A time-line of Indochina

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

A timeline of Indochina and Indonesia

10,000 BC: Domestication of plants in Thailand
4,000 BC: Metallurgy in Thailand
206 BC: the kingdom of the Nam Viet dynasty extends from Vietnam to Canton
257 BC: An Doung Voung (Thuc Phan) unifies tribes of Vietnam and creates the kingdom of Auc Lac with his capital at Phuc An
208 BC: Chao To create the kingdom of Namviet in northern Vietnam
111 BC: China annexes the kingdom of Namviet
1## AD: an Indian brahmin founds the kingdom of Funan, with capital in Vyadhapura
192 AD: China expands into Vietnam to the border with the Champa empire
221 AD: China is unified and begins expanding south
529 AD: Rudrawarman founds a new dynasty in Champa
50#: the Srivijaya kingdom is founded in southern Sumatra (Indonesia) with capital in Palembang and Buddhism as the state religion
55# AD: the kingdom of Chenla (north Cambodia) annexes Funan (south Cambodia)
572: Sambhuvarman becomes king of Vietnam and builds monuments at Mi Son
58#: the Srivijaya kingdom expands on Java
605: China captures the Champa capital Trakieu
612: first inscriptions in the Khmer language
616: Isanavarman I becomes king of Chenla
627: Isanavarman I annexes Funan and northwest Cambodia
653: Prakasadharma becomes king of Cham and builds the Hinduist temples of My Son (Vietnam)
65#: the Nanchao kingdom forms in northern Burma
657: Jayavarman I of Chenla conquers north Laos and founds the Khmer dynasty
686: the Srivijaya kingdom expands over Sumatra (Indonesia) and the Malay peninsula
7##: the Sailendra, allied of Srivijaya, rule in central Java
717: the Chenla kingdom collapses and falls under the influence of the Sailendra
732: Sanjaya founds the Sanjaya dynasty in central Java (Indonesia) with capital in Mataram (central Java)
778: Sailendra king Dharmatunga begins construction of the Buddhist temple at Borobudur in Java (Indonesia)
791: the Nanchao kingdom (north Burma) expands under I-mou-hsun
802: Jayavarman II liberates the Khmers from Javanese domination and founds a new Hinduist kingdom in Cambodia, Angkor, with capital near Seam Reap (Roluos ruins)
82#: Sailendra king Samaratunga completes construction of the Buddhist temple at Borobudur in Java (Indonesia)
825: the kingdom of Pegu (south Burma) moves its capital at Hamsavati
832: the Nanchao kingdom (north Burma) subdues the Pyu people
832: the Sanjaya kingdom annexes the Sailendra kingdom in Java (Indonesia)
875: a new Champa kingdom is founded at Indrapura/ Quangnam under king Indravarman I who protects Buddhism
877: Indravarman I of Khmer creates a network of irrigation in Cambodia and builds the temples of Bakong and Preah Ko
889: Yasovarman I founds the city of Angkor
893: Indravarman II founds a new Champa dynasty
898: Sanjaya king Balitung of Mataram restores Hinduism in Central Java
907: China's domination of Indochina ends
910: Sanjaya king Daksa begins construction of the Hindu temples at Prambanan in Java (Indonesia) dedicated to Shiva
910: Yashovarman I establishes the Khmer capital at Yashodharapura (Angkor)
921: Jayavarman IV usurpes the throne of Khmer and moves the capital to Koh Ker
929: Sindok founds a new dynasty in East Java
938: Ngo Quyen liberates Vietnam from China at the battle of Bach Dang
939: Ngo Quyen declares the independence of Namviet and founds the kingdom of Annam (north Vietnam)
944: Rajendravarman becomes king of Khmer and moves the capital back to Angkor
950: the Khmer kingdom expands from Cambodia to Burma, Laos and Siam
968: Champa king Dinh Bo Linh founds the Dinh dynasty and moves the capital to Hoa Lu (Vietnam)
979: Annam's king Le Hoan founds the first Le dynasty in Vietnam
979: Champa (south Vietnam) king Paramesvaravarman attacks Annam (north Vietnam), the beginning of five centuries of warfare, but is defeated and killed
982: Annam's king Le Hoan captures the Champa capital Indrapura and the Champa kingdom moves its capital to Vjaya
979: Annam's king Le Hoan captures the Champa capital Indrapura and the Champa kingdom moves its capital to Vjaya
985: Sanjaya king Dharmavamsa conquers Bali (Indonesia)
988: Harivarman II founds a new Champa kingdom with capital in Vijaya
1006: the Srivijaya kingdom of southern Sumatra (Indonesia) attacks Sanjaya, destroys Mataram (Central Java) and kills Dharmavamsa
1010: the Ly dynasty succeeds the Le dynasty and moves the capital of Annam to Thanh Long (Hanoi)
1019: Dharmavamsa's son-in-law Airlangga founds the Kahuripan kingdom in East Java (Indonesia) and invades Bali
1030: Airlangga annexes the kingdom of Srivijaya (Indonesia) through marriage but divides his kingdom between his sons (kingdoms of Janggala and Kediri)
1030: the Chola of India raid Srivijaya
1044: Annam raids the Champa capital and kills the Champa king in Vietnam
1049: Airlangga retires in a monastery and divides his kingdom between his two sons
1050: Udayadityavarman becomes king of Khmer and the empire reaches its peak (Cambodia, south Laos, south Thailand, north Malaysia)
1057: King Anawrahta/ Anoratha founds the kingdom of Bagan in north Burma and converts to Theravada Buddhism
1069: Annam seizes the northern provinces of the Champa kingdom in Vietnam
1084: king Kyanzittha becomes king of Bagan in Burma
1088: the kingdom of Melayu (Jambi) in southern Sumatra takes over the territory of Srivijaya
1096: the Payao kingdom is founded in northern Thailand
111 BC: Han China conquers the Nam Viet kingdom
1112: earliest inscriptions in Burmese
1113: Suryavarman II becomes king of Khmer
1117: the kingdoms of East Java are unified by Kamesvara of Kediri
1130: Khmer king Suryavarman II builds Angkor Wat
1145: The Khmer army defeats the Champa army and takes its capital Vijaya in Vietnam
1148: Champa king Jaya Harivarman I expels the Khmers and reunites the Champa kingdom in Vietnam
1177: Champa under Jaya Indravarman loots the Khmer's capital Angkor
1181: Jayavarman VII becomes king of Khmer, converts to Buddhism and builds the Bayon
1190: Jayavarman VII conquers the Champa kingdom
1192: Suryavarman expels the Khmers and restores the kingdom of Champa
1203: The Khmers reconquer the kingdom of Champa
1220: the Champa kingdom becomes independent again
1221: Ken Angrok (Rajasa) destroys the kingdom of Kediri and founds a new kingdom in Singhasari in East Java (Indonesia)
1225: the Ly dynasty in Annam (north Vietnam) is terminated by the Tran
1238: Thais conquer Sukhothai from Angkor and found a new kingdom in northern Thailand
1239: Mangrai founds the kingdom of Lan Na in northern Thailand, with capital at Chiengmai
1253: the Mongols conquer Nanchao
1268: Kertanegara becomes king of Singhasari in East Java
126#: The north of Sumatra (Samudera) converts to Islam
1275: Kertanegara of East Java launches a campaign of military expansion
1279: Sukothai's king Ramkamhaeng/ Rama Khambeng extends the kingdom to Vientiane (Laos) in the east and to Pegu (Burma) in the west
128#: the kingdom of Sukothai defeats Srivijaya
1281: the Mons under Wareru declare independence in the south of Burma with capital at Martaban during a Mongol invasion
1283: Sukothai's king Ramkamhaeng/ Rama Khambeng adopts the script of the Khmers to create the Thai alphabet
1284: Kertanegara invades Bali
1287: Kublai Khan's Mongols are defeated in Vietnam for the third time by Annam
1287: Kublai Khan's Mongols conquer Bagan (Burma) and the Shan brothers carve out principalities for themselves in the north of Burma while Arakan declares independence in the southwest of Burma
1287: Sukothai's king Ramkamhaeng/ Rama Khambeng conquers the Mons of the northern Malay peninsula
1287: the kingdoms of Sukothai, Payao and Chiangmai in Thailand strikes an alliance
1288: the Vietnamese army of Tran Hung Dao defeats the Mongols
1290: Singhasari king Kertanegara conquers Bali, the whole of Java and parts of Sumatra (Indonesia)
1292: Marco Polo is the first European visitor to Indonesia and founds Muslims already established in Sumatra
1292: Kertanegara of East Java is overthrown and killed by the prince of Kediri
1292: Thais conquer the Mons of Chiangmai and found a new kingdom in northern Thailand
1293: the Mongols attack Singhasari with help from Kertanagara's son Wijaya/Vijaya, but Wijaya (Kertarajasa Jayawardhana) defeats both and founds the kingdom of Majapahit (Trowulan) in Java (Indonesia)
1297: Malek Saleh of Sumatra (Indonesia) converts to Islam
1300: the Shans defeat the Mongols in Burma
1312: Shan king Thihathura establishes the capital of his northern Burmese kingdom at Pinya
1312: Annam's king Tran Anhton conquers and annexes Champa in Vietnam
1315: a rebel Shan founds the kingdom of Sagaing in Burma
1317: Sukothai's king Ramkamhaeng/ Rama Khambeng dies and is replace by his son Lo Tai
1323: Che Anan declares the independence of Champa from Annam in Vietnam and founds a new dynasty
1328: Wijaya/Vijaya/Kertarajasa dies and Majapahit's confederation collapses
1330: Gaja Mada is appointed chief minister of Majapahit and wields more power than the king
1343: Majapahit reconquers Bali (Indonesia)
1347: Thinhkaba declares the independece of the principality of Toungoo in Burma
1350: Cambodia converts to Theravada Buddhism
1350: Majapahit under prime minister Gajah Mada conquers northern Sumatra (Indonesia)
1350: Hayam Wuruk expands the kingdom of Java to most of Indonesia
1351: Ramadhipati/ Rama Thibodi I creates a new kingdom in southern Thailand, the Siam kingdom with capital at Ayutthaya, and subdues Sukothai's king Lo Taid
1353: the kingdom of Lan Xang/ Luang Prabang is founded in northern Laos by Fa Ngoun, a Thai who introduces Theravada Buddhism into Laos
1360: Che Bong Nga seizes power in Champa
1363: Sultan Muhammad Shah founds the sultanate of Brunei in Borneo
1364: Thadominbya, a descendent of the Shans of Sagaing, establishes the capital of nothern Burma at Ava
1364: Gaja Mada of Majapahit dies
1368: Mingyi Swasawke becomes king of Ava in Burma
1369: the Mons of southern Burma move their capital to Pegu/Bago
1371: Che Bong Nga of Champa attacks the kingdom of Annam in Vietnam and raids Hanoi
1373: Laos' king Fa Ngoun is overthrown after having created one of the largest states in Indochina
1377: Majapahit conquers Palembang in Sumatra (Indonesia)
1377: Ava's king Mingyi Swasawke has Pyanchi of Toungoo murdered in Burma
1378: the Siam kingdom of Ayutthaya annexes Sukothai
1385: Razadarit becomes king of the Mons in Pegu (Burma)
1380: Muslim traders invade the Philippines and impose Islam on Mindanao
1389: Majapahit conquers Palembang in Sumatra (Indonesia)
1398: Annam moves the capital from Hanoi to Thanh Hoa
1400: The Tran dynasty is deposed in Annam (north Vietnam)
1401: Minhkaung becomes king of Ava in Burma and fights both the Mons in the south and the Shans in the north
1402: during a war between Virabumi of East Java and Vikramavarddhana of Majapahit, the prince Paramesvara (Iskandar Syah), a Majapahit, founds a kingom at Melaka/Malacca in Malaysia and converts to Islam
1404: The Burmese of Ava conquer Arakan
1407: Ming China deposes the ruler of Palembang in Sumatra and assigns the city to Majapahit of Java
1407: Ming China intervenes in Vietnam to stop Annam (north Vietnam) from conquering Champa (south Vietnam)
1409: the emperor of China recognizes Paramesvara (now renamed Megat Iskandar Shah) as king of Melaka/Malacca in Malaysia
1413: the Chinese reoccupy north Vietnam
1418: Le Loi organizes Annam's resistance against Ming China
1424: Boromoraja seizes power in Siam (Thailand)
