A time-line of the Turks

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

See also a timeline of the Near East
See also a timeline of the Arabs
See also a timeline of the Persians

200BC: Mao-tun unites the Turkic-speaking Huns (Xiongnu, Hsiung-nu) in Central Asia around Lake Bajkal and southeastern Mongolia
552: Turkic people led by Tumin/Bumin destroy the Juan-juan (Avars) and establish the Turkic Khaganate of Gokturk in Central Asia from the Black Sea to Mongolia
553: Tumin dies and the Turkic Khaganate splits into Western and Eastern Khanates
567: the western Turkic Khaganate invades Transoxania
603: the western Turkic Khaganate self-destroys in a civil war
630: The eastern Turkic Khaganate is conquered by China
682: the eastern Turkic Khaganate regain independence from China under Kutluk
694: Tugluk's brother Khapghan extend the Turkic empire over Transoxania, thus unifying eastern and western Turks
712: the Arabs, led by Kutayba ben Muslim, conquer Transoxania and convert the Turks to Islam
833: Sultan al-Mutasim creates a regiment of Turkish slaves
744: the Turkic empire of Gokturk self-destroys again in a civil war
880: the Abbasid dynasty is replaced in Egypt by a Turkic dynasty
932: the Turkic Qarakhanid dynasty is founded in Kashgar
962: the Ghaznavid kingdom is founded in Afghanistan (at Ghazni) by Alp-tegin, a Turkic slave soldier of the Samanids
985: the Turkic-speaking Seljuks (led by Seljuk) invade Transoxania (Ilkhan) and convert to sunnite Islam
995: Gurgandj (Kunya-Urgench, Turkmenistan) becomes the capital of the Khorezmshakh state
1038: the Seljuks, led by Toghrul Beg/ Tugrul Bey, defeat the Ghaznavids at Dandanaqan (near Merv)
1042: the Seljuks conquer Khorezm
1048: Turk nomads raid the Byzantine empire for the first time
1055: the Seljuks (sunni), led by Toghrul Beg, defeat the Buyids (shiite), invade Mesopotamia and install themselves in Baghdad under the suzerainty of the Abbasids
1064: the Seljuk king Alp Arslan moves the capital to Ray (Tehran)
1064: the Seljuks invade Armenia
1071: the Seljuqs led by sultan Alp Arslan defeat the Byzantine army at the battle of Malazgird/Manzikert, capture Jerusalem and establishing a sultanate in central Anatolia with capital in Iznik (Nicaea)
1072: the Seliuqs move the capital from Ray (Tehran) to Isfahan but Alp Arslan dies, succeeded by his son Malik Shah, who appoints Nizam al-Mulk as vizier
1073: the Seliuqs defeat the Qarakhanids, taking Bukhara and Samarkand
1076: the Seliuqs invade Syria and Palestine
1079: the Seliuqs take Damascus
1086: the Seliuqs take Antioch and Aleppo
1092: Nizam al-Mulk is assassinated by fanatic Shiites, the Assassins, and Malik Shah dies, two events that weaken the Seljuq sultanate
1096: the Pope launches the first Crusade to conquer Jerusalem
1097: the Crusaders under Godfrey of Bouillon capture Jerusalem
1097: the Seliuqs move their capital to Konya
1128: Imad ad-Din Zengi becomes emir of Aleppo and Mosul
1141: the Karakitai defeat the Seljuqs at the battle of Qatwan, thus destroying Seljuq power in Central Asia
1144: Imad ad-Din Zengi, emir of Aleppo and Mosul, recaptures Edessa, the first crusader state recaptured by the Muslims
1146: Imad ad-Din Zengi is assassinated by a slave and is succeeded by his son Nur al-Din as emir of Aleppo, who first massacres all the Christian males of Edessa
1153: the Khwarazmis (Turkish mercenaries) conquer Persia from the Seljuqs
1154: Nur al-Din conquers Damascus, uniting it with Aleppo
1157: Seljuq's sultan Sancar dies
1163: Shawar, supported by the Kurdish general Shirkuh Ayyubid sent by Nur ad-Din Zangi, ruler of the Zengids in Syria, becomes vizier of Fatimid Egypt
1169: Shirkuh kills Shawar and takes his place as vizier of Fatimid Egypt, but he dies two months later and is replaced by his nephew Saladin
1171: Saladin Ayubbid ends the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt and founds the Ayubbid dynasty
1174: Nur ad-Din Zangi, ruler of the Zengids in Syria, formerly Sadalin's superior, dies and his kingdom breaks up
1175: the Ghaznavid state is absorbed into the Ghurid empire, which is also Turkic-speaking
1176: Byzanthium is defeated by the Turks of Rum at Myriokephalon
1176: Saladin marries Nur al-Din's widow
1171: The Fatimid sultan al-Adid dies
1174: Saladin takes Damascus from the Syrian ruler
1183: Saladin conquers Aleppo from Nur al-Din's son
1187: Saladin, who so far has only conquered Muslim kingdoms, retakes Palestine and Jerusalem from the Christians
1192: Saladin signs an armstice with King Richard I of England tha grants the Christians a small kingdom outside Jerusalem
1193: Saladin's brother Malik Adil becomes sultan of Egypt and Syria
1194: the Seljuqs conquer Anatolia
1194: the last Persian Seljuq ruler dies and Seljuq power collapses in Iran
1200: Ali ad-Din Muhammad becomes shah of the Khwarizm/Khwarezmian empire that extends from Uzbekistan to Persia
1220: the Mongols invade Transoxania (Bukhara and Samarkand) and Iran/Persia
1241: Batu's younger brother Shayban raids Hungary and then splits, establishing the Shaybanid Horde
1243: the Mongols conquer the Rum state in Anatolia
1301: Osman founds the Ottoman dynasty in Anatolia
1320: Osman leaves his son Orkhan in charge of the Ottoman empire and Orkhan hires Alaeddin Pasha, not an Osman, as vizier (prime minister)
1324: Osman dies and his son Orkhan becomes king of the Ottomans
1326: the Ottomans led by Orkhan take Bursa and make it their capital
1331: the Ottomans conquer Nicaea
1331: the Ottomans inaugurate the first madrasa in Iznik
1335: The Karaman state moves its capital to Konya
1337: Haji Bektash founds a Sufi order in Anatolia
1345: the Ottomans conquer Bergama
1346: the Ottomans of Orkhan help Byzantium's co-emperor John VI Cantacuzene win the civil war with John V Paleologues and Orkhan marries Cantacuzene's daughter Theodora
1354: the Ottomans occupy Gallipoli, first outpost in Europe
1360: Orkhan dies having doubled the size of the state and is succeeded by his son Murad/Murat (son of Theodora) as sultan of the Ottomans, who hires Candarli Kara Halil Hayreddin Pasha as vizier (the first one to be called "grand" vizier)
1361: the Ottomans led by Murad I conquer Adrianopole, change its name to Edirne and make it their capital, leaving only one major city, the distant Trebizond, to Byzantium
1364: The Ottomans defeat an allied army of Hungary and Serbia at Edirne
1370: The Ottoman sultan Murad marries the Bulgarianian princess Tamara
1376: The Ottomans conquer part of Bulgaria
1389: the Ottomans defeat Serbia at the battle of Kosovo but the Serbs kill Murad, who dies having conquered Thrace, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Serbia, and his son Bayazid (son of Tamara) succeeds him
1390: The Ottomans sultan Bayazid marries a Serbian princess, Despina
1391: The Ottomans, under Bayazid I, conquer most of western and central Anatolia
1391: the Ottomans, under Bayazid I, conquer Bosnia and Wallachia
1393: the Ottomans, under Bayazid I, conquer the Bulgarian capital Tirnovo
1393: Ottoman sultan Bayezid I, son of Murad, besieges Constantinople
1395: The Ottomans introduce devshirme, the rule that Christians of the Balkans must provide slaves for the army
1396: The Ottomans defeat an army of crusaders led by Hungary's king Sigismund at Nicopolis (the last crusade)
1397: The Ottomans defeat the Turkomans of Konya/Karaman in Anatolia
1398: The Ottomans annex the Turkomans of Sivas in Anatolia
1402: Timur/Tamerlane defeats the Ottomans at Ankara and captures Ottoman sultan Beyazid I who dies in captivity
1405: Timur dies and the end of a civil war among Bayazid's sons, Suleyman rules on Ottoman Europe and Mehmet rules on Ottoman Anatolia
1411: Suleyman Ottoman, helped by Byzantium, is killed by his brother Musa Ottoman leading an army of Turks and Balkans
