A time-line of ancient Greece

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Resources on Ancient Greece

(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

2800 BC: domed tombs in Crete (Minoan civilization)
2200 BC: Indo-European people (Acheans) invade Greece creating the Greek language and founding Mycenae
1900 BC: earliest writing in Crete
1900 BC: palace of Knossos in Crete
1628 BC: a volcanic eruption in Thera causes destruction in Crete
1600 BC: royal tombs of Mycenae
1450 BC: the Minoan civilization is destroyed by the Mycenaens
1250 BC: walls and palaces of Mycenae
1184 BC: Troy falls to Mycenae
1100 BC: Mycenae is detroyed by Dorian invaders who have iron weapons
1100 BC: Delphi is the capital of a league of Greek cities (including Sparta and Athens)
1000 BC: Greeks colonize the eastern coasts of the Aegean Sea
950 BC: Greeks found Miletus in Ionia (west coast of Turkey)
900 BC: origin of the Homeric poems
800 BC: city-states or "polis" (Athens, Thebes, Megara, Corinth, Sparta)
800 BC: Greeks adopt the alphabet from the Phoenicians
776 BC: the first Olympic Games
760 BC: Euboea founds the colony of Cumae in Italy
750 BC: first inscriptions in the Hellenic Greek alphabet
750 BC: Colonization of the Mediterranea
734 BC: Naxus is the first Hellenic colony in Sicily
733 BC: Corinth founds the Sicilian colony of Syracuse
725 BC: the poet Hesiod writes the Theogony
700 BC: Hellenic colonization spreads to southern Italy, Asia Minor, Black Sea
670 BC: the first Greek coins are minted by king Gyges of Lydia
670 BC: Miletus begins founding colonies both in the Black Sea and in the Mediterranean Sea
657 BC: Megara founds Byzantium
650 BC: Terrace of the lions at Dilos
650 BC: Perdiccas Temenid found the Macedonian kingdom with capital at Aegeae (Vergina)
640 BC: Sparta adopts a militaristic form of government
632 BC: Athens abolishes the monarchy in favor of an oligarchy
621 BC: Dracon establishes the Athenian code of law
610 BC: Miletus founded a trading post in Egypt
594 BC: Solon founds the Athenian democracy
585 BC: philosopher Thales in Miletus
582 BC: the Pythian games are established in Delphi and the Isthmian games are established in Corinth
575 BC: poetess Sappho
570 BC: the first coins are minted by Athens
560 BC: Lydian king Croesus conquers Ionia, except Miletus
560 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is built
549 BC: Cyrus, king of Persia, conquers Medes, Lydia and Greek city-states in Asia Minor
546 BC: tyrant Peisistratus conquers Athens
546 BC: Sparta forms the Peloponnesean League
538 BC: First performance of a tragedy in Athens
530 BC: Pythagora founds Mathematics
527 BC: Hippias succeeds his father Peisistratus as tyrant of Athens
525 BC: tragedy (Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides)
514 BC: Hippias' brother Hipparchus is murdered by the homosexuals Harmodius and Aristogeiton
510 BC: Athens joins the Peloponesean League
510 BC: Sparta helps Athens expel the tyrant Hippias but then Sparta appoints its man Isagoras as new tyrant of Athens
510 BC: The temple of Ceres at Paestum (in Italy) is built
507 BC: Cleisthenes leads a revolt against Isagoras and turns Athens into a democracy, granting full rights to all free men of Athens
505 BC: a temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
499 BC: Miletus leads the Ionian rebellion against the Persians
498 BC: Ionian cities helped by Athens sack the Persian city of Sardis but are beaten by the Persians at the Battle of Ephesus
493 BC: Themistocles seizes power in Athens and invests in naval power and international trade
492 BC: Darius of Persia attacks Thrace and Macedonia but the fleet is destroyed by a storm before it can reach Athens
490 BC: Darius, king of Persia, invades Greece to punish Athens but loses at the battle of Marathon
485 BC: the sofist Protagoras ("Man is the measure of all things")
481 BC: Both Athens and Sparta join the Hellenic League against Persia
480 BC: Xerses, king of Persia, invades Greece and wins the battle of Thermopylae, but is defeated at the naval battle of Salamis because the Greeks employ the faster trireme boats, and the Greeks expel the Persians from Europe
480 BC: Syracuse repels an attack by Carthage
479 BC: The Greeks defeat the Persians at the battle of Plataea and expel the Persians from Europe
479 BC: the Greeks defeat the Persians at Salamis
478 BC: the Hellenic League conquers Cyprus and Byzantium from the Persians
461 BC: Pericles promotes the ideals of democracy and peace
461 BC: first Peloponnesian War between Athenians and Spartans
454 BC: Athens attacks the Persians in Egypt but is defeated
450 BC: the first bank is founded in Athens by Antisthenes and Archestratos