1424: Paramesvara (now renamed Megat Iskandar Shah), king of Melaka/Malacca in Malaysia, dies and is succeeded by his son
1428: Le Loi (Le Thai To) defeats the Chinese army and founds the second Le dynasty in Annam (north Vietnam)
1430: Narameikhla liberates Arakan (western Burma) from the Burmese and builds a capital at Mrauk-U
1431: the kingdom of Siam under Boromoraja destroys the Khmer empire and Angkor is abandoned
1441: China sends an army to fight the Shans in northern Burma
1441: Jyaya Simhavarman V dies and civil war erupts in the kingdom of Champa in Vietnam
1443: Narapati becomes king of Ava
1446: Rajah Kasim/ Muzaffar Shah, a Tamil Muslim, overthrows the kind in Melaka/Malacca but real power falls in the hands of Tun Perak who leads the conquest of the Malay peninsula and expands trade with Gujarat
1447: Majaphit king Kertawijaya converts to Islam (Indonesia)
1448: Siam's king Boromoraja dies and is succeeded by his son Trailok
1451: a long war erupts between Siam and Chiangmai in Thailand
1454: China cedes part of the Shans' northern Burma to Ava
1459: Arakan (western Burma) seizes Chittagong from Bengal
1460: Jambi converts to Islam
1470: Raja Muhammad, son of Sultan Mansur Shah of Melaka, establishes a new kingdom in Pahang (Malaysia)
1471: the Champa kingdom is conquered by Annam's king Le Thanh Ton in Vietnam
1477: Alaudin Riayat Shah becomes sultan of Melaka
1478: the sultan of Demak conquers the Majapahit kingdom of Java (Indonesia)
1486: Minkyinyo becomes king of Toungoo in Burma
1488: Siam's king Trailok dies and is succeeded by his son Boromoraja III
1498: Tun Perak, the real ruler of Malaysia, dies
1511: Portuguese admiral Albuquerque conquers Melaka/Malacca in Malaysia
1512: Johore (south Malaysia) becomes a sultanate
1514: Under sultan Ali Mughayat Shah, reeling from the conquest of Melaka by the Christian Portuguese, Aceh (north Sumatra) profits that Muslim traders shift their routes to avoid Melaka
1519: Portugal establishes a trading post in Martaban, the Mon capital of southern Burma
1519: Mac Dang Dung seizes power in Annam (north Vietnam) even if the Le dynasty is theoretically still ruling the country
1520: Laos' king Potisarat moves the capital from Luang Prabang to Vienchang/Vientiane
1524: Mughayat Shah defeats the Portuguese in Sumatra and conquers Aceh in Sumatra
1526: Portuguese explorer Jorge de Meneses is the first European to set foot in New Guinea
1526: The Portuguese destroy what is left of the kingdom of former Melaka's sultan Mahmud/Mansur Shah
1527: the sultan of Demak conquers the last Hindu kingdom in Java (Indonesia)
1527: the Le dynasty collapses in Annam (north Vietnam) and the Mac seize power
1527: the Shans sack Ava in Burma
1528: Raja Muzaffar Shah, the eldest son of the last Sultan of Melaka (Mahmud/Mansur Shah), establishes a new kingdom in Perak (Malaysia)
1528: Alaudin Riayat Shah II, another son of Mahmud/Mansur Shah, establishes the kingdom of Johore in Malaysia
1528: Muzaffar Shah another son of Mansur Shah, establishes the kingdom of Perak in Malaysia
1530: Aceh (north Sumatra)'s sultan Ali Mughayat Shah dies and is succeeded by his son Alauddin Riayat Shah that expands the kingdom on most of Sumatra and part of the Malaysian peninsula
1531: Tabinshwehti founds a dynasty with capital at Toungoo/Taunggu (Burma) and unifies Burma
1533: Nguyen Kim restores the Le dynasty in Annam (north Vietnam) and the Mac withdraw to the Tongking (Hanoi)
1535: Northern Java is completely Muslim, mainly dominated by the kingdom of Demak
1539: Tabinshwehti conquers the Mon Pegu of southern Burma
1541: Tabinshwehti completes his conquest of the Mons of southern Burma
1542: Spain occupies the Philippines
1545: Tabinshwehti defeats the Shans in Burma
1545: Laos' king Potisarat invades Chiengmai and installs his son Settatirat as king
1545: Nguyen Kim of Annam is assassinated and Trinh Kiem succeeds him
1541: Burmese king Tabinshwehti moves the capital to Pegu
1547: Laos' king Potisarat dies and is succeeded by his son Settatirat
1550: Tabinshwehti of Burma dies and is succeeded by his enemy Bayinnaung
1555: the Burmese king Bayinnaung conquers Ava
1556: the Burmese king Bayinnaung conquers Chiengmai and unifies Burma
1556: First Portuguese settlement in Timor
1558: the Burmese king Bayinnaung invades the kingdom of Lan Na in Thailand
1568: the sultanate of Bantam is founded in West Java (Indonesia) by a Muslim, Hassan Udin
1569: Burmese king Bayinnaung conquers the kingdom of Ayutthaya in Thailand/Siam
1570: Trinh Kiem of Annam dies and the kingdom is divided between the three families of Mac (in Tongking), Trihn (Thanh Hoa) and Nguyen (Hue)
1571: Spain establishes its colonial capital in Manila (Philippines)
1574: Burmese king Bayinnaung invades the kingdom of Lan Xang (Laos) but is defeated
1575: Burmese king Bayinnaung invades the kingdom of Laos for the second time and installs a puppet king
1581: Kyai Ageng Pemanahan founds the second kingdom of Mataram (Central Java)
1581: Burmese king Bayinnaung dies having conquered most of Burma and Thailand, and is succeeded by Nanda Bayin
1584: king Naresuen/ Pra Naret regains Siam's independence from Burma, with capital at Ayutthaya
1587: the first British visitor arrives in Burma, Ralph Fitch
1591: Laos declares its independence from Burma under king Nokeo Koumane with capital in Vientiane
1592: Laos' king Nokeo Koumane defeats Burma's king Nanda Bayin
1592: Trihn Tong reconquers the Tongking (Hanoi) from the Mac and reunites north Vietnam, while the Nguyen rule from Hue on Annam (and also on Champa)
1593: Trinh Tong of Annam moves the capital back to Hanoi
1594: Siam/Thai's king Naresuen invades Cambodia that becomes a Siamese protectorate
1594: The world's first Chinatown is established in the Philippine capital Manila
1595: Jan-Huygen van Linschoten published detailed instructions for navigating to the East Indies
1595: The first Dutch expedition reaches Indonesia, commanded by Cornelis de Houtman (the trip takes 14 months and costs the lives of 100 sailors)
1597: The first Dutch expedition returns from Indonesia (two years and four months later after leaving, and with only 89 of the original 249 men)
1598: Jacob Van Neck leads a Dutch expedition that reaches Indonesia in "only" six months
1599: Toungoo in Burma rebels against king Nanda Bayin, kills him and conquers his capital Pegu (southern Burma)
1599: the East India Company is established by Britain
1600: Nguyen Hoang secedes from the Trinh in Annam (north Vietnam)
1600: Portuguese mercenary Philip de Brito occupies the Burmese port of Syriam
1601: James Lancaster leads the first British cargo to the East Indies (the trip takes 14 months one way) and establishes a British factory at Bantam (West Java)
1602: the Dutch East India Company (VOC, Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) is established by Holland
1605: Gowa in the island of Celebes/Sulawesi (Indonesia) converts to Islam
1605: Anaukpetlun becomes king of Ava in upper Burma
1607: Aceh (north Sumatra)'s sultan Iskandar Muda Shah launches a campaign of conquest in Sumatra and Malaysia
1608: Holland opens a factory at Ayuttaya in Siam/Thailand
1609: A Thai delegation travels to Holland, the first Thais to set foot in Europe
1610: Holland opens a factory in Arakan (western Burma)
1611: The British established diplomatic relationships with Siam
1613: Ava's king Anaukpetlun of northern Burma captures Syriam and executes Toungoo's king Nat Shin Naung and the Portuguese mercenary Philip de Brito
1613: Nguyen Phuc-Nguyen ascends to the throne of Hue/Annam (Vietnam)
1614: Macao-based Jesuits expelled by Japan migrate to Faifo, the main port of the kingdom of Hanoi/Tongking (north Vietnam)
1615: Ava's king Anaukpetlun of northern Burma captures Chiengmai from Burma
1617: Jan-Pieterszoon Coen is appointed governor of the VOC in Indonesia
1618: Burma seizes Chiengmai from Siam while Cambodia declares its independence from Siam
1619: Jan-Pieterszoon Coen founds Batavia (Jakarta) and invites Chinese immigrants to develop it
1620: War erupts between the Nguyen of Hue/Annam and the Trinh of Hanoi/Tongking in Annam (north Vietnam)
1620: Aceh (north Sumatra) conquers Perak in Malaysia
1621: Mataram (central Java) sultan Sunan Agung embark on a holy war of territorial expansion in Indonesia
1625: Mataram (central Java) conquers Surabaya and controls most of Java
1629: Mataram (central Java) attacks the Dutch in Batavia but is defeated
1629: Melaka and Johore unite to defeat Aceh and stop its expansion in Malaysia
1629: Ava's king Anaukpetlun of northern Burma is murdered and succeeded by his brother Thalun
1630: Pya Sri Worawong/Prasat Tong seizes power in Siam
1632: Japanese immigrants are massacred in Siam
1632: Hendrik Brouwer is appointed governor of the VOC in Indonesia
1633: Holland imposes a blockade on Melaka
1634: Holland opens a factory in Arakan (West Burma) and Ayuttaya (Siam)
1635: Holland opens its first factory in Burma at Syriam (under Ava's king Thalun of northern Burma)
1636: Antonie van Diemen is appointed governor of the VOC in Indonesia
1636: Iskander Muda Shah dies and the northern Sumatran sultanate of Aceh begins to decline
1637: Holland opens a factory in Cambodia
1637: Souligna-Vongsa seizes power in Laos
1639: Holland signs a treaty with Aceh (north Sumatra) to allow them to trade with Perak in Malaysia
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1637: Soulinga Vongsa restores the kingdom of Lan Xang (Laos)
1639: Mataram (central Java) sultan Sunan Agung embark on a holy war against the two non-Muslim regions of Balambang (Sulawesi) and Bali but fails to take Bali that remains Hindu
1641: Holland conquers Melaka/Malacca in Malaya from Portugal, beginning the decline of the city and becoming the leading power in Indonesia
1641: Holland opens a factory in Laos
1641: Taj ul-Alam becomes the first female ruler (sultana) of Aceh (Indonesia)
1642: Dutch sailors discover a shorter route to the East Indies than the one used by the Portuguese
1645: VOC's governor Van Diemen dies
1645: Mataram's (central Java) sultan Sunan Agung dies and is succeeded by Amangkurat I
1646: sultan Agung of Mataram conquers all of Java except Bantam and Batavia (West Java)
1647: Britain opens its first factory in Burma at Syriam
1648: Ava's king Thalun of northern Burma dies and is succeeded by his son Pindale
1650: Holland and Britain trade Banda in Indonesia for Manhattan in America
1651: Jesuit Alexandres de Rhodes invents a Latin script for Vietnamese
1651: Abulfatah/ Agung becomes sultan of Bantam (West Java)
1652: During a war between Holland and Britain, Holland destroys all British settlements in Burma
1653: Holland establishes a base in Timor
1653: Johan Maetsuycker, the former governor of Ceylon, is appointed governor of the VOC in Indonesia
1656: Siam's king Prasat Tong dies and is succeeded by his son Narai
1658: The sultan of Palembang attack the Dutch factory but is defeated and becomes a Dutch protectorate
1658: The last Ming emperor flees to Burma, causing a civil war within Burma
1660: The Dutch East Indies Company claims New Guinea
1661: A coup replaces Ava's king Pindale with his brother Pye in northern Burma
1662: The Societe de Missions Etrangeres is founded by French Catholics in Siam's capital Ayuttaya, and sends missionaries to Cambodia and Vietnam
1663: Holland obtains the monopoly of the pepper trade in western Sumatra
1664: Chiengmai rebels against Siam and joins Burma again
1664: Siam's king Narai grants Holland the monopoly of the trade in hides
1666: Holland subdues the Aceh sultanate in Sumatra
