A timeline of Persecution of the Jews

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(Copyright © 2014 Piero Scaruffi)

See the Ancient History of the Hebrews for the events before the birth of Jesus

7th c: Visigoths massacre Jews and force them to convert to Christianity
711: Jews help Muslims invade Spain
1096: Pogroms in France and Germany during the first Crusade
1215: Anti-Jewish code of the Lateran Council
1278: Mass arrests of Jews in England
1290: England expels all Jews
1421: Mass expulsion of Jews from Austria
1442: Mass expulsion of Jews from Bavaria
1481: Dominicans set up the Spanish Inquisition that burns hundreds of Jews in the next twelve years
1489: Expulsion of Jews from Milano
1492: Mass expulsion of Jews from Spain after the Christian "Reconquista"
1494: Expulsion of Jews from Firenze
1495: Mass expulsion of Jews from Poland and Lithuania
1497: Mass expulsion of Jews from Portugal
1516: Venezia decides to confine the Jews in a "ghetto" (2,400 Jews out of a population of 98,000) and charge them special taxes
1518: Ottomans massacre Jews in Hebron
1541: Jews expelled from Napoli
1557: The Pope creates a ghetto for Jews in Roma
1597: Expulsion of Jews from Milano
16th c: Russian czar Ivan the Terrible orders to drown Jews who refuse to convert to Christianity
1648: Thousands of Jews are massacred by peasants in Poland-Ukraine
1756 Voltaire writes that Jews are “a totally ignorant nation”
1770 Holbach writes that Jews are “the enemies of the human race”
1791: Russia confines Jews to Pale of Settlement
1819: “Hep Hep” riots in Germany
1881-1906: More than one million Jews leave Russia
1871: Pogrom in Odessa, Ukraine
1881: Pogroms and mass expulsion in Russia
1887: Theodor Fritsch’s “Anti-semitic Catechism”
1898: anti-Semitic riots in Paris and Algiers
1904: Pogroms in Russia
1905: Pogrom again in Odessa, Ukraine
1915: William Simmons founds the Ku Klux Klan in the USA
1917: 70,000 Jews murdered by the Mensheviks in Ukraine
1919: Judaism is banned in the Soviet Union
1919: Mensheviks hold Jews responsible for communism and kill 100,000
1921: 43 Jews killed in riots in Palestine
1924: Hitler’s “Mein Kampft”
1929: Arab mobs kill 133 Jews in Palestine
1930s: Jews are among the main victims of Stalin’s purges
1933: “Krystallnacht” in Germany
1933: First concentration camp at Dachau
1936: Arabs massacre almost all the Jews in Hebron
1937: Celine’s “Bagatelle pour un massacre”
1938: German Jews are expelled from schools and lose driver licenses
1939: The first gas chamber opens in Brandenburg
1941: The German “Einsatzgruppen” (mobile killing troops) kill more than one million Jews in one year throughout Russia and Ukraine
1941: Romanians massacre 200,000 Jews in Bessarabia and burn 30,000 alive in occupied Odessa (Ukraine)
1944: Romanians massacre 217,000 Jews in Transnistria (mostly from Russia)
1945: Of the nine million Jews in German-controlled territory, about six million have been exterminated (two million at Auschwitz, 1.4 million at Majdanek, 800 thousand at Treblinka, 600 thousand at Belzec)

Jews in the Islamic World

  • Jews in the Islamic world
  • Kairouan (Tunisia) from the 7th c
  • Granada (Spain) from the 8th c
  • 25% of the population of Baghdad under the Abbasids from the 8th c
  • Cairo (Egypt)
  • Jews lived in separate quarters
  • Jews were mainly traders and scholars
  • In medieval times Jews constituted the main economic link between the Islamic and Christian worlds, operating as far as China
  • Jews expelled from Spain in 1492 resettle are welcome in the Ottoman Empire and help the Ottomans wage war against the Christian powers

    Jews in the Christian world

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    (Copyright © 2014 Piero Scaruffi)