali's capital Bamako
Nov 2015: Nigeria's president orders the arrest of the former national security adviser for corruption
Nov 2015: John Magufuli, a devout Christian, wins presidential elections in Tanzania
Dec 2015: Roch Marc Christian Kabore is elected Burkina Faso's president, the second civilian to become president since the country won independence in 1960
Dec 2015: More than 200 people have been killed since April in Burundi's political violence
Dec 2015: Three Boko Haram suicide attacks kill 27 people on a Lake Chad island
Dec 2015: Government militias summarily execute dozens of anti-gvernment protesters
Dec 2015: Boko Haram attacks the village of Dawari killing 21 people
Dec 2015: Guinea is declared free of Ebola after two years of epidemic that have killed 12,000 people in 3 countries
Dec 2015: The Nigerian army kills about 300 members of the Shiite, pro-Iranian, Islamic Movement of Nigeria (IMN), and arrests its leader Ibrahim Zakzaky
Dec 2015: Gambia's president Yahya Jammeh declares his country an Islamic republic, Africa's second, after Mauritania
2015: Since 2000 the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have expanded at an average 5% yearly rate
2015: Kenyan exiles form al-Shabab in southern Tanzania and northern Mozambique
2015: Eritrea and Ethiopia rank among the ten most censored countries in the world, and Eritrea is #1, even ahead of North Korea
2015: Congo's average growth rate since 2009 has been 7%
2015: Boko Haram has staged 34 suicide attacks in Cameroon in one year, killing about 200 people
2015: Congolese troops of the United Nations gang rape women in the Central African Republic
2015: Filipe Nyusi wins presidential elections in Mozambique
Jan 2016: Al-Qaeda affiliate Al-Mourabitoun attacks a hotel in Burkina Faso, and 23 people of 18 different nationalities die while 150 hostages are freed
2016: Jean-Pierre Bemba's is convicted by the the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity committed in Congo Kinshasa and Central African Republic
Jan 2016: Uganda bans housemaids from working in Saudi Arabia because they are often abused and even tortured
Jan 2016: Boko Haram suicide bombers kill 12 people at a mosque and (days later) 29 people at a market, both in Bodo near the northern border with Nigeria.
Jan 2016: Boko Haram attacks the village. of Dalori in north-eastern Nigeria and kills 86 people
Jan 2016: Somalia's al-Shabab kills 180 Kenyan troops in el-Ade and 20 people in a restaurant at Mogadishu's Lido beach
Feb 2016: A double female suicide bombing by Boko Haram kills 58 people at the Dikwa refugee camp in north-east Nigeria, mostly women and children.
Feb 2016: Clashes in Nigeria's Benue state between herdsmen from the Fulani ethnic group and local farmers leave hundreds dead
Feb 2016: Al Shabaab kills 9 people at Mogadishu's SYL hotel and 30 people in Baidoa
Mar 2016: The USA kills about 150 Al Shabaab fighters in Somalia
Mar 2016: Terrorists kill 16 people at a beach resort in Ivory Coast's capital Abidjan
Mar 2016: A yellow fever outbreak has killed 225 people in Angola and 21 in DR Congo/Zaire since December
Apr 2016: Members of South Sudan's Murle tribe kill 140 people in Ethiopia near the border with South Sudan and abduct at least 39 children
Apr 2016: South Sudan's president Salva Kiir appoints former rebel Riek Machar vicepresident
May 2016: Uganda and the USA suspend the hunt of Joseph Kony, whose Lord's Resistance Army has kidnapped 66,000 children, killed more than 100,000 people and displaced some two million people since 1989
May 2016: Uganda's opposition leader Kizza Besigye is arrested and charged with treason
May 2016: An African Union court sentences Chad's former dictator Hissene Habre to life in prison, the first time that an African dictator is held accountable for genocide
Jun 2016: Boko Haram attack kills 32 in Niger
Jun 2016: Al Shabaab attacks a hotel in Somalia's capital Mogadishu, resulting in 16 deaths
Jun 2016: DR Congo kills Kamwina Nsapu's leader Jean-Pierre Pandi in the Kasai region
Jul 2016: South Sudan plunges into civil war again with 270 people killed
Aug 2016: Two Al-Shabaab suicide bombers kill 21 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