1413: Mehmet Ottoman kills his brother Musa with help from Byzantium and recovers all the Ottoman territories lost during the civil war, and makes Persian and Turkish the official languages of the government instead of Greek
1421: Ottoman sultan Mehmet I dies and is succeeded by his son Murad II
1430: The Ottomans defeat an alliance of Venezia and Hungary
1439: Ottomans under Murad II annex Serbia
1440: Ottomans under Murad II besiege Belgrade
1442: Hungarian general Janos Hunyadi (Ioannes Corvinus) defeats the Ottomans in Transylvania and regains Wallachia
1444: Ottomans under Murad II defeat the crusaders led by Hungary and Poland at the battle of Varna
1448: Hungary leads another crusade against the Ottomans but is defeated at Kosovo and loses Wallachia
1451: Muhammad/Mehmet II succeeds Ottoman sultan Murad II
1453: the Ottoman Turks under 20-year old Mehmet II capture Constantinople/Byzantium and rename it Istanbul
1454: the Ottomans grant Venezia the right to trade in Ottoman lands, the only western power allowed to do so
1454: Ottoman sultan Mehmet II restores the Greek Orthodox church under Gennadius Scholarius
1455: Ottoman sultan Mehmet II builds the grand bazaar of Istanbul
1459: the Ottomans conquer Athens
1460: the Ottomans conquer Greece and Serbia
1461: the Ottomans conquer Trebizond
1462: Vlad IV of Wallachia is defeated by the Ottomans sultan Mehmet II which annexes Wallachia, the gate to the Black Sea and the Danube
1463: Venezia (helped by Hungary) and the Ottomans go to war
1473: The Ottomans defeat the White Horde of Mongol khan Uzun Hasan and conquer Anatolia west of the Euphrates
1475: the world's first coffee shop, "Kiva Han", opens in Istanbul
1475: The Ottomans conquer Genova/Genoa's colonies of the Black Sea and subject the Crimean Tatars
1477: Istanbul has 80 thousand inhabitants of which 9486 Muslim households, 3743 Christian Greek households, 1647 Jewish households, 818 Christian Armenian households, 267 Christian Slavic households
1478: The Ottomans conquer the whole of Albania
1478: The Crimean Khanate becomes a vassal state of the Ottomans and the Black Sea becomes a lake within the Ottoman empire
1478: The Topkapi palace is inaugurated in Istanbul
1479: The 16-year war ends with Venezia losing most of her territories along the Aegean Sea to the Ottomans
1481: Mehmet II dies and is succeeded by Bayazid II who defeats his brother Cem
1484: The Black Sea becomes an Ottoman lake
1492: the Ottoman Empire gives asylum to the Sephardic Jews expelled from the Christian kingdoms of Spain
1485: The Ottomans and Mamluk go to war
1491: The Ottomans and Mamluk make peace with no winner and no loser
1493: First Jewish printing press in Istanbul
1497: Poland goes to war against the Ottomans who are supported by Moscow and the Crimean Tartars
1499: Poland loses the war against the Ottomans whose allies the Crimean Tartars gain territories between Poland and Moscow
1499: Second war between the Ottomans and Venezia
1502: Venezia loses to the Ottoman Empire that obtains control of the trade routes in the eastern Mediterranean
1503: A treaty between with Poland-Hungary recognizes Ottoman rule over Moldavia and Wallachia
1504: The Ottomans annex Romania
1512: Selim I defeats his brothers with help from the janissaries and the janissaries force his father Bayezid to abdicate in Selim's favor
1513: Selim I kills all his brothers, nephews and eventually his own sons except for Suleyman
1514: the Ottomans of Selim I defeat Ismail I's Safavid army at Caldiran (Iran/Persia) thereby conquering Kurdistan and Armenia
1515: Selim I forbids the printing press
1516: the Ottomans of Selim I defeat the Mamluks and annex Syria and Palestine
1517: the Ottomans of Selim I conquer Egypt and western Arabia, thus ending the Mamluk empire, and the Abbasid caliph al-Mutawakkil III surrenders the title of caliph to Selim I, thus ending the Abbasid dynasty
1519: Celal leads a revolt against the Ottoman sultan
1520: Selim dies and his only surviving son Suleyman becomes the ruler of the Ottoman empire with no succession war
1521: the Ottomans under Suleyman capture Belgrade
1522: the Ottomans under Suleyman capture Rhodos from the Knights of Saint John, the last Christian outpost in the eastern Mediterranean
1523: Suleyman appoints a foreigner, a Christian from Greece, Pargali Ibrahim as grand vizier, thus weakening the Turkish aristocracy and empowering the slaves
1526: The Hungarian army is defeated at the battle of Mohacs by the Ottomans of Suleyman, and Hungary is partitioned between the Ottoman Empire and the Hapsburgs, with Hungary proper under Ottoman occupation, Transylvania as a Turkish protectorate and Slovakia is annexed by the Hapsburg Monarchy
1527: There are 27,000 janissaries
1529: The Ottomans besiege Wien (Vienna) but have to withdraw
1529: The Ottomans conquer Algiers
1529: The mufti of Istanbul executes the dervish Ismail Mashuki that the masses consider a saint
1531: Suleyman marries the Christian Ukrainian slave girl Roxelana, the first sultan to marry one of his slaves and the first sultan to have a wife since Orhan
1533: The Ottomans and Hungary sign a peace treaty
1533: Hizir Reis becomes grand ammiral of the Ottomans and governor of Algiers
1534: the Ottomans capture Baghdad from the Safavids, helped by a popular insurrection of the Sunnis, but the Safavids survive in eastern Iran, Azerbajan and the southern Caucasus
1534: the Ottoman queen mother dies and Suleyman's wife Hurren Sultan becomes the most influential woman of the empire
1535: The Ottomans sign a "Capitulation" agreement with France that opens its market to French merchants and makes France its main Western ally
1535: The number of Jewish households in Istanbul has multiplied by five since 1477
1536: Suleyman executes grand vizier Pargali Ibrahim, the victim of intrigues by Hurrem Sultan and the French ambassador
1538: The Ottomans conquer Aden and southern Iraq, reaching Persian Gulf
1540: Venezia surrenders more territory and is left with only Crete and Cyprus, and dependent on trade with the Ottomans
1541: Suleiman the Magnificent conquers eastern Hungary and turns it into a vassal state (later named Transylvania) under king Janos Szapolyai II
1544: Hurrem Sultan manages to have her son-in-law Rustem Pasha appointed grand vizier of the Ottomans
1547: The Ottomans conquer Sana (Yemen) and southern Iraq
1547: German emperor Karl V and and Ferdinand I of Austria grant Suleiman the Magnificent control over most of Hungary (Truce of Adrianople)
1550: the mosque of Sultan Syleyman in Istanbul
1551: The Ottomans conquer Tripoli
1553: The Croat former prisoner of war Piyale Pasha is appointed grand admiral of the Ottomans
1554: The Portuguese defeat the Ottomans at Hormuz
1554: The first public coffee house opens in Istanbul
1555: the Ottoman empire conquers Mesopotamia from the Safavid empire with the Peace of Amasya
1555: The "false" Mustafa leads a revolt against the Ottoman ruler in Thrace and Macedonia but Mustafa is captured and killed and thousands of rebels are executed
1555: Coffee is introduced in Ottoman Turkey
1558: The powerful sultan's wife Hurrem Sultan dies and her two surviving sons, Selim (helped by the janissaries) and Bayezit, fight for the right to succeed Suleyman, with Selim winning and Bayezit fleeing to Safavid Iran
1560: The Safavids deliver prince Bayezit to the Ottomans to be executed
1561: The new grand vizier Sokullu Mehmet marries Selim's daughter Esma Sultan, creating a new powerful harem at the Ottoman court
1562: Ottomans and Habsburgs sign another peace treaty
1564: The Serbian slave Bajica Sokolovic becomes grand vizier with the name Sokollu Mehmed and commissions a bridge over the Drina river at Visegrad in Bosnia