1666: The Mughals of India conquer Chittagong from Arakan (western Burma), causing the decline of Arakan
1667: Holland obtains Bantam (West Java) from Britain by the treaty of Breda
1668: Holland assumes control of the sultanate of Gowa (Indonesia)
1668: After defeating Makassar, Holland assumes control of Celebes/Sulawesi (Indonesia) and causes emigration and piracy among the Bugis of the island
1672: Ava's king Pye dies and the Burmese kingdom declines
1672: The 52-year war between the Nguyen of Hue and the Trinh of Hanoi/Tongking in Annam (north Vietnam) ends
1673: Annam intervenes in Cambodia and installs two puppet kings, one in Udong (central Cambodia) and one, Ang Non, in Saigon (south Cambodia)
1677: Trunojoyo seizes power in Mataram (central Java) deposing sultan Amangkurat I
1679: Holland abandons its factories in Burma
1679: Ang Non, the king of Saigon (south Cambodia), tries to seize power in Udong (central Cambodia) but is repelled by Siam while Saigon remains under Annam (Vietnam)
1680: Civil war erupts in Bantam (West Java) between Abulfatah/ Agung and his son Haji
1680: France opens a factory in Siam's capital Ayuttaya
1680: Mataram (Central Java) becomes a Dutch protectorate after Trunojoyo is dethroned and killed by Amangkurat II with help from Holland
1681: Holland quells a rebellion in Madura on behalf of Mataram (Central Java)
1682: Holland conquers Bantam (West Java) in Indonesia
1683: Haji becomes sultan of Bantam (West Java) with help from the VOC but Bantam becomes a protectorate of Holland, while the British withdraw to Bencoleen
1687: Siam declares war on Britain
1688: Siam's king Narai falls ill and Pra Petraja seizes power
1692: The Chams of Champa rebel against their rulers the Nguyen of Hue/Annam but they are defeated
1699: the kingdom of Terangganu is founded in Malaysia by Zainal Abidin I
1700: Holland leaves its factory in Tongking and trade between Europe and Vietnam is limited to the Portuguese of Macao and the French missionaries
1700: Sai-Ong-Hue seizes power in Laos with help from the Vietnamese of Hue/Annam
1706: Holland captures Surabaya, thus controlling all of Java
1707: the Lan Xang kingdom splits into two kingdoms, Luang Phabang in northern Laos and Vientiane in southern Laos
1707: King-Kitsarat rebels against Sai-Ong-Hue in Laos and establishes a rival kingdom in Luang Prabang
1713: Champasack declares its independence from southern Laos
1714: Annam (Vietnam) gains control of the Chinese settlement of Hatien
1722: The Bugis (originally from Celebes/Sulawesi) help Daing Parani to seize power in Johore (Malaysia) and become the dominant force there
1724: The Bugis of Johore establish control over Kedah and Perak in Malaysia
1727: Chiengmai becomes part of Siam again
1731: Arakan's king Sandawizaya is murdered and the kingdom plunges into anarchy
1733: Boromokot seizes power in Siam
1740: Holland massacres 10,000 Chinese in Batavia (Indonesia)
1740: The Bugis of Johore establish control over Selangor in Malaysia under Raja Luma
1743: Mataram signs a treaty with Holland ceding the north coast and moves its capital to Surakarta
1748: Holland assumes control of the sultanate of Bantan (Indonesia)
1749: Cambodia loses more territory to Annam (Vietnam)
1752: The Burmese capital Ava is conquered by the Mon kingdom of Pegu and the Toungoo dynasty ends
1753: Luang Prabang (Laos) is invaded by Burma
1755: Burmese king Alaungpaya liberates Ava from the Mons, founds the Konbaung dynasty, moves the capital to Shwebo and renames Dagon as Rangoon
1755: The kingdom of Mataram (Central Java) splits into two sultanates, with capitals in Surakarta and Yogyakarta, both under Dutch control
1755: the kingdom of Siak (central-eastern Sumatra) signs a treaty with Holland
1756: Burmese king Alaungpaya captures Syriam
1757: Burmese king Alaungpaya captures the Mon capital of Pegu and unifies the whole of Burma
1758: The Bugis of Johore (in Malaysia) sign a peace treaty with Holland ceding the monopoly of the tin trade
1758: Siam's king Boromokot is succeeded by his son Boromoraja
1756: Holland signs a trade agreement with the sultan of Banjarmasin (Borneo) that de facto becomes a protectorate
1760: Burmese king Alaungpaya invades Siam but die on the way to Ayuttaya
1758: William Wilson discovers a passage to China between the Philippines and Formosa/Taiwan that increases the strategic importance of Borneo
1762: Britain acquires the island of Balambangan off the northern coast of Borneo from the Bugis sultan of Sulu
1763: Burmese king Hsinbyushin moves the capital from Shwebo back to Ava
1764: Burmese king Hsinbyushin conquers Luang Chang/Vientiane and Chiengmai from Siam
1765: China tries to invade the Konbaung kingdom of Myanmar
1766: the kingdom of Selangor is founded in Malaysia by Sultan Lumu
1767: Burmese king Hsinbyushin captures Siam's capital Ayuttaya
1767: Burma destroys Siam's capital Ayutthaya, kills Siam's king Boromoraja and Siam's general Pya Thaksin establishes a new capital in Dhonburi (Bangkok)
1768: During the war between China and Burma, Siam's leader Pya Thaksin liberates Ayuttaya
1769: Siam's king Pya Thaksin invades Cambodia and installs a puppet king, Ang Non
1769: China withdraws defeated from Myanmar
1771: Britain acquires a colony at Penang (Malaysia) from the sultan of Kedah
1773: The revolt of the Tayson brothers, led by Nguyen Van-nhac, threatens the kingdom of Annam
1773: the kingdom of Negeri Sembilan is founded in Malaysia by Raja Melawar, descendant of the Minangkabau of Sumatra
1775: the kingdom of Kelantan is founded in Malaysia by Long Yunus
1775: Pirates destroy the British settlement of Balambangan in Borneo
1776: Burmese king Hsinbyushin dies, Siam conquers Lan Na from Burma and the war ends with Pya Thaksin ruling over all of Siam
1777: The Tayson brothers, led by Nguyen Van-nhac, conquer Saigon of Annam and terminate the old Nguyen dynasty
1778: Siam annexes Vientiane (southern Laos) and Champasack, and reduces Luang Praban (northern Laos) to a Siamese protectorate
1779: A rebellion in Cambodia deposes Ang Non and installs Ang Tong
1782: A general seizes power in Siam, renames himself Rama I, and founds the Chakkri dynasty and the new capital Bangkok (across the river from Dhonburi)
1782: Bodawpaya seizes power in Burma
1783: Burmese king Bodawpaya moves the capital to Amarapura, near Ava
1784: Burmese king Bodawpaya invades Arakan and therefore extends Burma's borders to British India
1784: Holland destroys the Bugis kingdoms of Malaysia (Johore, Selangor)
1785: Burma led by king Bodawpaya invades and destroys the kingdom of Arakan (western Burma), whose population emigrates massively to Chittagong
1786: The sultan of Kedah in Malaysia cedes Penang to Britain
1787: France signs a treaty with the deposed Hue/Annam king, Nguyen Anh, to recover the throne lost by him to the Tayson brothers
1788: The Tayson brothers conquer Tongking/Hanoi from the Trihn and split Vietnam in three kingdoms (Hanoi, Hue, Saigon), but Nguyen Anh and the French begin the invasion of the south
1788: China tries to invade Vietnam but is defeated
1791: African slaves rebel in Haiti, causing the collapse of the coffee economy in the West Indies and a boom in Java's coffee exports
1791: The British acquire Penang
1796: After France invades Holland, Holland surrenders Melaka/Malacca, Sri Lanka and the Cape of Good Hope to Britain
1801: Nguyen Anh defeats the Tayson brothers and reconquers Hue with help from France, returning to the throne of Annam
1801: Chin Byan leads a revolt in Arakan (western Burma) against the Burmese occupation
1802: Nguyen Anh conquers Hanoi, reunifies Annam/Vietnam with capital at Hue and renames himself Gia Long
1802: The treaty of Amiens returns to Holland all the territories seized by Britain during the Napoleonic wars except for the Cape colony and Ceylon
1805: Stamford Raffles arrives at the British colony of Penang in Malaysia
1811: Britain invades the Dutch possessions in Indonesia and appoints Stanford Raffles governor
1812: Siam invades Cambodia when the king Ang Chan refuses to hand over power to Siam's chosen successor, but Annam/Vietnam invades and reinstates Ang Chan
1812: End of Johore's sultanate
1815: at the end of the Napoleonic wars, Britain returns the colonies to Holland and Indonesia becomes a colony of Holland
Apr 1815: Mt Tambora erupts in Indonesia
1815: Chin Byan dies and the revolt of Arakan (western Burma) ends
1817: Burma invades Assam and installs a puppet king
1818: Stamford Raffles is appointed as the governor of Bencoolen on western Sumatra
1819: Hussein is proclaimed sultan of Johore with help from the British, and Stamford Raffles buys an island from the sultan of Johore and founds the British settlement of Singapore
1820: Annam/Vietnam's king Nguyen Anh/ Gia Long dies and is succeeded by his son Minh-Mang, who adopts the Chinese model of centralized bureaucracy
1821: Siam invades Kedah in Malaysia
1824: Britain and Holland divide the East Indies with Sumatra, Java, Muluku, Sulawesi, Irian Jaya, south Borneo to Holland, Malaya, Singapore, North Borneo to Britain, and Aceh and Bali independent ("treaty of London")
1824: Siam's king Rama II dies and is succeeded by his son Nang Klao
1824: Britain declares war on Burma after Burma tries to invade India
1824: Britain recognizes Dutch rule on the western half of New Guinea
1825: A prince of Jogyakarta, Dipo Negoro/ Dipanegara, launches a guerrilla war against Holland in Indonesia ("Java war")
1825: Holland kills 200,000 Javanese to crush a popular rebellion
1825: Holland conquers Palembang in Sumatra
1826: Melaka/Malacca, Penang and Singapore join in a British colony, the Straits Settlement, with capital in Penang
1826: Britain defeats Burma and seizes Arakan and Assam
1827: Vientiane (southern Laos) rebels but Siam crushes the rebellion
1830: Holland wins the Java War and annexes more territory from both Jogyakarta and Surakarta
1830: Holland appoints Johannes van den Bosch as the governor of Indonesia and he introduces a "Culture System" to tightly regulate what each district produces
1830: The population of Java is seven million
1831: Siam invades Cambodia but Annam/Vietnam restores Ang Chan as king and annexes Tran Ninh/ Xiangkhoang (eastern Laos) from Siam
1832: Britain moves the capital of the Straits Settlement to Singapore
1833: Annam/Vietnam's king Minh-Mang persecutes Christians
1834: Cambodia's king Ang Chan dies and Annam/Vietnam appoints a princess, And Mey, as queen
1836: Siam annexes Luang Prabang (northern Laos)
1837: Burmese king Bagyidaw is deposed and his brother Tharrawaddy becomes king of Burma
1837: British explorers discover an overland route from Burma to China
1838: The sultan of Brunei asks British pirate James Brook for help against rebellious tribes
1841: British explorer James Brooke is appointed Rajah of Sarawak (northern Borneo) by the Sultan of Brunei
1841: the kingdom of Perlis is founded in Malaysia by Raja Syed Sapee
1841: Cambodia revolts against the Vietnamese occupiers
1843: The "Culture System" introduced by Holland in Java causes a famine
1844: Cambodia becomes a protectorate of Siam
1846: Tharrawaddy dies and Pagan Min becomes king of Burma
1848: The population of Java has increased from six million to 9.5 million since the introduction of the "Culture System"
1848: Annam/Vietnam's king Thieu-Tri dies and is succeeded by Tu-Doc
1849: Sarawak's ruler James Brooke destroys the pirates of Borneo
1851: Siam's king Nang Klao dies and is succeeded by his brother Mongkut/ Rama IV, a Buddhist scholar who introduces Western ideas and methods into the kingdom