Aug 2016: Supporters of Gabon's opposition candidate Jean Ping protest when Ali Bongo is declared winner of the national election
Aug 2016: Anti-government protests in Ethiopia, mostly by the Oromo ethnic group, leave dozens dead
Aug 2016: An attack by the Pakistani Taliban kills 70 people in Quetta
Sep 2016: An al-Shabab bomber kills a Somalia general
Sep 2016: Islamists kill 26 Christians the Central African Republic
Sep 2016: Dozens of opposition supporters are killed during protests against Kabila in DR Congo
Oct 2016: Al-Shabab carries out attacks in Kenya targeting Christians, including killing 12 people in Mandera
Oct 2016: Ethiopia withdraws from Somalia and declares a state of emergency following anti-government demonstrations at home
Nov 2016: A car bomb kills 11 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
Dec 2016: Adama Barrow beats Yahya Jammeh, the dictator for 22 years, in Gambia's general election, Jammeh annuls the elections but is forced to resign by Senegal and other countries
Dec 2016: Two female suicide bombers of Boko Haram kill 45 people in the north-eastern Nigerian town of Madagali, and two days later two little girls bomb a market in Maiduguri killing one person
Dec 2016: A car bomb kills 29 people at Somalia's main port
Dec 2016: After Congo Kinshasa's electoral commission cancels scheduled elections, dozens are killed in anti-Kabila protests
Jan 2017: Congo Kinshasa's president Kabila and his rival Etienne Tshisekedi agree on a transitional government until elections to be held by the end of 2017
Jan 2017: Nana Akufo-Addo wins elections and becomes the new president of Ghana
Jan 2017: An Islamist suicide bomber kills more than 50 people in Mali's Gao
Jan 2017: A joint West African military force sends Yahya Jammeh in exile and installs Adama Barrow as new president of Gambia
Jan 2017: An Al-Shabab attack at a Mogadishu hotel kills 28 people
Feb 2017: A car bomb kills 34 people at a Mogadishu market in Somalia
Feb 2017: Somali-USA citizen Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed becomes Somalia's president
Mar 2017: Kamwina Nsapu fighters decapitate about 40 police officers in DR Congo's central province of Kasai, bringing the total of people killed by unrest to 400
Mar 2017: Zambia's opposition leader Hakainde Hichilema is jailed on charges of treason
May 2017: Boko Haram releases 82 Nigerian schoolgirls kidnapped three years earlier
May 2017: Fighting among militias in the Central African city of Bangassou leaves more than 100 people dead
Jun 2017: Islamists attack a hotel and a restaurant in Somalia's capital Mogadishu killing about 20 people
Aug 2017: Cannibalism is discovered in the village of Shayamoya in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province
Aug 2017: Mudslides in Sierra Leone kill about 1,000 people
Sep 2017: Joao Lourenco is appointed president of Angola, succeeding Jose Eduardo dos Santos who was in power for 38 years, and begins an anti-corruption campaign, even firing Isabel dos Santos, daughter of the previous president
Sep 2017: Tanzania's opposition politician Tundu Lissu of the Chadema party narrowly survives an assassination attempt
Oct 2017: Russia sends troops to the Central African Republic to help the government against the rebels
Oct 2017: Four US soldiers are killed in Niger
Oct 2017: A massive bomb kills more than 500 people in the Somali capital Mogadishu and another bomb on a hotel kills 23 more
Oct 2017: Islamists begin a terrorist campaign in Mozambique's northern province of Cabo Delgado
Nov 2017: Zimbabwe's president Robert Mugabe fires his vice-president Emmerson Mnangagwa leaving his 40 years younger wife Grace as his successor, but the army forces him to resign and appoints Mnangagwa as the new president
Nov 2017: Four suicide bombers kill 10 people in the north-eastern Nigerian city of Maiduguri
Nov 2017: A suicide bombing by Boko Haram kills more than 50 people in Nigeria's north-eastern town of Mubi
Nov 2017: US air strikes kill 100 fighters from the Islamist group al-Shabab in Somalia
Dec 2017: Former football star George Weah is elected president of Liberia, the first peaceful transfer of power since 1944