1565: The Ottomans conquer Malta
1566: Suleyman dies (having conquered Hungary, Transylvania, Tripoli, Algiers, Yemen, Iraq, Rhodos) and Selim II succeeds him with Sokullu Mehmet as grand vizier
1567: First Armenian printing press in Istanbul
1570: the Ottomans conquer Cyprus from Venezia
1571: at the battle of Lepanto an army formed by the Pope, Spain, Venezia and Genova destroys the Ottoman navy, thus halting Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean
1574: the Hafsid dynasty collapses in Tunisia and is replaced by the Ottomans
1574: An African becomes the chief eunuch of the harem, a tradition that will last till 1908
1574: Ottoman sultan Selim II dies and Murat/Murad III succeeds him killing his five brothers on the day of accession, his mother Nurbanu (an Orthodox Christian by birth) becomes valide (queen mother and co-regent), while grand vizier Sokullu Mehmet's wife Esma Han and Murat's wife Safiye Sultan vie for power
1576: The Ottomans capture Fez in Morocco
1576: The Ottomans and the Safavids of Iran go to war
1578: Peace reached between Spain and Ottoman empire
1579: The Ottoman sultan Murat III executes grand vizier Sokullu, responsible for nepotism and corruption at court
1580: Ottoman sultan Murat/Mourad III and Felipe II of Spain sign a treaty dividing spheres of influence in the Mediterranean between Ottomans and Hapsburgs, dividing Muslim and Christian Mediterranean
1580: A fanatical mob destroys the astronomical observatory of Istanbul
1583: The Ottomans defeat the Safavids at Vilasa ("battle of the torches") and conquer most of the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia,
1587: Safavid king Shah Abbas I creates a gunpowder-based military force
1590: The Ottomans sign a "Capitulation" agreement with England that opens its market to English merchants
1593: The Ottomans and Austria go to war
1595: Murat III dies, having fathered 130 sons and collected 40 concubines, and is succeeded by his son Mehmet III, who kills his 19 brothers and 20 sisters, but real power is in the hands of his mother Safiye Sultan
1601: English merchants introduce tobacco in Istanbul
1603: Sunullah Efendi leads a revolt of religious students and the Sipahi cavalry against the Ottoman sultan but the rebels are massacred
1603: Mehmet III dies and is succeeded by his 13-year old son Ahmet I with power in the hands of his mother and the chief eunuch
1605: Tobacco is introduced in Ottoman Turkey
1606: The Ottomans and the Habsburgs sign a peace treaty at Sitva Torok confirming Ottoman rule in the Balkans and ending the Ottoman advance in Europe
1608: Celali rebels are massacred by the Ottomans
1612: The Ottomans sign a peace treaty with the Safavids returning the Caucasus
1615: The Ottomans sign a "Capitulation" agreement with the Habsburgs that opens its market to Austrian merchants
1617: Ottoman sultan Ahmet I dies and is succeeded by his brother Mustafa, who had been kept in isolation during childhood, the first sultan with no experience, thanks to the victory of one of Ahmet's wives, Kosem Sultan, over the other, Mhafiruz Sultan
1618: The chief eunuch arranges a coup that replaces Ottoman sultan Mustafa with Mhafiruz's son Osman II
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1622: The janissaries depose Osman II and restore Mustafa as Ottoman sultan
1623: the Safavids capture Baghdad from the Ottomans beginning a 16-year war
1623: Soldiers stage a coup that deposes Mustafa and makes the 11-year old Murat IV becomes Ottoman sultan, with power in the hands of his mother Kosem Sultan and the chief eunuch
1627: First Christian printing press in Istanbul
1631: Rebel soldiers invade Istanbul and force the Ottoman sultan Murat IV to appoint Topal Recep as grand vizier
1632: the Ottoman sultan Murat executes Recep and restores order
1634: the Ottoman sultan Murat IV executes Ahmet I's four sons to make sure none claims the throne
1637: The Ottomans abolish the devshirme
1638: the Ottomans recapture Baghdad from the Safavids
1639: The Ottomans and the Safavids sign the Treaty of Zuhab that returns Mesopotamia to the Ottomans and gives the Caucasus to Iran
1640: Ottoman sultan Murat IV dies and is succeeded by Kosem's son Ibrahim
1648: The Ottomans try unsuccessfully to conquer Crete from Venezia
1648: The janissaries stage a coup that installs the sultan's son Mehmet IV, the son of the Ukrainian slave Turham, as Ottoman sultan, but being still a child, real power rests with his mother Kosem, who is appointed valide instead of Turham
1649: The janissaries obtain the post of grand vizier from the Ottoman sultan, making the sultan irrelevant
1651: The harem's eunuchs murder the valide (queen mother) Kosem and Turham becomes the new valide
1656: Facing the third Venetian blockade in a decade, the valide Turhan appoints the 80-year old Mehmet Koprulu gran vizier of the Ottomans, who installs a reign of terror killing thousands of political enemies
1661: Mehmet Koprulu dies and his son Fazil Ahmet becomes the new Ottoman grand vizier
1665: Sabbatai Sevi is recognized by the Jews of Palestine as the Messiah but is then forced by the Ottoman sultan to convert to Islam
1669: Venezia surrenders Crete to the Ottomans
1672: The Ottomans attack Poland
1676: Poland surrenders Ukraine to the Ottomans, but war begins between the Ottomans and Russia over Ukraine
1681: The Ottomans and the Russians agree on a border along the Dnieper
1682: Beginning of the Hundred Year War between the Hapsburg monarchy and the Ottoman empire
1683: The Ottomans besiege Vienna again but are defeated by a much smaller Polish-Lithuanian army and their decline begins (12 grand viziers are deposed in the following 19 years)
1686: the Ottomans are ejected from Budapest by the Habsburgs
1687: Venezia conquers Athens and the Parthenon is destroyed in an explosion
Sep 1697: The Habsburg army defeats the Ottoman army at the battle of Senta/Zenta
1699: the Ottomans lose Hungary to the Holy Roman Empire ("Treaty of Carlowitz")
1687: The inept Mehmet IV is overthrown by rebel soldiers who install Suleyman II as Ottoman sultan and spread terror for five months in Istanbul
1688: The Habsburgs conquer Serbia, Wallachia and Transylvania, but the Orthodox Christian population resents Catholic rule and helps the Ottomans
1689: Fazil Ahmet's brother Fazil Mustafa becomes grand vizier of the Ottomans
1695: Mehmet IV's son Mustafa II becomes Ottoman sultan, but real power is in the hands of the chief of the ulema, Seyyit Feyzullah Efendi
1695: Russia captures Azov on the Black Sea from the Ottomans, thereby ending Ottoman's domination of the Black Sea
1699: The Ottomans and the Habsburgs sign the peace treaty of Karlowitz by which the Ottomans cede Hungary and Transylvania to the Habsburgs, Dalmatia to Venezia, southern Ukraine to Poland and Azov to Russia, the first time that the Ottomans lose territory to European powers
1699: Huseyn Pasha becomes grand vizier of the Ottomans and launches Western-style military reforms
1700: The Greek Alexander Mavrocordato becomes councillor of state
1702: Huseyn Pasha resigns from Ottoman grand vizier in a feud with Seyyit Feyzullah Efendi
1703: Rebel soldiers and Islamic students occupy Istanbul, depose Mustafa and install his brother Ahmet III as Ottoman sultan
1709: Alexander Mavrocordato's son Nicolas is appointed prince of Wallachia
1710: The Ottomans declares war on Russia
1711: The Ottomans and Russia sign a peace treaty
1716: The Ottomans declare war on Venezia
1718: The Ottomans sign a peace treaty with Venezia that leaves Dalmatia to Venezia
1718: Damat Ibrahim becomes grand vizier of the Ottomans, inaugurating a period of peace and Westernization (the "Tulip Period")