1851: Chanthakumanking/ Tiantha Koumane ascends to the throne of the Siamese protectorate of Luang Prabang (southern Laos)
1852: Britain takes Pegu and Rangoon from Burma
1853: Mindon Min seizes power in Burma
1855: Siam's king Ram IV signs treaties with the European powers and the USA
1855: Siam's king Rama III signs a trade treaty with Britain
1857: king Mindon moves the capital of Burma to the newly founded city of Mandalay
1857: Brooke quells a revolt by Chinese immigrants in Sarawak (Borneo)
1858: France invades Annam/Vietnam for the first time and obtains three eastern provinces
1858: Holland annexes Siak in Sumatra
1859: Holland cedes East Timor to Portugal
1860: King Norodom becomes king of Cambodia, vassal of Siam
1860: Burma mints the first coins
1860: Korean peasant mystic Choe Cheu founds a new religion, "Tonghak
1861: Siam mints the first coins
1861: a French explorer discovers the ruins of Angkor
1862: The "Culture System" for pepper is abandoned by Holland
1862: Arakan and Pegu are united in the province of British Burma with capital in Rangoon, that rapidly becomes a prosperous city
1863: Cambodia under king Norodom becomes a protectorate of France
1863: The "Culture System" for clove and nutmeg is abandoned by Holland
1863: Holland annexes the sultanate of Banjermasin in southern Borneo
1864: Chinese refugees (called Ho) pour into Indochina and organize into armed bands
1864: The region around Saigon (Cochin China) is declared a colony by France
1864: The Dutch parliament assumes direct control of the Dutch Indies and introduces capitalist reforms that benefit entrepreneurs over princes
1866: The most lucrative cultures in Indonesia are coffee and sugar, neither of them native to Indonesia
1866: France seizes more provinces of Annam/Vietnam
1866: French explorer Francis Garnier navigates the Mekong upstream to China
1866: Koreans massacre French missionaries and France bombs Korea
1867: France signs a treaty with Siam recognizing French rule over Cambodia and France recognizing Siam's rule over Angkor
1867: Holland confiscates the lands of the princes who act as regents in Java
1868: Rama V (Chulalongkorn) becomes king of Siam and carries out reforms, abolishing the feudal system and slavery
1868: Siam's king Rama IV dies and is succeeded by his son Chulalongkorn/ Rama V, who introduces Western fashion but has 34 sons and 43 daughters
1868: Holland conquers Bencoleen in Sumatra
1868: during the fifth Buddhist council in Mandalay (Burma) the Pali scriptures are inscribed in marble
1869: Egypt opens the Suez canal, which increases the strategic importance of Aceh in northern Sumatra
1870: An agrarian law by Holland ushers in the age of private enterprise in Indonesia
1871: Britain allows Holland to invade Aceh (northern Sumatra) in return for Holland's colonies in West Africa
1871: Burmese king Mindon Min convenes in Mandalay the fifth Buddhist council
1873: Holland launches its invasion of Aceh in northern Sumatra
1873: Holland completes the first railway in Java
1874: The Malaysian states of Perak, Selangor and Sungei Ujong become British protectorates, reporting to the governor of the Straits Settlements, with their economic development assigned to the Chinese communities
1874: Siam's king Rama V outlaws the slave trade and slavery by birth
1877: Britain introduces rubber in Malaysia
1878: Mindon Min dies and is succeeded by Thibaw
1880: Britain introduces a "Resident System" for the Malay states that have become protectorates, starting an economic boom (railwas, roads, telegraph, banks, hospitals) and massive Chinese immigration
1882: Britain declares Sabah in Borneo a British protectorate
1882: France invades Annam/Vietnam and conquers Hanoi
1883: Annam/ Vietnam becomes a French protectorate, and France returns the provinces that it had occupied
1883: Siam occupies Tran Ninh/ Xiangkhoang (eastern Laos) from Vietnam to defeat the Ho
1883: Holland begins drilling for oil in Indonesia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo)
1883: the eruption of a volcano off the coast of Java (Indonesia) annihilates the island of Krakatoa
1884: War erupts between France and China over the borders of Annam/Vietnam and France invades Formosa/Taiwan
1884: Germany claims northeastern New Guinea, while Britain claims the southeastern part
1885: France and China signs a treaty recognizing French authority in Annam/Vietnam and returning Formosa/Taiwan to China
1885: Britain captures Mandalay, terminates the Alaungpaya dynasty of Thibaw Min, burns the royal treasury and unites Burma with British Burma
1887: The French colonies of Cochin China, Annam, Cambodia and Tongking are united as the Indochinese Union
1888: Britain declares Sarawak and Brunei in Borneo a British protectorate
1888: Muslims stage an insurrection in western Java
1888: The Malaysian state of Pahang becomes a British protectorates, reporting to the governor of the Straits Settlements
1888: France defeats the Ho rebels in northern Vietnam and northern Laos, also annexing territory formerly controlled by Siam
1891: Eugene Dubois discovers the skull of an ancient hominid ("Pithecantropus Erectus") in Java
1893: Siam cedes the territories east of the Mekong river (Laos) to France and Laos becomes a protectorate of France
1894: Holland conquers Lombok in Indonesia
1895: The nine Malay states of Minangkabau join in the confederation of Negri Sembilan that becomes a British protectorate, part of the federation with Perak, Selangor and Pahang
Aug 1896: Emilio Aguinaldo and Andres Bonifacio begin a war of independence against Spain
1896: Britain organizes a federation of Malay states with Perak, Selangor, Pahang and Negri
1897: Britain organizes the first conference of Malay rulers in history
1897: China cedes Kokang to Britain's Burma
1897: France appoints Paul Doumer as the governor of Indochina, which is organized in one colony (Cochin-China) and four protectorates (Annam, Tongking, Laos, Cambodia)
1897: France builds a railway from Vietnam to China
1897: The railway from Bangkok to Ayuttaya is built in Thailand
1898: The USA wins the Philippines (besides Cuba and Puerto Rico) from Spain
1899: British Malaysia exports almost half of the world's tin
Jan 1899: Emilio Aguinaldo leads a rebellion against the USA in the Philippines
1899: Germany moves its operations from New Guinea to the Bismarck Archipelago
1899: Holland conquers Aceh but the leaders continue a guerrilla war
1900: The exports of Holland's Indonesia have more than doubled in 30 years
1900: Raden Adjeng Kartini founds a school for girls in Indonesia
1900: The population of Java is 28.4 million, quadrupled since 1830 thanks to the agricultural boom of the "culture system"
1900: British investors revolutionize the rubber industry of Malaysia that has been until now dominated by the Chinese
Apr 1902: The Filipino rebels surrender to the USA in the Philippines after 220,000 Filipinos have been killed
1904: Holland invades the kingdom of Jambi in Indonesia
1904: Phan Boi Chau founds the Vietnamese Reformation Society and leads protests against the French
1906: Holland invades Bali
1906: Burmese intellectuals found the Young Men's Buddhist Association in Burma, a nationalist anti-British movement
1906: British New Guinea is assigned to Australia
1907: Holland breaks the last resistance of Aceh's old leaders in Indonesia, thereby completing the conquest of Sumatra
1907: Siam surrenders to France the Cambodian province around Angkor
1907: The boom of rubber makes Malaysia rich, attracting immigrants from China and India
1908: Holland invades the kingdom of Bali in Indonesia
1908: Waidin Sudira Usada founds the first nationalist association of Indonesia, Budi Utomo
1909: A treaty between Siam and Britain assigns Kedah and other northern Malaysian states to Britain, that now controls the Straits Settlements (Singapore, Melaka, Penang), the Malay federation (Negri Sembilan, Perak, Selangor and Pahang) and the unfederated states of Kedah, Johore, etc
1910: Siam's king Rama V dies and is succeeded by his son Maha Vajiravudh
1911: Omar Said Tjokro Aminoto founds Sarekat Islam in Indonesia, an Islamic movement whose main target are the Chinese traders that exploit the Muslim batik workers
1912: Hajji Ahmad Dahlan founds the Muhammadiya Sarekat Islam while Haji Samanhudi and Oemar Said Tjokroaminoto found Sarekat Islam, the two main Muslim movements in Dutch Java
1914: The Dutch consolidate all the Indies under one government
1917: Siam allies with Great Britain during World War I
1917: Holland's "Culture System" for coffee is abandoned, ending the era of forced cultures in Indonesia
1920: British Malaysia exports more than 50% of the world's rubber
1920: Britain obtains northeastern New Guinea from Germany
1921: Semaun founds the Communist Party of Indonesia (Perserikatan Komunist India)
1925: Siam's king Vajiravudh dies and is succeeded by his brother Prajadhipok, the 76th child of their father
1927: Achmad Sukarno founds the Nationalist Party (Perserikatan National Indonesia) with the mission to gain independence for Indonesia
1929: Holland arrests Achmad Sukarno
1929: Oil is discovered in Brunei
1930: Nguyen Ai Quoc/ Ho Chi Minh founds the Indochinese Communist Party
May 1930: Ba Thoung founds the communist and nationalist Dobama Asiayone Movement or Thakin in Burma
1930: Vietnamese intellectual Ho Chi Minh founds the Indochinese Communist Party and organizes anti-French riots in Vietnam
Apr 1930: The Malay Communist Party is founded
1932: King Prajadhipok of Siam (Thailand) is overthrown by PridiBanomyong and a constitution is introduced
1933: Another coup in Siam installs general Pya Bahol new head of the country
1935: The USA grants the Philippines independence and Manuel Quezon becomes the first president
1935: Britain makes Burma a separate colony from India and grants it a parliamentary system with Ba Maw as prime minister
1937: Aung San becomes the charismatic leader of the communist Thakins in Burma
1938: Malaysia produces 29% of the world's tin
1938: parliament forces Pya Bahol to resign and Pibun Songgram is appointed prime minister of Siam/Thailand
1939: Siam changes its name to Thailand
1939: Ho Chi Minh's communist movement renamed itself the Viet Minh, against Japan
1940: Japan invades Vietnam
1940: Thailand under Pibun allies with Japan
Aug 1940: Burmese nationalist Aung San flees Burma to Japan
1941: Japan invades the Philippines
1941: The Chinese constitute the majority of the population in Singapore, while Malaysia is 49% Malay, 38% Chinese and 13% Indian
1941: The University of Batavia is founded in Indonesia
1941: Norodom Sihanouk becomes king of Cambodia
1941: Ho Chi Minh leads a guerrilla force, the Viet Minh, against Japan
1941: Japan invades Thailand
Dec 1941: The Burmese communist militia under Aung San joins the Japanese
1942: Japan invades Java
1942: Japan invades Singapore
1942: Thailand declares war on Britain and invades Laos, Cambodia and Malaysia
1942: Japan occupies Cambodia
1942: Japan invades Burma
1943: Japan declares Burma's independence under a puppet regime
1943: Japan declares the independence of the Philippines under a puppet regime
1943: Japan appoints Sukarno in charge of Java's government
Aug 1943: Ba Maw unilaterally declares the independence of Burma from Britain
Nov 1943: Japan creates a unified Muslim organization in Java, as Muslims support the Japanese against the Dutch
1944: Thailand's prime minister Pibun is replaced by Pridi