Dec 2017: Rebels of the Allied Democratic Forces kill 15 United Nations peacekeepers in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa)
2017: The Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa) has less than 3,000 kms of paved roads for 78 million people
Jan 2018: Widespread demonstration in the Democratic Republic of Congo (Kinshasa)
Jan 2018: The French newspaper Le Monde Afrique publishes a report according to which the African Union's computers have been hacked for five years by China
Feb 2018: Zuma is forced to resign as South African president and Cyril Ramaphosa succeeds him
Feb 2018: Three Boko Haram suicide bombers kill more than 18 people in the town of Konduga in north-east Nigeria
Feb 2018: Boko Haram kidnaps 110 schoolgirls in the town of Dapchi in the north-eastern Yobe state of Nigeria
Mar 2018: Burundi's government anoints president Pierre Nkurunziza as "eternal supreme guide" after more than 1,000 protesters have died since 2015
Mar 2018: Anti-government protests in Guinea leave 11 people dead
Mar 2018: Following protests fomented by the media network of Jawar Mohammed, Abiy Ahmed replaces resigning Ethiopia's prime minister Hailemariam Desalegn, becoming the first Oromo leader of Ethiopia in more than 2,000 years
Mar 2018: Botswana's president Ian Khama resigns and is succeeded by Mokgweetsi Masisi
Mar 2018: Sierra Leone's opposition candidate Julius Maada Bio wins presidential elections
Apr 2018: Boko Hamar suicide bombers kill more than 60 people in the north-east Nigerian town of Mubi
Apr 2018: Muslims kill 15 people in a church attack in the Central African Republic, following religious clashes that left 28 people dead
May 2018: The ninth ebola outbreak in Congo Kinshasa
May 2018: Mozambique's Islamist militants of Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jama behead ten people in Monjane of Cabo Delgado province
Jun 2018: Ethiopia accepts the conclusions of the 2002 Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission to end the war with Eritrea
Jun 2018: The International Criminal Court acquits Congolese warlord Jean-Pierre Bemba
Jul 2018: Eritrea and Ethiopia re-establish diplomatic and trade ties
Aug 2018: The Ethiopian government and the Oromo Liberation Front (OLF) sign a peace agreement but the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) split from the OLF
Sep 2018: Rwanda releases more than 2,000 prisoners, including a opposition leader Victoire Ingabire of the FDU-Inkingi party who was serving a 15-year prison sentence
Sep 2018: A ferry capsizes in Tanzania's Lake Victoria killing more than 200 people
Oct 2018: Muslims and Christians clash after a row between wheelbarrow porters at the market of Kasuwan Magani in Nigeria's Kaduna state, leaving 55 dead
Nov 2018: More than 200 people are killed by ebola in Congo's Ituri and North Kivu provinces in three months
Nov 2018: The government of Congo Kinshasa grants ministers lifetime salaries
Nov 2018: Ethiopia's prime minister Abiy launches an anti-corruption campaign that results in the arrest of high-ranking TPLF officials, including Kinfe Dagnew, the head of the military-run Metals and Engineering Corporation (METEC)
Dec 2018: US air strikes kill 62 fighters from the Islamist group al-Shabab in Somalia
2018: US air strikes targeting Al-Shabab have killed 326 Somalis in 2018
2018: Swaziland changes name to Eswatini
Jan 2019: Opposition candidate Felix Tshisekedi is declared the surprise winner of presidential elections in Congo Kinshasha while the country is fighting its worst outbreak of ebola, although independent observers see Martin Fayulu as the real winner, but this is still the first peaceful transfer of power in the history of the country
Jan 2019: Al-Shahab militants attack a hotel in the Westlands district of the Kenyan capital Nairobi killing 24 people
Mar 2019: Members of the Dogon ethnic group kill 160 people of the Fulani ethnic group in Ogossagou in central Mali's Mopti region
Mar 2019: Islamists attack both the French embassy and the military headquarters in Burkina Faso's capital Ouagadougou, killing eight people
Apr 2019: Congo Kinshasa captures Ntabo Ntaberi, leader of the militia group Nduma Defense of Congo