1723: Russia invades Iran from the north (Baku) and the Ottomans invade from the west
1725: The Ottomans conquer Tabriz, Armenia and Georgia from Iran
1727: The first printing press (run by a Muslim) opens in Istanbul, the first printing press of the Islamic world
1729: The first book is printed in the Ottoman empire (the first book ever printed in a Muslim country) thanks to the printing press of Ibrahim Muteferrika, a Hungarian convert
1730: Patrona Halil leads a rebellion against the Ottomans that leads the sultan to execute grand vizier Damat Ibrahim and to Mahmut I, while the rebels spread terror in Istanbul (end of the Tulip Period)
1731: Ottoman sultan Mahmut I executes the rebel Patrona Halil who installed him on the throne
1732: A French convert, Claude Bonneval, becomes the military advisor to the Ottomans, while an Italian convert, Hekimoglu Ali, becomes the grand vizier
1735: The Iranians defeat the Ottomans and regain Armenia, Georgia and Tabriz
1736: The Ottomans and Russia go to war
1739: Russia and the Ottomans make peace
1768: Polish rebels request help from the Ottomans against the king defended by Russia
1774: The Russians defeat the Ottomans and obtain cities of the Black Sea and Caucasus, the first time that the Ottoman Empire loses Muslim subjects to a Christian power, and the right to build a Russian Christian Orthodox church in Istanbul
1778: The plague kills 30% of the population of Istanbul
1774: Hungarian-born French baron Francois de Tott helps the Ottomans create a new artillery corp
1785: Ali Burzi Pasha of Libya massacres hundreds of Jews
1787: The Ottomans declare war on Russia, with Sweden supporting the Ottomans and Austria supporting Russia
1787: The Ottomans restore central government control over Egypt
1788: Ottoman general Ali Pasha becomes the de facto ruler of Albania from his base of Ioannina
1791: The peace of Sistova returns Serbia from Austria to the Ottomans
1792: Russia defeats the Ottomans and obtains Southern Ukraine with the Dniester as the new border
1792: The Ottomans create a new army, Nizam-i Jedid (New Order Army) trained by the French
1793: the Ottoman sultan Selim III proclaims the "new order"
Jul 1798: Napoleon attempts to conquer Egypt from the Ottomans (Battle of the Pyramids0, breaking the traditional alliance between France and the Ottoman Empire
1799: Ottoman janissaries split Serbia among them causing widespread resentment
1801: The Ottomans and the British defeat Napoleon's troops in Egypt, while Russia annexes Georgia
1802: France and the Ottomans renew their alliance
1802: When Mehmet I arrives in Egypt as an Ottoman official, power is divided among the Ottomans, the Mamluks and the Albanian troops
1803: Mehmet I sides with the Mamluks and deposes the Ottoman governor of Egypt
1803: Serbia's Karageorge leads an uprising against the Ottoman Empire
1803: Moldavia and Wallachia princes loyal to Russia
1804: Serbia led by Kara George revolts against the Ottoman janissaries that rule them
1805: Mehemet Ali, an Albanian Turk, is recognized by the Ottomans as governor of Egypt
1804: Muslim Wahabis of the Saudi state capture Mecca and Medina from the Ottomans
1806: After Selim replaces the pro-Russian princes of Wallachia and Moldavia with pro-French princes, Russia and Britain declare war on the Ottomans and the Serbs remove the last Ottoman troops from their territory
1807: The janissaries revolt against the Ottoman sultan Selim III who is replaced by Mustafa IV
1808: The troops loyal to Selim III depose Mustafa IV and install Selim III's cousin and Mustafa IV's half-brother Mahmud II (son of Naksh-i-Dil Haseki, a cousin of Napoleon's wife Josephine) as Ottoman sultan
1810: There are 110,000 janissaris, up from 55,000 in 1800
1811: Ottoman governor Mehemet Ali destroys the Mamluk army and seizes control of Egypt, but the Egyptian rulers maintain power on Sudan
1812: the Russians defeat the Ottomans and annex Bessarabia (Moldovia) at the Peace of Bucharest but abandon Serbia to the Ottomans
1813: The plague kills 100,000 people in Istanbul
1814: Greek independence fighters found the secret society Philiki Etairia
1815: Second Serbian uprising against the Ottomans
1818: Mehmet Ali's son Ibrahim conquers Arabia from the Saudis on behalf of the Ottoman emperor
1814: The Greek secret society Philiki Etairia stages an insurrection against the Ottoman Empire, and thousands of Greeks are massacred in Istanbul
1821: Greeks massacre Turks and Jews in the Peloponnese, and Turks massacre Greeks in Istanbul, Macedonia, Cyprus, Crete and other islands
1822: Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Sudan on behalf of the Ottoman empire
1822: Massacre of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops
1822: The Ottomans massacre 25,000 people in the Greek island of Chios
1822: The Ottomans reconquer Albania from Ali Pasha and kill him
1823: Ottoman Empire and Iran sign a peace treaty defining their borders
1824: British poet Byron dies fighting for Greek independence
1826: The Ottomans grants autonomy to Serbia, and Moldavia and Wallachia to Russia at the Convention of Akkerman
1826: The Ottoman emperor Mahmud II massacres the janissaries, strips the ulema of political power and expels the sufis
1827: France, Britain and Russia help the Greek uprising against the Ottomans, the fleet of the Ottomans and of Mehemet Ali is sunk at Navarino by the British, and the expansion of Ali's Egyptian kingdom is halted
1828: The first steamship arrives at Istanbul, the Ottoman capital
1829: Russia defeats the Ottomans and helps Serbia and Greece become independent
1830: the Serbs declare the independent state of Serbia
1831: The first Ottoman newspaper is published
1831: The first Ottoman opera house is opened
1831: A first wave of Polish refugees settle in Istanbul
1832: Greece becomes an independent state but most Greeks still live outside it
1833: at the end of the independence war, Greece is granted independence from the Ottoman empire but France, Britain and Russia force it to accept 17-year old Otto I of Bavaria as its king
1833: Egyptian ruler Mehemet Ali conquers Syria from the Ottoman Empire
1833: The Ottomans and Russia sign a peace treaty at Hunkiar Iskelesi
1834: The Ottoman Empire introduces a postal system
1836: A bridge across the Golden Horn is inaugurated
1838: Britain and the Ottoman Empire sign a trade treaty that greatly expands Ottoman trade with the world and reduces state control of the economy
Jun 1839: Ottoman forces are defeated by Mehmet Ali's Egyptians at the Battle of Nezib for control of Syria and five days later Ottoman emperor Mahmud II dies
Jul 1839: Most of the Ottoman navy joins the navy of Egypt
1839: The port of Aden in Arabia is occupied by the British
1839: Mustafa Reshid is the main architect of the "Tanzimat" movement of Westernization reforms, which includes equality of Muslims, Christians and Jews
1839: The new sultan, Abdul Majid/ Abdulmecid I, introduces secular law next to sharia and grants non-Muslims the same rights as Muslims, and bans the slave trade
1840: Britain and Austria force Egypt to surrender Syria to the Ottomans
1841: The Straits Convention (1841) among Russia, Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, Ottomans limits Russian access to the Mediterranean and leaves the Ottoman Empire dependent on British and French protection from Russia
1845: Mustafa Reshid becomes grand vizier
1847: British forces the Ottoman Empire to abolish the slave trade from Africa
1847: Iran and the Ottomans sign the treaty of Erzurum
1848: Thousands of refugees from Poland and Hungary settle in Istanbul, turning Christians into a majority of the city's population
1852: Babists try to assassinate the shah and are massacred throughout Iran, they move to Ottoman Palestine and found the Baha'i faith