Mar 1945: The Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL), led by Aung San, turns against the Japanese
1945: Japan occupies Laos
August 1945: The Viet Minh liberate Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam's independence
September 1945: Vietnam's regime liquidates Trotskyists such as Ta Tu Thau
1945: Indonesian independence leader Achmad Sukarno declares independence and begins to fight the Dutch
1946: France attacks the Viet Minh at Haiphong killing 6,000 civilians
May 1946: Dato Onn bin Jafar founds the United Malays National Organization (UMNO) to fight British colonialism
1946: Sukarno repels a communist coup in Java
1946: King Ananda of Thailand is assassinated and Phibun Songkhram becomes dictator
1946: In Cambodia communist guerrillas begin a liberation war against France
1946: In Malaysia the communism party is banned
Jul 1947: National Burmese hero Aung San is assassinated by order of former prime minister U Saw
1947: A coup reinstalls Pibun as prime minister of Thailand
Mar 1947: Chin Peng is elected leader of the Malay Communist Party
1947: A series of strikes cripples the economy of British Malay
Jan 1948: Burma becomes independent with U Nu as prime minister and Sao Shwe Thaik as president but the Karens determine to fight for their own independence
Feb 1948: The Federation of Malaya is born under British rule
Jun 1948: Ethnic Chinese communists kill three plantation managers in Sungai Siput, the beginning of the independence war in Malaysia
1948: The Federation of Malaysia is born under British rule but communists stage violent uprisings
1948: France appoints emperor Bao Dai as president of Vietnam
1948: Khuang Aphaiwong wins national elections in Thailand
Dec 1948: British troops massacre 24 ethnic Chinese at Batang Kali in Malaysia
Dec 1949: Holland recognises the independence of the Republik Indonesia Serikat (United States of Indonesia), comprising Sukarno's state in Java
1949: The Karen launch an insurrection against the central government of Burma
1950: Sukarno seizes power over the whole of Indonesia
1950: France has 150,000 troops in Vietnam
1950: France uses napalm against the Viet Mihn at Tien Yen
1950: Vietnam's independence is recognised by China and USSR
1950: Britain resettles 500,000 Chinese of Malaysia to eradicate the communist guerrilla
1951: Malaysia's civil war against the British kills more than one thousand people including the British governor Henry Gurney
1952: A British newspaper publishes pictures of atrocities committed by British troops in Malaysia against ethnic Chinese rebels
1953: King Sihanouk declares independence in Cambodia from France
1953: North Vietnam launches a "land reform" campaign that will kill more than 200,000 people in 4 years
1954: after the Viet Minh defeat France at Dieu Bieu Phu (thousands die on both sides), the Viet Minh and France sign a peace treaty dividing Vietnam into North and South, and scheduling a general election for 1956 (76,000 French soldiers have died)
1954: Lee Kuan Yew founds the socialist-leaning People's Action Party in the British colony of Singapore
July 1954: the USA installs Ngo Dinh Diem as president of South Vietnam
1954: Laos becomes an independent country, but communist guerrillas, the Pathet Lao, try to overthrow King Savang Vatthana
1955: Ngo Dinh Diem deposes the emperor Bao Dai and names himself president of South Vietnam after rigged elections (he wins 98.2% of the votes)
1955: Indonesia holds the first conference of non-aligned countries, the Afro-Asian conference, with 29 countries (including India's prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru, China's Zou Enlai, Egypt's president Gamal Abdel Nasser, but only 4 independent African countries)
1955: An alliance of UMNO, Malayan Chinese Association and Malayan Indian Congress win a landslide victory in Malaysia's elections
1956: Burmese leader U Nu and Indonesian president Sukarno are among the founders of the Movement of Non-Aligned States
1956: The South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem arrests dissidents and refuses the referendum on unification with North Vietnam, while the Vietminh start a guerrilla war
1957: The Vietcong communist guerrillas begin to fight against the Diem government in South Vietnam
1957: The Asian flu, first reported in Singapore, kills more than one million people worldwide
Feb 1957: Sukarno of Indonesia launches "nasakom", a mix of nationalism, Islam and communism as opposed to parliamentary democracy
Aug 1957: Malaysia becomes independent and Tunku Abdul Rahman becomes its first prime minister
1957: Indonesian students are invited by the Ford Foundation to study Economics at UC Berkeley in California (the "Berkeley mafia") br>October 1958: North Vietnam launches its own "Great Leap Forward" modeled after China's
1959: North Vietnam offers military assistance to the Vietcong via the "Ho Chi Min trail"
1959: the South Vietnamese rebels kill 1,200 government officials
1959: anti-Chinese riots in Indonesia
1959: Lee Kuan Yew's People's Action Party wins democratic elections in the British colony of Singapore
Aug 1959: The Parti Perikatan (Alliance Party), which includes the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO), wins the first general elections in Malaysia
1960: The USA offer military assistance to South Vietnam
1960: Singapore has high unemployment and poor education
1961: Burmese official U Thant is elected secretary-general of the United Nations
1961: The Pathet Lao occupy half of Laos
1961: Indonesia begins persecution of West Papua
1961: The Economic Development Board is established in Singapore to guide economic growth and an industrial park is created by finance minister Goh Keng Swee
1961: the USA has 3,000 soldiers in Vietnam
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1962: A military coup in Burma removes U Nu and installs a communist dictatorship led by general Ne Win
1962: Indonesia invades the Western part of New Guinea
1962: Following a summit between Kennedy and Krushev, Laos is de facto divided in two
1963: Sabah and Sarawak join the federation of Malaysia
1963: the South Vietnamese government cracks down on Buddhists assembled in Hue to celebrate the 2527th birthday of the Buddha, after which the CIA orchestrates a coup that replaces Diem with Nguyen Van Thieu,
June 1963: Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thich Quang Duc sets himself on fire in a busy street of Saigon to protest against the pro-Catholic South Vietnamese government of Ngo Dinh Diem
July 1963: Cambodian communist leader Saloth Sar (Pol Pot) flees Pnomh Penh and organizes the Khmer Rouge in the countryside
1964: The "Tonkin Gulf Incident" (presented by the USA as an attack on its warships) triggers a massive escalation of USA intervention in Vietnam
1964: Vietnamese Buddhist monk Thich Nhat Hanh founds the Tiep Hien/ Order of Interbeing
1965: The USA dispatches 200,000 soldiers to South Vietnam and begins bombing raids on North Vietnam
1965: King Norodom Sihanouk of Cambodia allies with North Vietnam
Aug 1965: Lee Kuan Yew becomes prime minister of the newly independent state of Singapore
1965: Thailand allies with the USA against North Vietnam
1965: The US begins a secret bombing campaign of Laos
1965: American students conduct anti-war demonstrations in campuses
1965: Communist guerrillas try to seize Sarawak from Malaysia
Oct 1965: A failed coup by generals against Indonesia's Sukarno is used as a pretext by his general Suharto to unleash a campaign against the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) that kills 500,000 people
1965: Ferdinand Marcos becomes dictator of the Philippines
Mar 1966: Sukarno is stripped of his powers and his general Mohammed Suharto de facto seizes power in Indonesia
1966: Thich Nhat Hanh establishes the Buddhist "Order of Interbeing" and is expelled from Vietnam
Oct 1966: Suharto enacts economic reforms in Indonesia designed by the "Berkeley mafia"
1967: The USA increase its presence in South Vietnam to 500,000 soldiers
1967: Widjojo Nitisastro, the senior member of the "Berkeley mafia", is appointed Minister of Planning in Indonesia
1967: Cambodia crushes the Samlauth revolt
1967: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is founded by Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand
Jan 1968: The Vietcong and North Vietnam (the "Tet Offensive") begin a joint attack against the USA in South Vietnam
1968: Singapore launches a plan to woe foreign multinationals
Mar 1968: US troops massacre 500 civilians at My Lai
1969: The USA begins a secret bombing campaign of Cambodia that will kill tens of thousands of peasants
1969: Texas Instruments, National and Fairchild open plants in Singapore
May 1969: Chinese and Malays riot in Malaysia (177 people are killed), leading Mahathir Mohamad to start an anti-Chinese campaign
1969: Ho Chi Minh dies and is succeeded as president of North Vietnam by Ton Duc Thang
1969: A huge crowd marches on Washington to demand an end to the Vietnam war
March 1970: General Lon Nol removes prince Sihanouk and assumes power in Cambodia
1970: The USA invades Cambodia
1970: Tunku Abdul Rahman resigns and Tun Abdul Razak becomes prime minister of Malaysia
1970: Indonesian independence hero Sukarno dies
1971: King Sihanouk of Cambodia, exiled in China, allies with the communist guerrillas (the "Khmer Rouge") to fight Lon Nol
1971: South Vietnam invades Laos
1971: Malaysia's prime minister Abdul Razak introduces racial preference for majority Malays to stem the economic influence of the ethnic Chinese population (the "NEP")
1972: Muslim separatists (Moro National Liberation Front) carry out a terrorist campaign in the Philippines
January 1972: Cambodia's government troops are decimated by the Khmer Rouge during operation Chenla-II
1973: Student riots in Thailand
January 1973: The USA and North Vietnam reach an agreement to end the war
1973: The Parti Perikatan (Alliance Party) of right-wing political parties of prime minister Tun Abdul Razak is rebranded as Barisan Nasional (National Front)
April 1975: The Vietcong complete the conquest of South Vietnam and unify the country under president Ton Duc Thang, while the Khmer Rouge take control of Cambodia (ordering the total evacuation of Pnomh Penh)
1975: The Pathet Lao seizes power in Laos and Kaysone Phomvihane becomes prime minister
1975: The Khmer Rouge, led by Pol Pot, enter Phnom Penh and install a repressive communist regime
1975: In Burma several guerrilla movements begin fighting the communist dictatorship
1975: Portugal grants East Timor independence
December 1975: The Khmer Rouge begin to liquidate political enemies
Dec 197Dec 1975: Indonesia invades East Timor and annexes it, while Fretilin (Frente Revolucion ria de Timor-Leste Independente) starts a liberation war
March 1976: Pol Pot of Cambodia appears in public for the first time (the opposite of Mao's cult of personality)
1976: Pol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge, orders widespread repression of Cambodians, that kills 1.7 million civilians in three years (34% of all men and 16% of women, 48% of Catholics and 40% of Muslims, 28% of the ethnic Chinese and 38% of the ethnic Vietnamese, 500 thousand executed, 500 thousand dead in prison and 700 thousand killed by hunger or disease)
1976: In Aceh (northern Sumatra) Muslim separatists of the GAM begin fighting for independence from Indonesia (12,000 people will die in 25 years)
1977: Famine and purges kill hundreds of thousands in Cambodia