May 2019: French military forces free four foreign hostages held by Islamists in Burkina Faso, and Islamists attack a Catholic church, the third time in 2 months
May 2019: Islamists kill 28 soldiers in Niger
Jun 2019: Fulani militants kill about 100 Dogon villagers in Mali's Sobane-Kou
Jun 2019: Bandits kill at least 34 people in Nigeria's north-western state of Zamfara
Jun 2019: A triple suicide bombing by Boko Haram kills more than 30 people in Konduga village in Borno State of north-eastern Nigeria
Jun 2019: A coup attempt in Ethiopia kills a general, Seare Mekonnen, and Amhara's governor Ambachew Mekonnen
Jul 2019: Islamists kill 18 soldiers in western Niger and are repelled by air strikes by US and French forces
Jul 2019: Nigeria joins the African Continental Free Trade Area (AfCFTA), leaving Eritrea as the only African country not to be part of it
Jul 2019: Al Shahab gunmen and suicide bombers kill 26 people at a Kismayo hotel in southern Somalia
Jul 2019: An Al-Shahab suicide bomber kills six people in a terrorist attack against the mayor's office in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
Jul 2019: More than 65 people are killed by Boko Haram at a funeral near Maiduguri in Nigeria's north-eastern state of Borno in retaliation for the killing of 11 Boko Haram members in the same village
Aug 2019: Following a surge in violent crime, South Africa deploys the army in Cape Town
Aug 2019: Abdalla Hamdok is appointed new prime minister by a joint commission of civilians and military
Sep 2019: A wave of anti-immigrant riots in South Africa peaks with five people killed in Johannesburg
Oct 2019: Islamists kill 16 people at a mosque in Burkina Faso's town of Salmossi and 20 people in a gold-mining site
Oct 2019: The media network of Jawar Mohammed foments protests against Abiy Ahmed's Ethiopian government that leave 67 ethnic Oromos dead
Nov 2019: Islamists kill 37 workers of a Canadian mining company in Burkina Faso
Nov 2019: Congo Kinshasa attacks the Ugandan Islamist group, the Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), that has been terrorizing the province of Ituri
Nov 2019: Islamists kill 53 soldiers and one civilian in an attack on a military post in north-east Mali, and then 24 soldiers at the border with Niger
Nov 2019: Ethiopian prime minister Abiy Ahmed forms a new Prosperity Party and the ending the domination of the Tigray People's Liberation Front (TPLF) which moves to the opposition
Nov 2019: Islamists kill 14 people in a church of Hantoukoura, in eastern Burkina Faso
Dec 2019: Islamists attack a Niger army base near the border with Mali and kill 71 soldiers, bringing the total number of people killed by Islamists in one year in Niger to about 400
Dec 2019: More than 2,000 people have died of ebola in Congo Kinshasa one and a half year into the outbreak
Dec 2019: Islamists attack a Burkina Faso army base near the border with Mali, killing more than 35 civilians, mostly women
Dec 2019: A bomb by Al-Shabaab kills 94 people in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
Dec 2019: Several rebel groups, including Return Reclamation Rehabilitation (3R), mostly from the Muslim minority, form an alliance against the government of the Central African Republic
Jan 2020: A roadside bomb planted by Islamists kills 14 people in Burkina Faso near the border with Mali, Islamists attack a village market in Sanmatenga province killing 36 people, and another attack kills 39 people in Soum province of northern Burkina Faso
Jan 2020: Islamists attack an army base at Chinagodrar in north Niger near the border with Mali and kill 25 soldiers
Jan 2020: Islamists kill 15 soldiers at the Sokolo military camp in the central Segou region of Mali
Feb 2020: Islamists kill more than 20 civilians in Lamdamol village in the Seno province of north-western Burkina Faso
Feb 2020: Islamists kill more than 30 people and abducted women and children in a raid on Auno in Borno state in north-eastern Nigeria
Feb 2020: Gunmen kill 31 people of the Fulani ethnic group in Ogossagou in central Mali's Mopti region
Feb 2020: South Sudan's rivals Salva Kiir and Riek Machar reach an agreement to end the civil war