1853: In the Crimean war Britain, France and the Ottoman Empire fight Russia (the first major war in which Christian countries side with a Muslim country)
1854: A British firm builds the first railway in Egypt, which is also the first railway in the Ottoman Empire as well as Africa and the Middle East
1854: The stock exchange opens in Istanbul
1855: The first telegraph line is inaugurated in Turkey
1856: Russia's Black Sea fleet is destroyed by the Ottomans, Britain and France, and the treaty of Paris gives the Ottomans a protectorate over Moldavia, Wallachia and Serbia
1856: Istanbul's population is 430 thousand
1858: Ottoman grand vizier Reshid dies
1860: The Ottoman Armenians are allowed to draw their own constitution
1861: Abdul Aziz ascends to the throne of the Ottoman Empire and inaugurates Western-style reforms
1861: The Ottomans grant a special status to Lebanon and a Christian governor
1862: Otto I is deposed by the Greeks and replaced by a son of the Danish king
1864: Greek bankers found the Societe Generale de l'Empire Ottoman in Istanbul
1865: A fire destroys a large Muslim area of Istanbul
1866: the Ottoman protectorates of Moldavia and Wallachia unite in the federation of Romania
1870: The university of Istanbul opens
1873: An international economic depression lowers the prices for Ottoman agricultural exports
1875: Bosnians rebel against the Ottomans
Apr 1876: Ottoman irregular troops massacre 4,000 rioting Christians in Bulgaria (Batak massacre)
May 1876: Armed religious students reinstall Midhat as grand vizier amid the first major strike of workers in Istanbul
Jun 1876: Ottoman emperor Abdul Aziz commits suicide and is succeeded by his nephew Murad V, while Serbia declares war on the Ottomans to defend the Bulgarian rebels with help from Russian volunteers
Aug 1876: The intoxicated Murad V is deposed and his brother Abdulhamid II becomes Ottoman emperor/sultan
1876: the Ottoman constitution is proclaimed but largely ignored by the sultan
1876: The "Cite de Pera" opens in Istanbul's district of Pera at the peak of Pera's Parisian fad
Feb 1877: The sultan fires grand vizier Midhat
Mar 1877: The Ottoman parliament convenes for the first time
1877: Russia enters the war on the side of Serbia against the Ottomans
Jul 1878: Russia defeats the Ottomans, but is stopped by Britain to protect its route to India and to prevent uprisings by Indian Muslims, and the Congress of Berlin hands Cyprus to Britain and Bosnia to Austria, grants Montenegro, Serbia, and Romania independence and creates an autonomous Christian principality of Bulgaria within the Ottoman Empire stretching from the Black Sea to Albania
1879: Ahmed Orabi/Arabi founds the Egyptian Nationalist party and leads a revolt against the Ottomans and European interference in Egypt
1880: Yildiz Palace is completed and becomes the new residence of sultan Abdulhamid II
1882: The Ottoman Empire can no longer pay interests on its debt and accepts a foreign debt administration
1885: The Ottoman provinces of Bulgaria unite and become de-facto independent
1885: Jews from central and eastern Europe emigrate to Ottoman Palestine
1885: Istanbul's population is 873 thousand, with the Christian and Jewish quarter of Galata having become much richer than any of the Muslim quarters
1887: Armenian marxists found the Hunchakian Party
1887: Ferdinand of Coburg becomes prince of Bulgaria
1889: Ottoman army and navy officers organize the Committee of Union and Progress (the "Young Turks") with branches in Paris and Macedonia (Salonica)
Jul 1890: Armenian marxists of the Hunchakian Party stage riots in Istanbul and 20 of them are killed by the police
1893: A railway is inaugurated from the Bosphorus to Ankara
Sep 1893: Socialist Armenians rise again in Istanbul causing a massacre of Armenians
1894: 250,000 Armenian Christians and 25,000 Assyrian Christians are massacred in eastern Turkey by regular and irregular Ottoman troops (mainly Kurdish militias) between 1894 and 1896
Aug 1896: Armenian revolutionaries launch coordinated bomb attacks in Istanbul, the beginning of riots that cause the death of 6,000 people in the following months
1897: Jews of Palestine led by Theodor Herzl at Basel (Switzerland) call for the creation of a Jewish homeland in Palestine (first Zionist Congress)
1897: Greece attacks the Ottomans over Crete but is defeated (and most Greeks in Istanbul side with the Ottomans)
1898: the Ottoman protectorate grants autonomy to Crete
1905: A bomb by Armenian revolutionaries narrowly misses the Ottoman sultan Abdulhamid II
1905: Mustafa Kemal founds the "Fatherland Society"
Jul 1908: Ottoman sultan Abdulhamid II grants a parliamentary constitution and appoints Kamil as grand vizier but real power rests with the Young Turks led by Enver, Jemal and Talat
Sep 1908: Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman empire and Austria annexes the Ottoman provinces Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sep 1908: The Ottomans inaugurate a railway from Damascus to Medina
Oct 1908: Crete leaves the Ottoman Empire and unites with Greece
Nov 1908: The first parliamentary elections are held in the Ottoman Empire
Dec 1908: Women join in the celebration for the new parliament by showing their face in public for the first time
1909: Tel Aviv is founded as a Hebrew speaking Jewish city in Ottoman Palestine
1909: Massacre of 20,000 Armenian Christians in Adana province by Muslim mobs
Apr 1909: The sultan proclaims shariia law to appease Muslim fundamentalists, Young Turks from Salonicca led by Mahmud Shevket march on Istanbul and depose Ottoman sultan Abdulhamid II who is succeeded by his brother Mehmed V while the Yildiz Palace is dismantled
Oct 1911: Italy attacks the Ottoman province of Libya
1912: The Turkish Petroleum Company is formed by Germany, Holland and Britain to exploit the Ottoman oil fields of Mosul
Oct 1912: Italy takes Libya and the Dodecanese islands from the Ottoman Empire
Oct 1912: a Balkan League of Montenegro, Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece declares war on the Ottoman Empire
Nov 1912: Albania declares its independence
Aug 1913: The Peace of Bucharest drives the Ottomans almost entirely out of Europe, with Greece almost doubling in size
Jan 1913: Enver leads a coup against the grand vizier Kamil and replaces him with Shevket
Jun 1913: Grand vizier Shevket is murdered by terrorists, and de facto a triumvirate of Young Turks (minister of war Enver Bey, interior minister Talat Bey, Istanbul governor Jemal Pasha) rules the Ottoman empire, launching a process of rapid secularization of law and education
Dec 1913: The Ottoman Empire hires a German general, Liman von Sanders, to reform its army
See the timeline for World War I
Feb 1914: Under pressure from Russia, Britain, France and Italy, the Ottoman Empire adopts the Armenian Reforms that protect its Armenian (Christian) minority
Nov 1914: the Ottoman Empire enters World War I in an alliace with Germany and Austria against Russia, France and Britain
1914: Cyprus is annexed by Britain after four centuries of Ottoman rule
Jun 1915: the Ottoman empire begins the massacre of Armenian Christians that will kill 1.2 million Armenians
1915: A famine kills 500,000 people in Ottoman Syria between 1915 and 1918
1915: the Ottoman empire massacres 500,000 Assyrian Christians between 1915 and 1920
Jan 1916: Ottoman troops led by Mustafa Kemal defeat the British at Gallipoli/ Canakkale
Aug 1916: The Ottomans hang Arab patriots in Beirut's Burj Square
1916: the Ottoman empire massacres 350,000 Greek Pontians and 480,000 Anatolian Greeks between 1916 and 1923
1916: Britain and France agree to partition the Middle East (Sykes-Picot agreement)
TM, ®, Copyright © 2005 Piero Scaruffi All rights reserved.