1977: Philippines dictator Marcos has dissident Benigno Aquino arrested, sentenced to death and then de-facto exiled
1977: Mahathir Mohamad is appointed minister of finance
September 1977: The Khmer Rouge finally admit the existence of the local Communist Party
May 1978: Cambodia's Khmer Rouge exterminate more than 200,000 people in the east, following an insurrection
1978: More than 100,000 people flee Vietnam on boats ("boat people")
1978: Indonesia appoints Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie minister for research and technology to promote high-tech projects
1978: The Hai Hong, an old cargo boat overloaded with refugees trying to leave Vietnam, becomes the first internationally known case of "boat people"
1978: British New Guinea becomes the independent state of Papua New Guinea
January 1979: Vietnam invades Cambodia to restore order
1979: China invades Vietnam but is defeated
1979: Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge begin a guerrilla war against the Vietnamese from the jungle where they have retreated
1980: General Prem Tinsulanonda becomes leader of Thailand
1980: Malaysia's finance minister Mahathir Mohamad creates the Heavy Industries Corporation of Malaysia Berhad (HICOM) to promote heavy industry
1980: Thousands of skulls are exumated from the Khmer Rouge's mass graves at Choeung Ek
1981: Mahathir Mohamad becomes prime minister of Malaysia
1981: An Indonesian passenger ship catches fire and sinks, killing 580 people
1981: East Asia has the highest poverty rate in the world
1983: Benigno Aquino returns to the Philippines and is murdered
1983: The "Berkeley mafia" deregulates Indonesia's economy to attract international capital
1983: in Malaysia the Indonesian cleric Abu Bakar Bashir (or Ba'aysir) founds Jemaah Islamiyah, a clandestine organization whose goal is the establishment of a pan-Islamic state all over Southeast Asia.
1984: Brunei declares its independence from Britain
1984: Indonesia becomes self-sufficient in rice for the first time in its history
1985: Hun Sen becomes prime minister of Cambodia
1985: Economic boom of the Asian "tigers" (Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia)
1985: Malaysia's Proton introduces its first car
1986: Corazon Aquino ousts dictator Marcos who has to flee the country
1986: Malaysia's finance minister Daim Zainuddin enacts economic reforms that terminate the NEP
1986: Vietnamese party leader Nguyen Van Linh introduces liberal reforms and frees thousands of political prisoners
1986: Laos introduces market-oriented reforms
1987: a Philippine ferry and an oil tanker collide, killing 4341 people
August 1988: Anti-government riots in Burma/Myanmar leave 6000 dead, mostly students of Paw Oo Tun's organization ("8888" demonstrations)
1988: General Chatichai Choonhaven replaces Prem at the helm of Thailand
1988: The Bougainville Revolutionary Army begins an insurrection in Papua New Guinea
1989: In Burma the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) declares martial law and arrests thousands of dissidents
1989: Vietnam withdraws from Cambodia
1989: the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is founded to bring together the USA, Japan, Australia, Canada, Thailand, Singapore, South Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, New Zealand
1990: In the first general elections of Burma the National League for Democracy wins a landslide victory
1990: Burmese democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi, daughter of Aung San, is put under house arrest
1990: Mahatir signs a peace treaty with the communist guerrillas and a period of economic growth begins for Malaysia
2004: Goh Chok Tong succeeds Singapore's patriarch Lee Kuan Yew as prime minister
1991: A coup creates political chaos in Thailand
1991: Mount Pinatubo erupts in the Philippines
1991: Anwar Ibrahim is appointed finance minister in Malaysia
1991: Burmese dissident Aung San Suu Kyi is awarded the Nobel peace prize
1991: Khamtai Siphandon becomes prime minister of Laos
1991: The United Nations brokers a truce between the Cambodian government and the Khmer Rouge and installs a government led by King Sihanouk
1992: The Moro National Liberation Front, the main Muslim movement fighting for Muslim self rule in the Mindanao region, accepts peace talks with the Philipino government, but a hard-line splinter group of radical Muslims who fought in Afghanistan against the Soviet Union, creates Abu Sayyaf (named after an Afghan mujahedin hero) unleashing a campaign of bombings, massacres and kidnappings
1992: Burmese druglord Lo Hsing Han founds Asia World, that goes on to become a multinational conglomerate
1992: Than Shwe is appointed chairman of SLORC in Burma
1993: Prince Norodom Ranariddh wins the first free elections in Cambodia
1994: Abu Sayyaf terrorists hijack a Philippines Airlines jet
1994: The Cambodian government proclaims an amnesty for the Khmer Rouge guerrillas who surrender
1994: Laos and Thailand open a "friendship bridge" linking the two countries
1995: Vietnam and the USA restore diplomatic relations
1995: Malaysia announces the "Multimedia Super Corridor"
1995: Vietnam joins ASEAN
1995: Suharto of Indonesia appoints Prabowo Subianto as head of the Kopassus, Indonesia's secret police
1996: The inauguration of the Petrona Towers in Kuala Lumpur, the tallest buildings in the world, mark the economic success of Malaysia
1996: Malaysia's Proton purchases British sport car manufacturer Lotus
1996: Malaysia embarks in the construction of the Multimedia Supercorridor
1996: Jose Ramos-Horta of East Timor receives the Nobel Prize for Peace
1997: Hun Sen removes Prince Ranariddh of Cambodia from power with a coup
1997: Serial killer Ahmad Suradji is arrested in Indonesia after killing 42 women
1997: Thailand introduces a democratic constitution that shifts the balance of power from the Bangkok minority to the rural majority
1997: Laos joins ASEAN
1997: Tran Duc Luong becomes president of Vietnam
1997: Burma joins ASEAN
Jul 1997: The stock markets and currencies of Southeast Asia (the "Asian tigers") melt down
1997: Tran Duc Luong is appointed president of Vietnam by the communist party
1998: Pol Pot dies
1998: Anwar Ibrahim, leader of the "reformasi movement", challenges Mahathir for control of Malaysia's ruling party, but Mahathir fires him
1998: South Korea's GDP shrinks by 7%, Thailand's by 10%, Indonesia's 13%, while unemployment triples in Thailand, quadruples in South Korea and multiplies tenfold in Indonesia
1998: Vietnam joins the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
May 1998: Riots that kill 1,188 people (mostly directed against the Chinese ethnic group and probably architected by Prabowo's Kopassus) cause the fall of the Suharto regime in Indonesia with the generals choosing Jusuf Habibie as the caretaker president who relieves Prabowo of the command of Kopassus
1999: Abu Bakar Bashir returns to Indonesia from exile and founds the Mujahideen Council, a federation of terrorist groups with the aim to make Indonesia a purely Islamic state, that begins training a private army to help Muslims persecuting Christians in the Moluccas (hundreds of Christians are massacred by Islamic militia)
1999: Ethnic violence breaks out in several islands of the Indonesian archipelago
1999: Malaysia arrests Anwar Ibrahim, now a dissident, on charges of corruption and sodomy
1999: East Timor becomes independent under the protection of the United Nations after almost 200,000 people have been killed in the war against Indonesia
1999: a ferry sinks killing over 200 people in Bangladesh
Jun 1999: Indonesia holds its first democratic election under the government of Jusuf Habibie and parliament elects Abdurrahman Wahid (leader of the largest Muslim organization and grandson of its founder) as the new president
2000: The Cambodian Freedom Fighters (CFF) attack government buildings in Cambodia in a failed attempt to overthrow Hun Sen
2000: Telecommunication tycoon Thaksin Shinawatra wins elections in Thailand, despite accusations of corruption, and launches a populist program to help the poor
2000: Irian Jaya (western New Guinea) demand independence
May 2000: More than 165 students are killed at Walisongo school in Indonesia's Sulawesi
2000: Muslim rebels in the Philippines (Abu Sayyaf) carry out kidnappings of foreigners
2000: A bomb planted by Islamic terrorists trained in Afghanistan kills 18 people in Jakarta, Indonesia
2000: Jafar Umar Thalib founds a radical Islamic organization, Laskar Jihad, to join in the persecution of Christians in the Moluccas with help from the military
2000: Members of the Indonesian army blow up a bomb in Jakarta that kills 15 people
2000: About 500 people die when a ferry sinks near Indonesia's Maluku island
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
Dec 2000: Indonesian terrorists of Jemaah Islamiyah blow up a train in Manila (Philippines) killing 22 people
2001: Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of Sukarno, becomes the first democratically elected president of Indonesia
2001: Nong Duc Manh is chosen as new leader of the Vietnamese communist party
2001: Gloria Arroyo becomes president of the Philippines
2002: Hun Sen wins national elections in Cambodia
2002: in the Philippines, Muslim separatists set off a bomb in General Santos that kills 14 people
2002: Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi is freed after 19 months of house arrest
2002: Indonesia recognizes the independence of East Timor that elects Xanana Gusmao president and Mari Alkatiri prime minister
May 2002: Burmese opposition leader Aung San Suu Kyi is freed after 19 months of house arrest
2002: a ferry sinks killing 470 people in Bangladesh
2002: Papua New Guinea and the Bougainville Revolutionary Army sign a peace agreement
Sep 2002: relatives of former Burmese dictator U Ne Win are sentenced to death by the military junta
Oct 2002: a bomb planted by Abu Bakar Bashir's Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda operatives (led by Iman Sumudra and masterminded by Riduan Isamuddin Hambali and Malaysian bomb expert Azahari Husin) kills 182 people in a disco of Bali
May 2003: Indonesia launches Aceh offensive after peace talks with Aceh separatists (GAM) fail to end a 25-year old civil war that has cost 12,000 lives
October 2003: Malaysia's prime minister Mahathir Mohamad steps down after 22 years in power and is replaced by his deputy, Abdullah Badawi
2003: the USA dispatches 1,700 soldiers to the Philippines, to help fight the Abu Sayyaf terrorists
2004: A suicide bomber of Abu Sayyaf blows up a ferry in the Philippines and kills 119 passangers
2004: Malaysia releases Anwar Ibrahim from jail
2004: Muslim separatists begin an insurrection in southern Thailand
2004: Indonesia's first presidential elections
2004: Lee Hsien Loong succeeds Goh Chok Tong as prime minister of Singapore
2004: Burmese prime minister Khin Nyunt is forced to resign and is replaced by Gen Soe, a trusted deputy to the country's top general Than Shwe
2004: Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono, a former Suharto general, wins presidential elections in Indonesia
2004: Islamic cleric Abu Bakar Ba'asyir is tried for a number of terrorist attacks in Indonesia
2004: Tsunamis caused by one of the strongest earthquakes in history (9.0 magnitude) kill thousands in Southeast Asia
2004: The USA and Singapore sign a free-trade treaty
2005: the Philippine army attacks the Islamic separatist group Abu Sayyaf in the island of Jolo, and Abu Sayyaf responds by detonating four bombs that kill seven people