450 BC: sculptor and architect Pheidias
450 BC: poet Pindar
450 BC: Herodotus writes a non-theological history
450 BC: Hippocrates founds Medicine
450 BC: Temple of Zeus at Olympia
438 BC: the Parthenon is inaugurated in Athens
431 BC: the second Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta
431 BC: second Peleponnesean war
430 BC: Athens has about 200,000 inhabitants
430 BC: the temple of Concord is built at Agrigento (in Sicily)
429 BC: Pericles dies
424 BC: Thebes defeats Athens at Delium
415 BC: Syracuse with help from Sparta repels an invasion from Athens
410 BC: the temple of the Erechtheion is built at the Athens acropolis
404 BC: Athens loses the second Peloponnesian War and Sparta imposes the Thirty Tyrants, a group of aristocratic Spartans, which end the supremacy of Athens
403 BC: Athenians restore the democracy
400 BC: comedy (Aristophanes)
399 BC: Socrates is tried and commits suicide
399 BC: the catapult is invented in Syracuse by Dionysius the Elder
395 BC: Athens, Argos, Corinth and Thebes revolt against Sparta and Persia attacks Sparta ("Corinthian war")
388 BC: Plato, a pupil of Socrates, founds his philosophical Academy, the first university
375 BC: Plato writes the "Republic"
373 BC: the temple of Apollo at Delphi is destroyed
373 BC: the temple to Apollo at Delphi is ruined
371 BC: Thebes, led by general Epamimondas, Athens, Chios, Mytilene, Byzantium, Rhodes and others defeat Sparta at Leuctra which loses its supremacy (first defeat by Sparta in its entire history)
367 BC: Aristotle enters the Academia of Plato
362 BC: Thebes and the Arcadians defeat Sparta at Mantinea
359 BC: Philip II Temenid becomes the king of Macedonia
356 BC: the temple of Artemis at Ephesus is rebuilt
354 BC: a tomb for King Mausolus is built at Halicarnassus
350 BC: the cynics (Diogenes)
350 BC: the theatre at Epidavros
350 BC: the theatre is built at Delphi
344 BC: Philip II of Macedonia conquers Thessaly, Illyria, Epirus,
342 BC: Aristotle tutors Alexander Temenid of Macedonia
338 BC: Philip II defeats Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea and unites several eastern Greek cities (League of Corinth)
336 BC: Philip II of Macedonia is assassinated and is succeeded by his son Alexander
335 BC: Aristotle returns to Athens from Macedonia and founds the Lyceum of Athens
334 BC: Alexander defeats the Persian army at the Dardanelles
333 BC: Alexander invades the Persian empire from Syria to Palestine
332 BC: Alexander conquers Egypt
331 BC: Alexander conquers Persia (battle of Gaugamela) and destroys Persepolis, ending the Achaemenid dynasty
329 BC: a new temple to Apollo is built at Delphi
325 BC: earliest papyrus written in Greek
324 BC: Alexander invades the Punjab in India
324 BC: comedies of Menader
323 BC: Alexander dies, is succeeded by Antipater but the empire rapidly collapses
317 BC: Cassander kills Alexander's son and seizes power in Greece and Macedonia
310 BC: the scientist Aristarchus believes in a heliocentric world
300 BC: Euclid writes the Elements of Geometry
300 BC: epicureanism (Epicurus) and stoicism (Zeno)
297 BC: Cassander dies
290 BC: the Colossus of Rhodos is built
279 BC: the Gauls invade Greece
277 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos defeats the Gauls and becomes king of Macedonia
274 BC: Pyrrhus invades Macedonia and Greece
272 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos defeats Pyrrhus
261 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos conquers Athens
250 BC: scientist Archimedes
239 BC: Antigonus II Gonatos dies and is succeeded by Demetrius II
229 BC: Athens achieves independence
216 BC: Philip V of Macedonia allies with Hannibal of Carthage
197 BC: Philip V of Greece is defeated by the Romans at Kynoskephalai
179 BC: Philip V dies and is succeeded by Perseus
168 BC: the Romans defeat Perseus at Pydna and end the Antigonid dynasty
149 BC: the Romans annex Macedonia as a province
89 BC: Mithriades VI of Pontos leads a revolt against Rome
86 BC: Roman general Sulla defeats Mithridates and burns Athens
30 BC: the Romans conquer all of Greece
49 AD: Paul preaches Christianity in Greece
50 AD: "Lacoon"
100: historian Plutarch
100: Hippalos discovers the secret previously known only by Arab seame about the effects of the monsoons on sea travel, which causes an increase in voyages to India
393: Theodosius forbids the Olympic Games because pagans and shuts down the temple of Zeus at Olympia
462: the statue of Zeus, moved from Olympia to Constantinople, is destroyed by a fire
529: Roman emperor Justinian shuts down the Academia of Plato

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)