1917: Exodus of Jews from Egypt to British Palestine
Mar 1917: Britain and France conquer Baghdad
Dec 1917: Britain and France conquer Jerusalem
Jul 1918: Reshad dies and his brother Mehmed VI becomes the new sultan and he blames the Young Turks for the defeat in the war
Oct 1918: the Ottoman Empire is defeated in World War I, Britain takes control of Iraq and Transjordan from the Ottomans, and Yemen becomes independent from the Ottomans under Yahya, the imam of the Zaydis
Nov 1918: Istanbul is occupied and divided by British, French and Italian troops
1919: France claims Syria and Lebanon from the Ottomans
Mar 1919: The Greek patriarch of Istanbul severes all cooperation with the Ottomans
May 1919: Greece attacks the Ottoman Empire to regain control of the old Byzantine territories, and Turkey retaliates by massacring tens of thousands of Greek and Armenian Christians in its territories
Jun 1919: Kemal organizes in the village of Ankara armed resistance against the European occupation and the Greek aggression while feminist Halide Edib holds a pro-nationalist rally in Istanbul
Jul 1919: British troops, Greek troops and the sultan's troops battle Keman's nationalists near Istanbul
Apr 1920: Mustafa Kemal is elected president of Turkey and moves the capital from Istanbul (a megalopolis) to Ankara (a poor village of Anatolia) while the Greeks take Bursa and Edirne
Aug 1920: The Treaty of Sevres grants independence to Armenia and calls for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state
Nov 1920: The British evacuate the Crimea and 150 thousand Russian refugees flee to British-controlled Istanbul
1921: Kurds found the Azadi society for independence
Sep 1922: Turkey wins the war against Greece, Kemal enters Greek-majority Izmir and 200 thousand Greeks flee to Greece (tens of thousands of Greeks and Armenians are massacred in Smyrna or die in the fire that destroys the Greek and Armenian quarters)
Oct 1922: Kemal's general Refet enters Istanbul with minimal bloodshed, and an exodus begins that will involve 150 thousand Greeks of Istanbul by 1924
Nov 1922: Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI, accused by the nationalists of being a puppet of the British, leaves Istanbul (end of the Ottoman sultanate) and is succeeded by Abdulmecid whom Kemal appoints "caliph"
1923: Turkey and Greece agree to exchange population, with more than one million Greeks leaving Turkey's Anatolia and 356,000 Turks leaving Greece
Oct 1923: After five years the last European occupation troops leave Istanbul while Mustafa Kemal (later renamed Ataturk) abolishes the Ottoman empire and declares Turkey a republic with capital in Ankara
Feb 1923: Turkey cedes Mosul to Iraq
Mar 1924: Abdulmecid is deposed and the Islamic caliphate is formally abolished
Apr 1924: Turkey adopts an undemocratic constitution, adopting a one-party regime and banning the Ottoman family
1925: The Sunni preacher Shaikh Said starts a Kurdish rebellion but is executed
1925: Turkey bans Sufi orders
1925: Turkey bans the traditional hat, the "fez"
1926: Halide Edib is accused of treason and goes into exile
1926: Turkey abandons the Islamic calendar and adopts the Gregorian calendar
1926: Turkey cedes Mosul to Iraq
1927: Turkey grants women the right to coeducation
1928: Turkey's constitution is amended to make Turkey a secular (not Islamic) state and Turkey bans the Islamic veil for women from public places
1928: Turkey adopts the Latin phonetic orthography in lieu of the Arabic-Persian alphabet
1929: Turkey bands books in the Arabo-Persian aphabet
1934: Turkey launches a five-year plan for industrialization
1934: Turkey signs a friendship pact with its former Balkan enemies (Greece, Romania, Yugoslavia)
1934: Turkey declares Hagia Sophia a museum, not a mosque
1935: Turkey grants women the right to vote and to be elected, and 18 of them are elected to parliament
1935: Turkey moves the weekly day of rest from friday to sunday
1936: 50% of Turkey's exports go to Germany
1937: Turkey signs the Saadabad Pact with Iran, Iraq and Afghanistan
Nov 1938: Kemal/Ataturk dies and is replaced by his former prime minister Ismet Inonu
May 1939: Turkey and Britain sign an alliance treaty
1940: The population of Istanbul is 800 thousand, of which about 100 thousand are ethnic Greeks, and almost no Russians are left
Jun 1941: Turkey signs a non-aggression pact with Hitler's Germany
Feb 1942: The "Struma", a ship full of Jewish emigrants and denied entry in Turkey under British pressure, blows up killing all 769 passengers
1942: A tax is imposed on Greek, Armenian and Jewish firms in Turkey forcing many ancient merchant families to go out of business
1945: Turkey enters World War II on the side of Britain, the Soviet Union and the USA at the very last minute
1946: Turkey allows the formation of an opposition party, the Democratic Party, led by Celal Bayar
1950: Turkey holds the first multi-party elections won by the Democratic Party that appoints Celal Bayar as president and Adnan Menderes as prime minister and enacts reforms friendly to Islam
1952: Turkey joins NATO, the only Muslim country to do so
1955: Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan, Iran and Britain sign the Baghdad Pact that de facto asserts British influence in the Middle Eastagainst the Soviet Union
Sep 1955: Turkish nationalists riot against the Greek minority of Istanbul
1959: Turkey's economy collapses under inflation and unemployment
May 1960: Turkey's prime minister Adnan Menderes is overthrown and executed by the army, the Democratic Party is outlawed and general Cemal Gursel becomes the new president with economic reforms and an emphasis on education
1960: Cyprus becomes independent, a country with a 20% Turkish minority, with Greek Christian archbishop Makarios as president
1961: Former members of the Democratic Party found the Justice Party, led by the USA-educated Suleyman Demirel, while the generals pick Inonu as prime minister
1962: There are 13,000 Turkish immigrants in West Germany
Oct 1965: The Justice Party of Suleyman Demirel wins parliamentary elections
1966: Gursel is replaced by general Cevdet Sunay as president of Turkey while the USA-educated Bulent Ecevit is elected leader of the Republican Party
1968: Turkey has 34 million people
1971: Student riots and terrorist attacks cause anarchy in Turkey
1973: Sunay is replaced by former admiral Fahri Koruturk as president of Turkey
1973: Turkey inaugurates the suspension bridge on the Bosphorus
1974: The military of Cyprus overthrow Makarios and Turkey invades half of Cyprus to protect the rights of the Turkish population from the Greek majority
1974: There are 800,000 Turkish immigrants in West Germany
1974: Turkey inaugurates the Keban Dam, a prelude to the Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP)
1974: the Kurdish Worker's Party (Partiya Karkeren Kurdistan or PKK) is founded in Turkey to establish an independent Kurdish state in predominantly Kurdish southeast Turkey
1975: Strikes and inflation rock Turkey
1977: Ecevit of the Republican Party wins elections and becomes prime minister
1977: A pipeline connecting Iraqi oil fields and Turkish ports opens
1978: Abdullah Ocalan creates the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) to fight Turkish oppression of the kurdish minority (Turkey)
1979: Demirel of the Justice Party wins elections and becomes prime minister
1979: There are 2.5 million Turkish immigrants in West Germany
1980: Abdullah Ocalan leads the PKK in an armed struggles against the Turkish government
1980: Turk's inflation his 115%