2005: The population of Java is 124 million
2005: Bombs kill 11 people in Rangoon, Burma/Myanmar
2005: Vietnam's prime minister Phan Van Khai visits the USA
2005: Aceh rebels surrend to the government of Indonesia
2005: bombs planted by Jemaah Islamiyah and Al Qaeda operatives kill 25 people in Bali, Indonesia
2006: A general, Sondhi Boonyaratkalin, stages a coup against Thailand's prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra, accused of corruption and abuse of power
2006: Muslim separatists set off bombs in Bangkok, Thailand
2006: an Indonesian ferry sinks killing about 600 people
2006: Myanmar moves the capital to a newly-built city, Naypyidaw
2007: Fretilin's support slips from 57% to to 29% in East Timor's national elections
2007: Indonesia sues Suharto for having stolen half a billion dollars during his rule
2007: more than 20 Philippine soldiers are killed by Abu Sayyaf
2007: Crash of the stock markets worldwide, triggered by the crisis of USA sub-prime mortgage lenders
2007: Monks demonstrate in the streets of Yangoon, Myanmar, and the police kills 200 and arrests 6,000 ("Saffron Revolution")
2007: Samak Sundaravej, whose party supports ousted leader Thaksin Shinawatra, wins national elections
2007: Japan signs a free-trade agreement with ASEAN
2008: Crash of the stock markets worldwide, triggered by the collapse of USA banks
2008: The party of Malaysian prime minister Badawi loses parliamentary elections
May 2008: A cyclone kills 135,000 people in Myanmar
Jul 2008: Malysia's opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim is arrested again
December 2008: mass protests by the "yellow shirts" force the government of Somchai Wongsawat to resign in Thailand and British born Abhisit Vejjajiva is appointed prime minister, causing the "red shirts" to start mass protests
December 2008: the village of Renokenongo is submerged after drilling causes the eruption of a mud volcano
December 2008: more than 50 people are killed in a fire that breaks out in a Bangkok nightclub
Apr 2009: Malaysia's prime minister Abdullah Badawi is replaced by Najib Razak, also of the Barisan Nasional coalition, who establishes the sovereign investment fund 1MDB
2009: Andal Ampatuan masterminds a mass killing in Philippines' Mindanao of 58 people, including 32 journalists
Jan 2009: a ferry capsizes off Sulawesi (Indonesia) killing 250 people
Jun 2009: 3,700 people have died in southern Thailand because of the Muslim separatist movement since 2004
Jul 2009: Seven people are killed by two suicide bombers in two blasts at luxury hotels in the Indonesian capital Jakarta
Jul 2009: the USA accuses Burma/Myanmar of importing nuclear technology from North Korea
Oct 2009: Aceh in Indonesia introduces shariha law
Nov 2009: 57 people (supporters of Philippine politician Ismael Mangudadatu and opposed to Maguindanao's governor) are massacred in the Philippines
Jan 2010: Muslims attack Christian churches in Malaysia
2010: Malaysia allows the flogging of three women for extra-marital sex while Malacca state legalizes underage marriage
Feb 2010: Former general U Thein Sein is appointed president, ending the 20-year old dictatorship of general Than Shwe and beginning democratic reforms
Apr 2010: 21 people die in anti-government protests by the "red shirt" movement in Thailand
Apr 2010: At least 20 people are killed by bombs in Yangoon, Burma
May 2010: Benigno Aquino wins national elections in the Philippines
May 2010: Indonesia uncovers a plot by Islamic terrorists to kill the president
Nov 2010: Myanmar/Burma's dissident Suu Kyi is freed by the ruling junta
Nov 2010: Almost 400 people are killed in a stampede during a festival in Phnom Penh, Cambodia
Dec 2010: Singapore's economy expands by 14.7% in 2010
Apr 2011: Border clashes between Thailand and Cambodia kill soldiers on both sides
Jun 2011: Vietnam and mainland China trade accusations over oil exploration in the South China Sea
Aug 2011: Yingluck Shinawatra, the younger sister of billionaire Thaksin Shinawatra, is elected by Thailand's parliament as the country's first female prime minister
Aug 2011: The Philippines government holds peace talks with the Moro Islamic Liberation Front in Kuala Lumpur after more than 150,000 people have been killed in 40 years of insurrection
Oct 2011: The world's population is 7 billion
Jan 2012: Most of Myanmar's political dissidents are released from jail and the opposition is legalized
May 2012: Riots between Muslims and Buddhists leave hundreds of people dead in western Burma/Myanmar
Aug 2012: Danilo Medina is elected president of the Philippines
Sep 2012: Myanmar's president U Thein Sein announces a plan to expel Muslims, backed by Buddhist monk Ashin Wirathu and his 969 movement, causing a humanitarian crisis after more than 100,000 Muslims are herded into concentration camps and more than 100,000 flee the country
Oct 2012: The Philippines and the Moro rebel group sign a peace agreement
Nov 2012: Dozens of people are killed in violence between Buddhists and Muslim Rohingyas in the Rakhine state of Myanmar
Nov 2012: Barack Obama is the first president of the USA to visit Myanmar/Burma
2012: The last documented case of a tribe practicing cannibalism is in Papua New Guinea
Mar 2013: Buddhists kill scores of Muslims in Myanmar's Sit Kwin
Mar 2013: Malaysian troops attack ethnic Filipino Muslim separatists on the island of Borneo
Jul 2013: Burma/Myanmar signs a peace treaty with the Wa rebels of Shan state
Oct 2013: Indonesia arrests the chief justice of the constitutional court, Akil Mochtar, for corruption
Oct 2013: A Malaysian court has ruled that non-Muslims cannot use the word Allah to refer to God
Oct 2013: The sultan of Brunei enacts a code of law based on Islamic shariia
Nov 2013: Thousands of protesters led by Suthep Thaugsuban (representing the "yellow-shirt" Bangkok-based establishment) demand the resignations of Thailand's prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra (the "red-shirt" movement, mainly representing the rural poor) despite the fact that the majority of the population supports her
2013: Philippine's GDP grows 7.2%, one of the highest growth rates in the world
Jan 2014: The Thai government imposes a 60-day state of emergency in Bangkok and the surrounding provinces
2014: A former leader of Abu Sayyaf, Isnilon Hapilon, swears allegiance to ISIS
Jan 2014: The Philippine army kills about 37 rebels in the Maguindanao province who oppose a peace accord between the government and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front
Jan 2014: The opposition led by Suthep Thaugsuban disrupts national elections asking to abolish democracy
Mar 2014: The Moro Islamic Liberation Front in the Philippines signs a peace deal with the government
Mar 2014: Someone deliberately crashes Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 into the Indian Ocean killing all 239 people on board
Apr 2014: A South Korean ferry sinks killing hundreds of people
May 2014: Thailand's Constitutional Court orders prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra and several of her ministers to step down on abuse of power charges and Thailand's army chief Gen Prayuth Chan-ocha stages a military coup and bans all political activity
May 2014: Angry at China for moving a drilling rig into Vietnamese waters, mobs of Vietnamese people set on fire 15 foreign-owned factories
May 2014: A state-owned Chinese oil company tows an oil rig off the coast of Vietnam causing anti-Chinese riots in Vietnam
Jul 2014: Jakarta's governor Joko Widodo ("Jokowi") wins elections over Suharto's son-in-law Prabowo Subianto and becomes president of Indonesia
Jul 2014: Abu Sayyaf gunmen attacked Filipino civilians celebrating the end of Ramadan, killing 21
Jul 2014: Malaysian Airlines flight MH17 travelling from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur is shot down in eastern Ukraine by a Russian missle
Aug 2014: Thailand's parliament votes to appoint junta leader general Prayuth Chan-ocha who led the military coup as prime minister
Jan 2015: Members of both the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) and the Bangsamoro Islamic Freedom Fighters (BIFF) kill 37 police officers in the Philippines
Feb 2015: Kachin's warlord Phone Kyar Shin (Peng Jiasheng) attacks the Burmese army in Kokang killing more than 130 people
Mar 2015: Singapore's founding father Lee Kuan Yew dies
Jul 2015: The head of Vietnam's communist party, Nguyen Phu Trong, visits the USA
Jul 2015: Thailand deports 100 wanted Uighurs to China
Aug 2015: Bombs set by a Muslim from China's Xinjiang, Abudusataer Abudureheman, kill 20 people in Thailand's capital Bangkok
Nov 2015: Suu Kyi's party wins Myanmar/Burma's first democratic election
Nov 2015: A landslide kills more than 100 people in an open mine in Myanmar
Dec 2015: Indonesia foils a terrorist attack planned by ISIS against Shiites and Christmas
Dec 2015: 6,500 people have died in southern Thailand because of the Muslim separatist movement since 2004
Jan 2016: ISIS terrorists, masterminded by Bahrun Naim, attack the Indonesian capital Jakarta but manage to kill only two people
Jan 2016: Myanmar's parliament elects Htin Kyaw of Suu Kyi's party as the first civilian president since the military seized power
2016: Myanmar is the world's fastest-growing economy
May 2016: Anti-crime politician Rodrigo "Digong" Duterte wins the Philippine presidential elections
May 2016: The USA lifts the arms trade embargo against Vietnam
Jul 2016: The Philippines win a legal case against China's annexation of the Scarborough Shoal in the South China Sea
Jul 2016: The USA reveals that more than $3.5bn have been plundered from Malaysia's sovereign fund 1MDB by corrupt politicians including prime minister Najib Razak and financier Low Taek Jho, and with help from Goldman Sachs
Aug 2016: Eight bombs kill 4 tourists in Thailand
Aug 2016: More than 1,900 people are killed in two months during president Duterte's war on drugs
Sep 2016: A bomb by Abu Sayyaf kills 14 people in the Philippine city of Davao after the government launches a military operation against it
Oct 2016: Nine Myanmar police officers are killed in attacks by Muslim insurgents on posts along the border with Bangladesh, and in retaliation the military cracks down on the Rohingya minority, with thousands fleeing into Bangladesh
Nov 2016: Three ethnic Burmese armed groups (the Kachin Independence Army, Ta'ang National Liberation Army and Kokang's Myanmar National Democratic Alliance Army) launch attacks on military outposts and police stations across Myanmar's northeastern Shan state
Nov 2016: Protesters demand the resignation of prime minister Najib Razak, involved in a corruption scandal
Dec 2016: Amnesty International denounces ethnic cleansing by Myanmar's military against the Rohingya Muslim minority in Rakhine (killings, rape and torture)
Dec 2016: 6,500 people have been killed in political violence in Muslim southern Thailand since 2004
Jan 2017: Muslim civil-rights lawyer Ko Ni is murdered in Myanmar's capital Yangon
2017: Philippine's justice minister Leila de Lima is arrested after launching an investigation into Rodrigo Duterte's "war on drugs"
Feb 2017: Kim Jong-nam, brother of North Korean dictator Kim Jong-un, is assassinated in Malaysia
Apr 2017: An oil pipeline from a Myanmar port to China becomes operational
May 2017: Former Jakarta's governor Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, aka Ahok, a Christian ethnic Chinese, is sentenced to two years in prison for blasphemy against Islam.