Mar 2020: Bandits kill about 50 people in attacks on the villages of Kerawa, Zareyawa and Minda in Nigeria's Kaduna state
Mar 2020: Covid-19 spreads in Africa
Mar 2020: Mozambican immigration officers find 64 dead Ethiopian emigrants in a truck headed for South Africa
Mar 2020: A drone strike by the USA against Al-Shahab kills only Somali civilians
Apr 2020: Islamists kill more than 50 people northern Mozambique
Apr 2020: Congo Kinshasa arrests separatist rebel Ne Muanda Nsemi, leader of Bundu Dia Kongo (BDK), after more than 20 people die in clashes
Apr 2020: Rwandan rebels of the Democratic Forces for the Liberation kill 17 people including 12 rangers in Virunga National Park in Congo Kinshasa
May 2020: Evariste Ndayishimiye, a former army general handpicked by the ruling party to replace Pierre Nkurunziza, is elected president in Burundi
May 2020: The USA has launched 40 airstrikes in Somalia in five months compared with a total of 41 airstrikes in the previous 10 years)
May 2020: Islamists kill 15 people of a convoy of traders in Burkina Faso near the border with Mali, and gunmen kill 30 people in a crowded market of Kompienga
May 2020: Congo Kinshasa reports a new Ebola outbreak in Mbandaka, in the west
Jun 2020: Demonstrations erupt in Nigeria following the rape and murder of the 22-year-old university student Uwavera Omozuwa in a church of the southern city of Benin
Jun 2020: Kenya bans all single-use plastics from national parks and beaches
Jun 2020: Islamists kill 26 people in a village in central Mali while French troops in northern Mali kill the leader of al Qaeda in the Maghreb, Algerian-born Abdelmalek Droukdel
Jun 2020: The Islamic State in West Africa (ISWAP), a Boko Haram faction, kills more than 100 people in the villages of Gubio, Monguno and Nganzai in Nigeria's Borno state
Jun 2020: The worst-ever outbreak of Ebola in Congo Kinshasa ends after 2,280 people died since August 2018
Jun 2020: Large protests demanding the resignation of Mali's president imam Keita are organized by Islamic imam Mahmoud Dicko
Jun 2020: Lazarus Chakwera wins presidential elections in Malawi
Jun 2020: More than 50 people are killed during protests for the killing of a popular singer, Hachalu Hundessa, in the Oromia region of Ethiopia
Aug 2020: At least 11 people are killed by al-Shahab militants who storm a beachside hotel in Somalia's capital Mogadishu
Aug 2020: Islamists of Ahlu Sunnah Wa-Jama capture Mozambique's port of Mocimboa da Praia
Aug 2020: Yahaya Sharif-Aminu is sentenced to death in Nigeria's northern state of Kano for blaspheming against Islam's founder Mohammed
Aug 2020: The military force Mali's president Imam Keita to resign and appoint retired military officer and former defense minister Bah N'Daou as new president
Aug 2020: Islamic State West Africa Province (ISWAP), an offshoot of Boko Haram, kidnap hundreds of people from Kukawa in Nigeria's Borno state
Sep 2020: The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) kills 58 people in Congo Kinshasa
Sep 2020: ISIS attempts to kill the governor of Nigeria's north-eastern Borno state, Babagana Zulum
Oct 2020: Sudan's government and Sudanese rebels of the Sudan Revolutionary Front (SRF), comprising rebel groups from Darfur and southern states, sign a peace deal
Oct 2020: The Allied Democratic Forces (ADF) free more than 1,000 prisoners in the Beni prison of eastern Congo
Oct 2020: 12 people are killed in Nigeria's Lagos when soldiers open fire on a protest against the brutality and brutality of Nigeria's Special Anti-Robbery Squad (SARS)
Oct 2020: Islamists kill children in a school of Cameroon's town of Kumba
Oct 2020: About 67 people are killed in Ethiopia's region Oromia during anti-Abiy protests and ethnic clashes
Nov 2020: The Oromo Liberation Army attacks three villages in the West Welega Zone killing more than 50 ethnic Amhara people
Nov 2020: Ethiopia attacks Tigray rebels with help from Eritrea and militias
Nov 2020: ISIS-affiliated Islamists behead more than 50 people in Mozambique's Cabo Delgado province
Nov 2020: Hundreds of people are stabbed or hacked to death in Mai-Kadra town in Ethiopia's Tigray region
Nov 2020: French troops kill Bah ag Moussa/ Bamoussa Diarra, a military leader in Mali of al Qaeda's affiliate Jama'at Nusrat al-Islam wal-Muslimin