Sep 1980: As inflation reaches 100% and thousands of politicians are assassinated in what is de facto a civil war, the army seizes power in Turkey and arrests and tortures thousands of people
1980: Turkey launches the The Southeastern Anatolia Project (GAP), a project of massive dams on the Tigris and Euphrates to generate electricity and irrigation
1981: Turkey has 45 million people
Nov 1983: The Motherland Party/ Anavatan Partisi of prime minister Turgut Ozal wins elections (in which 12 women are also elected to parliament) and implements free-market reforms
Nov 1983: Turkish Cyprus declares its independence but is recognized only by Turkey
1984: Abdullah Ocalan and the Kurdish Workers' Party (PKK) wage war to the Turkish state (Turkey)
1987: Turkey applies for membership in the European Union
1989: Turgut Ozal is elected president
1990: Turkey inaugurates the giant Ataturk Dam
1991: Demirel, now leader of the True Path party, becomes prime minister of Turkey for the seventh time
1993: OZal dies and is replaced by Demirel as president of Turkey with Tansu Ciller as prime minister (the first female prime minister of Turkey)
1995: the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)led by Abdullah Ocalanunleashes a terrorist campaign in Turkey (Turkey)
March 1995: Turkey invades northern Iraq to fight the kurdish insurgency (Turkey)
1995: Turkey liberalizes the political system to appease the European Union, and the Islamist fundamentalist Welfare Party wins elections and its leader Necmettin Erbakan becomes prime minister
1995: Turkey has 62 million people
1998: dozens killed in wave of bombings and attacks by the PKK (Turkey)
1999: Abdullah Ocalan renounces violenceafter a 15-year war that has claimed the lives of 27,000 Kurdish rebelsthousands of turkish soldiershundreds of Turkish civilians and unknown numbers of Kurdish civilians (Turkey)
Feb 1999: elite Turkish forces capture PKK leader Abdullah Ocalan in Kenya (Turkey)
1999: Abdullah Ocalan is captured by the Turkish government
2001: Turkey's economy contracts by 9.5%
2002: Turkey begins an economic recovery that will average 6% over the next 5 years, one of the highest in the world
2003: the Islamic-oriented "Justice and Development Party" (AK Party) wins elections in Turkey and Recep Tayyip Erdogan becomes the country's prime minister
May 2003: a bomb kills 6 people in Ankara (Turkey)
Nov 2003: bombs against western institutions kill 60 people in Istanbul (Turkey)
Nov 2003: bombs in synagogues kill 25 people in IstanbulTurkey (Turkey)
2003: bombs in synagogues kill 25 people in Istanbul, Turkey
2003: bombs against western institutions kill 58 people in Istanbul, Turkey
2005: Kurdish rebels in Turkey call off the 1999 truce and begin an offensive against Turkish soldiers
2005: Kurdish rebels in Turkey call off the 1999 truce and begin an offensive against Turkish soldiers (Turkey)
2006: young Kurds riot in Turkey
2006: a Kurdish militant group claims responsibility for bombs in several Turkish cities that wound several people (Turkey)
Sep 2007: Following the killing of a Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leaderKurdish separatists kill 12 people in Turkey (Turkey)
2007: a bomb kills 6 people in Ankara, Turkey
2007: more than 200 Turkish soldiers are killed by Kurdish separatists of the PKK that use Iraq as a base
2007: Following the killing of a Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) leader, Kurdish separatists kill scores of soldiers in Turkey at the border with Iraq
Jul 2008: 15 people are killed by bombs of Kurdish separatists in IstanbulTurkey (Turkey)
july 2008: 15 people are killed by bombs of Kurdish separatists in Istanbul, Turkey
Jan 2009: Turkey arrests two generals accused of plotting a coup
2009: A Turkish newspaper of the Dogan group reveals corruption in an Islamic charity close to president Erdogan
2009: Turkey's economy contracts by 4.7%
2010: Turkey's economy grows by 9%
Jun 2010: Turkish soldiers and Kurdish militants die in attacks in Turkey
Dec 2010: Turkey's stock market quadruples in value from its 2009 crisis low
Jul 2011: Turkey arrests members of an Al Qaeda affiliate who were planning a terrorist attack in Ankara (Turkey)
Jul 2011: Kurdish rebels kill 13 Turkish soldiers
2011: Turkey's economy grows 8.5%, one of the highest growth rates in the world
Jul 2011: Turkey's top military leaders (military chief Isik Kosaner and the commanrds of army, navy and air force) resign en masse
Aug 2011: Kurdish separatists kill nine Turkish soldiers and Turkey retaliates by bombing their bases inside Iraq killing at least eight civilians
Oct 2011: Kurdish rebels kill 24 Turkish soldiers at the border with Iraq, Turkey invades Iraq killing hundreds of Kurds including PKK leader Cicek Botan, and a female suicide bomber in Kurdish Turkey kills three people
Dec 2011: Turkish warplanes kill 35 people near the border with Iraq, mistaking them for Kurdish rebels
Jan 2012: There are now 97 members of the news media in jail in Turkey, more than in mainland China, and about one million websites are blocked
Mar 2012: Turkey kills 15 female militants of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK)
Jun 2012: Turkey bombs Kurdish rebel bases in northern Iraq
Aug 2012: At least 19 people are killed in south-east Turkey after Kurdish rebels launch an attack on a Turkish border post
Sep 2012: Nine members of Turkey's security forces are killed in clashes with Kurdish rebels
Jan 2013: Three female Kurdish activists of the separatist PKK group are shot dead in Paris
Mar 2013: Kurdish leader Abdullah Ocalan calls for a ceasefire with Turkey
May 2013: Car bombs kill 43 people in the Turkish town of Reyhanli near the Syrian border
May 2013: Anti-government protests spread throughout Turkey, ignited by government plans to demolish a park but mostly directed against the application of Islamic moral values
Jun 2013: Abu Sayyaf of ISIS sets up a black market for oil sales to Turkey
Oct 2013: Turkey opens the first sea tunnel linking two continents, the "Marmaray"
Dec 2013: Authorities widely seen as allied with Islamic cleric Fethullah Gulen, who runs media, schools and charities from rural Pennsylvania, arrest dozens of members of people affiliated with Erdogan's Justice and Development (AK) party in a corruption probe
Mar 2014: Turkey's prime minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, still attacked by corruption investigations, tries to shut down Twitter and Youtube
May 2014: A coal mine explosion kills 280 miners in western Turkey
Jul 2014: Turkey opens a high-speed rail between Istanbul and Ankara
Aug 2014: Erdogan wins Turkey's first direct presidential election
Oct 2014: 19 Kurds die in riots caused by Turkey's reluctance to fight ISIS in Syria's Kurdish region
Dec 2014: Turkish police arrest 23 people working for a newspaper and a TV station allied with Islamic opposition cleric Fethullah Gulen
Mar 2015: The leftist Revolutionary People's Liberation Party-Front (DHKP/C) stages protests in Istanbul, violently repressed by the police
Jun 2015: A record number of women are elected to the Turkish parliament (96), besides 3 Armenians, 2 Yazidis, 1 Syriac, 1 Roma and several Kurds and Alevis
Jul 2015: A suicide bombers from ISIS kills 32 Kurds in the Turkish town of Suruc near the Syrian border, the PKK kills two Turkish officers, Turkey bombs both ISIS and especially PKK fighters in Iraq killing hundreds of them
Aug 2015: More than 18 people die in fighting between Kurdish separatists and police/army in southeastern Turkey