Jun 2017: Isnilon Hapilon's Islamists occupy the town of Marawi in the Philippines, but the army reconquers the city after 1,200 die including Hapilon
Aug 2017: Rohingya militants attack 30 police stations in Myanmar and the military responds by killing more than 10,000 Rohingyas and causing the exodus of more than 600,000 to Bangladesh
Aug 2017: Thailand's former prime minister Yingluck Shinawatra flees to Dubai just hours before a verdict is read against her
Sep 2017: Cambodia arrests opposition leader Kem Sokha
Oct 2017: The Philippines kills Isnilon Hapilon, Abu Sayyaf militant and ISIS' leader in southeast Asia
Mar 2018: Eleven Asia-Pacific countries sign the trade pact formerly known as the Trans-Pacific Partnership (Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore and Vietnam)
2018: Buddhist master Thich Nhat Hanh returns to his "root temple" in Vietnam
Apr 2018: Vietnam jails prominent activists including lawyer Nguyen Van Dai
May 2018: A family of suicide bombers (parents and four children) kill 13 people at a church in Indonesia's second-largest city Surabaya, while other ISIS-inspired attacks kill 24 people
May 2018: Former prime minister Mahathir Mohamad's opposition alliance wins elections in Malaysia defeating the Barisan Nasional coalition that has been in power for more than 60 years, prime minister Najib Razak resigns, and Mahathir releases dissident Anwar Ibrahim from prison (whom he had sent to jail in 1999)
Jun 2018: Two mayors are murdered in the Philippines
Jul 2018: The whole world watches as Thailand rescues 13 children stuck in a cave
Jul 2018: A Moroccan-born ISIS suicide bomber kills nine police officers in the Philippines town of Basilan
Jul 2018: More than 40 Chinese tourists die when a boat capsized in Thailand
Aug 2018: An earthquake kills about 400 people in Indonesia's island Lombok
Sep 2018: The Philippines arrest Antonio Trillanes, a critic of president Duterte
Sep 2018: Earthquake and tsunami kill more than 1,200 people on Indonesia's Sulawesi
Oct 2018: Rosmah Mansor, the wealthy wife of former Malaysian prime minister Najib Razak, is arrested for money laundering
Jan 2019: Two ISIS suicide bombers kill 23 people at a Roman Catholic cathedral in the southern Philippines island of Jolo
Jan 2019: A cybersecurity law takes effect in Vietnam requiring government access to all user data
Mar 2019: historian Tran Duc Anh Son is purged from the Vietnamese communist party after critizing its Chinese policy
Mar 2019: The Philippines introduce universal health care
Apr 2019: Brunei enacts death by stoning for homosexuals
Jun 2019: Large-scale protests over Rodrigo Duterte's appeasement to China
Jun 2019: Thai dissident Wanchalearm Satsaksit, who has been living in Cambodia in exile since 2014, disappears
Jul 2019: Rodrigo Duterte's war on drugs has killed 6,600 people in the Philippines
Aug 2019: The Philippines declare a national dengue epidemic after 622 people have died between january and july
Sep 2019: Indonesia students protest against plans for a criminal code that would ban extramarital sex
Nov 2019: Islamists kill 15 people at a security checkpoint in southern Thailand, in a conflict that has claimed 7000 lives in 15 years
Feb 2020: A rogue soldier, Jakrapanth Thomma, kills 29 people in the town of Nakhon Ratchasima in northeastern Thailand
Feb 2020: Thailand dissolves the pro-democracy Future Forward Party (FFP)
Mar 2020: Mahathir Mohamad, the long-time leader of UMNO and Malaysia’s longest serving prime minister, resigns as prime minister of Malaysia and is replaced by Muhyiddin Yassin
Apr 2020: China provokes incidents with Vietnam, Malaysia and the Philippines in the South China Sea, including the sinking of a Vietnamese fishing boat, prompting the US and Australia to deploy warships to the area
Jun 2020: More than 200 people die in the collapse of the Wai Khar jade mine in northern Myanmar
Jul 2020: Students protest against Thailand's military regime of Chan-ocha Prayuth and student leader Parit Chiwarak is arrested
Jul 2020: Najib Razak, former prime minister of Malaysia, is convicted of corruption in the Malaysia Development Berhad money-laundering scandal and sentenced to 12 years in prison
Nov 2020: Fifteen countries of the Asia-Pacific (China, South Korea, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and the ASEAN countries) sign the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), the world's largest trading bloc, covering almost a third of the world's economy
2020: China produces 140,000 tonnes of rare earths, the USA produces 38,000 tonnes, Myanmar 30,000 tonnes and Madagascar 8,000 tonnes
Jan 2021: Myanmar's military stages a coup, arrests Aung San Suu Kyi and installs general Min Aung Hlaing as the new head of state
May 2021: More than 800 people have died in demonstrations against Myanmar's military junta
Jul 2021: Myanmar's military tortures and kills civilians in Kani Township
Aug 2021: Muhyiddin Yassin resigns as prime minister of Malaysia, opening a period of political chaos
Sep 2021: More than 40 convicts die in a fire at the prison of Tangerang in Indonesia
Dec 2021: Myanmar's military junta sentences Aung San Suu Kyi to prison
Mar 2022: Seven leaders of the political opposition, including Sam Rainsy, flee abroad to avoid arrest in Cambodia during a crackdown on the opposition
May 2022: Bongbong Marcos, the son and namesake of the ousted dictator, wins presidential elections in the Philippines against Duterte, whose "war on drugs" has killed about 12,000 Filipinos
May 2022: The Indo-Pacific Economic Framework for Prosperity (IPEF) is signed by the USA, India, Japan, South Korea, Australia, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam, a trading bloc competing with the China-led Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership that links 15 Asia-Pacific economies
Jun 2022: Thailand becomes the first Asian country to decriminalize the cultivation, distribution, marketing, and consumption of cannabis
Sep 2022: A fire at a karaoke bar in Vietnam's AnPhu town kills 33 people
Oct 2022: 125 people are killed at a football game in the town of Kanjuruhan of Indonesia's East Java
Oct 2022: A former police officer kills 38 people, mostly children, at a daycare center in northeastern Thailand's Nongbua Lamphu province
Oct 2022: More than 2,000 people have been killed by Myanmar's military junta since the 2021 coup
Nov 2022: Long-time dissident Anwar Ibrahim is appointed prime minister of Malaysia
Feb 2023: Gunmen kill Roel Degamo, the governor of Philippines' province Negros Oriental who had just been elected after a recount of votes
Mar 2023: Cambodia's opposition leader Kem Sokha is sentenced to 27 years in prison for treason
Apr 2023: China inaugurates a rail line connecting the Chinese city of Kunming with Laos' capital Vientiane
May 2023: The Move Forward Party (a leftist anti-monarchical movement) and the Pheu Thai Party (founded by former prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra) win parliamentary elections in Thailand, and Srettha Thavisin (a member of Pheu Thai) is appointed as prime minister in a deal with pro-army parties to keep Move Forward out of government
Aug 2023: Cambodia's prime minister Hun Sen is replaced by his son Hun Manet
Sep 2023: The USA signs a "comprehensive strategic partnership" with Vietnam
Oct 2023: Indonesia opens Southeast Asia's fastest train, connecting Jakarta to Bandung, a project funded by China under the Belt and Road initiative
Oct 2023: Three ethnic insurgent armies in Shan State (Kokang MNDAA, Ta'ang TNLA and Arakan Army), the Brotherhood Alliance, supported by China, launch a coordinate attack in the north of Myanmar against the military junta
2023: Laos owes to Chinese entities the equivalent of 65% of its GDP
Feb 2024: Prabowo Subianto wins presidential elections in Indonesia
Feb 2024: More than 60 people are killed in in Papua New Guinea over a tribal dispute near Wabag
Apr 2024: Vietnam sentences to death billionaire property developer Truong My Lan accused of fraud, the most spectacular trial in the history of Vietnam
Apr 2024: Myanmar's military regime surrenders the border town of Myawaddy to Karen insurgents
May 2024: Lawrence Wong succeeds Lee Hsien Loong as prime minister of Singapore after 20 years
TM, ®, Copyright © 2016 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)