Nov 2020: Debretsion Gebremichael leads an armed rebellion in the Tigray region against Ethiopia's prime minister Abiy, with Tsadkan Gebretensae leading the Tigray Defence Forces, which incorporates both TPLF and non-TPLF members
Nov 2020: Boko Haram kills more than 100 farm workers in Koshobe, near Maiduguri in Nigeria's Borno state
Dec 2020: Trump orders the withdrawal of US troops from Somalia
Dec 2020: Boko Haram kidnaps about 300 teenage students in Kasina state, the president's home state
Dec 2020: Since Trump became president, the USA has carried out 196 air strikes in Somalia, using both drones and manned aircraft
Jan 2021: Islamists kill more than 50 people in Niger's village of Tchombangou and more than 30 in Zaroumdareye town near the border with Mali
Jan 2021: Ethnic clashes in Darfur between Arabs and non-Arabs kill more than 80 people
Feb 2021: A boat capsizes in Congo Kinshasa killing dozens of people
Feb 2021: 42 people are kidnapped from a school in Nigeria's Kagara and more than 300 schoolgirls are kidnapped from a school of Jangebe in Nigeria's northwestern Zamfara state
Feb 2021: Mohamed Bazoum wins presidential elections in Niger
Mar 2021: More than 100 people die when a military depot explodes in Equatorial Guinea's capital Bata
Mar 2021: Tanzania's president John Magufuli dies and is succeeded by vice-president Samia Hassan
Mar 2021: Islamists kill 58 villagers in Niger's Tillaberi region and 137 people in several villages of Niger's Tahoua region bordering Mali
Mar 2021: Islamists of Al-Sunna wa Jama'a attack Mozambique's northern town of Palma
Apr 2021: Islamists of the Front for Change and Concord kill Chad's president Idriss Deby
May 2021: At least 30 people are killed by Islamists in Kodyel village in the Komandjari province of eastern Burkina Faso near the border with Niger
May 2021: Halima Cisse, a woman from Mali, gives birth to nine babies
May 2021: Bandits kidnap for ransom 136 students from an Islamic school of Tegina in Nigeria's Niger state
May 2021: Boko Haram's leader Abubakar Shekau kills himself after being cornered by a rival faction
Jun 2021: Islamists kill 132 people in Solhan village in northern Burkina Faso
Jun 2021: Tigray rebels seize Mekelle in Ethiopia
Jun 2021: Somali Islamists of Al-Shabaab attacks a military base in Galmudug's Wisil town and kill 30 people
Jun 2021: Pro-democracy protests erupt in Eswatini
Jul 2021: Bandits kidnap more than 100 schoolchildren in Nigeria's Kaduna state, and more than 1,000 children have been kidnapped in eight months
Jul 2021: Riots erupt in South Africa after the arrest of former president Jacob Zuma for contempt of court l
Jul 2021: Madagascar arrests several generals over a plot to kill president Rajoelina
Jul 2021: Rwanda, and then South Africa, Botswana, Angola and Zimbabwe, send soldiers into Mozambique to fight the Islamist insurgency
Aug 2021: Hakainde Hichilema beats president Edgar Lungu and becomes Zambia's new president
Aug 2021: Gunmen kill 22 Fulani Muslim worshippers and two weeks later gunmen kill 36 villagers in Jos, the capital of Nigeria's Plateau state, while 83 people are kidnapped in Zamfara state
Aug 2021: 200 people die in Ethiopia during clashes between the Oromo Liberation Army (OLA) and and ethnic Amharas in the East Wollega Zone
Aug 2021: The students kidnapped at Tegina in Nigeria's Niger state are freed by a militia hired by the town
Sep 2021: Protests erupt in Chad against Idriss Deby's on Mahamat who seized power after the death of his father
Sep 2021: Rwandan troops help Mozambique regain control of the northern region of Cabo Delgado from Islamist militias
Sep 2021: An Al-Shahab suicide bomber kills 7 people near the presidential palace of Somalia
Oct 2021: Sudan's military dissolves civilian government and arrests political leaders
Nov 2021: About 100 people are killed in Sierra Leone's Freetown when an oil tanker collides with a truck
Nov 2021: Suicide bombers of Allied Democratic Forces (ADF), based Congo Kinshasa, strike in Uganda's Kampala
Nov 2021: An Al-Shabab bomb kills 8 people near a school in Somali's capital Mogadishu

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)