Sep 2015: Dozens of people are killed in clashes with the military in the Kurdish city of Cizre
Oct 2015: Two suicide bombers kill more than 100 peace activitists protesting the war against the Kurds in Turkey's capital Ankara
Dec 2015: Turkey kills more than 100 PKK militants in the southeast
Jan 2016: An ISIS suicide bomber kills 10 people in Istanbul, mostly German tourists
Jan 2016: A PKK bomb kills 5 people at a police station in south-eastern Turkey
Jan 2016: Oil prices fall below $30 a barrel for the first time since April 2004
Feb 2016: A car bomb targeting a military convoy kills 28 people in Turkey's capital Ankara, and Turkey blames the attack on the Syrian Kurds, who denied any responsibility, and six soldiers are killed a roadside bombing in the southeastern Turkish province of Diyarbakir, an attack that Turkey blames on the PKK
Mar 2016: Turkey places the country's biggest newspaper, Zaman, under state control
Mar 2016: A car bomb detonated by a female suicide bomber of the Kurdish militant group TAK kills 37 people in Turkey's capital Ankara, and an ISIS suicide bomber kills 5 people in Istanbul including 3 Israelis
Apr 2016: Turkey sues a German comedian that ridiculed Turkey's president
Apr 2016: Russia submits a report on Turkey’s illegal trade with ISIS to the United Nations security council
May 2016: Turkey's prime minister Davutoglu resigns
Jun 2016: A car bomb kills seven police officers and four civilians in Istanbul, the fourth attack of the year in the city
Jun 2016: ISIS suicide bombers kill 44 people at the Istanbul airport
Jul 2016: Military units led by former general Akin Ozturk attempt a coup in Turkey and about 300 people are killed, but Erdogan regains power and blames exiled cleric Fethullah Gulen
Aug 2016: Two bombs by the PKK kill eight people in Turkey's southeastern towns of Kizitepe and Diyarbakir
Aug 2016: Turkey's military enters Syria to fight ISIS and the Syrian Kurds
Aug 2016: An ISIS suicide bomber kills 54 people at a Kurdish wedding in the Turkish city of Gaziantep
Oct 2016: A car bomb attack by Kurdish militants in the south-eastern city of Durak kills 10 soldiers and 8 civilians
Dec 2016: A car bomb and a suicide bomber by the Kurdish militant group TAK kills 38 people, mostly police officers, in Istanbul
Dec 2016: In retaliation for Turkey's attacks on Kurdish areas that killed dozens of Kurdish militants, a suicide car bomb kills 13 soldiers on a bus in central Turkey and two bombs outside a football stadium in Istanbul kill 44 people
Dec 2016: Following protests in Turkey over Russian support for Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, a Turkish policeman kills Russia's ambassador to Turkey
Dec 2016: An ISIS bomb kills 39 people at an Istanbul night-club
Dec 2016: Turkey and Russia broker a truce in Syria bypassing the USA
Dec 2016: Since the coup attempt, Turkey has shut down 178 media outlets, 150 journalists have been jailed
Feb 2017: Turkey fires 330 university professors who oppose Erdogan's rule
Apr 2017: Turkey, amid allegations of vote-rigging, narrowly approves a referendum that abolishes the prime minister position and concentrates power on president Erdogan
Apr 2017: The Turkish government fires more than 9,000 police officers, arrests 1,000, fires 4,000 public officials, including more than 1,000 justice ministry workers, a similar number of armystaff and more than 100 air force pilots (all on suspicion of having links to the US-based cleric Fethullah Gulen), blocks Wikipedia and bans TV dating shows
Apr 2017: The Turkish government blocks Wikipedia
May 2017: A video provided by opposition politician Enis Berberoglu proves that the Turkish government is secretely arming Islamists in Syria
Jun 2017: A Turkish court sentences opposition politician Enis Berberoglu to 25 years in prison on charges of military espionage for revealing Turkey's secret shipment of weapons to Syrian Islamists; and Kemal Kilicdaroglu, the leader of Turkey's opposition party Republican People's Party (CHP), organizes a "March for Justice" on Istanbul
Dec 2017: A Turkish-Iranian businessman, Reza Zarrab, testifies that he made a fortune helping Turkey evade sanctions on Iran smuggling gold for oil in 2012
Jan 2018: Turkish troops enter Syria to fight the Kurdish rebels who fought Assad and ISIS
Mar 2018: Turkey forces Aydin Dogan to sell all his media to a government-friendly businessman, Erdogan Demiroren, so that no major independent media remains in Turkey
Mar 2018: Turkey enters a recession with unemployment hitting 10% and up to 30% among young people,
Jul 2018: 24 people are killed after a train derails in north-western Turkey
Aug 2018: The Turkish lira collapses while inflation hits 15%
Oct 2018: Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, a critic of Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman, is tortured, killed and dismembered in the the Saudi consulate in Istanbul
Dec 2018: The Turkish lira lost 28% of its value in 2018 (compared with the dollar) and inflation reaches 20%
Feb 2019: After reports of the death of Uighur musician Abdurehim Heyit, Turkey demands that mainland China shuts down the concentration camps in Xinjiang province
Oct 2019: Trump orders the withdrawal of US troops from Syria, leaving the USA's allies, the Kurdish militias, undefended, and Turkey launches an invasion on Syria's Kurdish area.
Oct 2019: Violent demonstrations against the Iraqi government leave 149 people dead
Jan 2020: Turkey sends troops to Libya to protect the government of national accord led by prime minister Fayez al-Serraj in Tripoli from the Russian-back militia of Khalifa Hifter
Jul 2020: Turkey passes a law to control social media
Jul 2020: Erdogan turns Hagia Sophia into a mosque again after 86 years
Oct 2020: The Turkish lira hit a record low of 8.15 against the US dollar as Erdogan calls for a boycott of French goods to defend the Muslim who beheaded a French teacher
Nov 2020: Turkey's finance minister Berat Albayrak, the son-in-law of Turkey's president Erdogan, resignes amid a collapsing economy and plunging currency
Jan 2021: A Turkish court sentences Adnan Oktar, leader of a religious sex cult and owner of a conservative Islamic TV channel, to one thousand years in prison

See also a timeline of the modern Middle East


Osman Ghazi I (1300-1326)
Orkhan Ghazi I (1326-1360)
Ghazi Mourad I (1360-1389)
Ghazi Yldirim Baiezid I (1389-1413)
Ghazi Mehmet I (1413-1421)
Mourad II (1421-1451)
Ghazi Mehmet II (1440-1481)
Baiezed II (1481-1512)
Ghazi Selim I (1512-1520)
Suleyman I (1520-1566)
Ghazi Selim II (1566-1574)
Mourad III (1574-1595)
Ghazi Mehmet III (1595-1603)
Ahmed I (1603-1617)
Mustapha I (1617-1623)
Osman II (1617-1622)
Ghazi Mourad IV (1623-1640)
Ibrahim I (1639-1648)
Mehmet IV (1648-1693)
Suleyman II (1687-1691)
Ahmed II (1691-1695)
Ghazi Mustapha II (1695-1704)
Ahmed III (1703-1736)
Mahmoud I (1730-1754)
Osman II (1754-1757)
Moustapha III (1757-1774)
Abdulhamid I (1774-1789)
Selim III (1789-1808)
Moustapha IV (1807-1808)
Mahmoud II (1808-1839)
Abdul Majid/ Abdulmecid I (1839-1861)
Abdul Asis (1861-1876)
Mourad V (1876-1876)
Abdulhamid II (1876- 1909)
Mehmet V (1909 - 1923)

Turkish presidents

1923 - 1938 Mustafa Kemal Pascha "Ataturk"
1938 - 1950 Ismet Inonu
1950 - 1960 Celal Bayar
1960 - 1966 Cemal Gursel
1966 - 1973 Cevdet Sunay
1973 - 1980 Fahri Koruturk
1980 - 1989 Kenan Evren
1989 - 1993 Turgut Ozal
1993 - 2000 Suleyman Demirel

Turkish prime ministers

1999 - 2002 Bulent Ecevit
2003 - Recep Tayyip Erdogan

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)