A time-line of the Vikings and Scandinavia

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(Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)

100 AD: the Finns occupy Finland
200 AD: Runic (futhark) alphabet
400: age of the migrations
690: English missionary Willibrord evangelizes in Denmark
700: boat graves at Vendel in Uppland (Sweden)
700: Denmark is ruled by Angantyr (Ongendus)
700: Scandinavians in the Vistula delta (See Russians)
793: Vikings raid the monastery of Lindisfarne in Britain
800: Danes under Godfred fight the Franks
810: Godfred is murdered
826: Harald Klak of Denmark converts to Christianity
827: Horik I, son of Godfred, rules Denmark
831: Vikings invade Ireland and found Dublin
834: Vikings raid England
844: Vikings raid Seville
852: Ansgar founds the churches at Hedeby and Ribe in Denmark
860: Vikings attack Constantinople
862: Vikings found Novgorod in Russia
865: the Danes invade East Anglia and destroy the Northumbrians
867: the Danes under Ivarr the Boneless establish a kingdom in York, England
870: the Danes conquer East Anglia
872: Harald I becomes king of Norway
874: Vikings settle Iceland
878: The Danes attack Wessex but are defeated by king Alfred at the battle of Edington (they now control three of the four Anglo-Saxon kingdoms) and their leader Guthrum converts to Christianity
881: Vikings raid Cambrai, Utrecht and Aachen
885: Vikings besiege Paris
886: Wessex king Alfred divides England with the Danes
9##: Eddic sagas in Iceland
9##: Vikings raid the Mediterranean coasts
90#: king Harald I Fairhaired unites most of Norway
910: Harald Bluetooth (Harald I) inherits the Jutland kingdom from his father, Gorm the Old (founder of the Jelling dynasty) and conquers the rest of Denmark
911: Vikings under Rollo are settled in Normandy by the Franks (first Duke of Normandy)
910: Alfred's son Edward defeats the Danes
912: the Normans become Christian
927: Aethelstan conquers all of Anglosaxon England
930: Iceland establishes the Althing, a legislative assembly without a king
937: Aethelstan establishes the kindgom of England
941: Vikings attack Constantinople
950: Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) of the Jelling dynasty unites all of Denmark
959: Edgar the Peaceful becomes the first king of a united England
965: Harald Bluetooth (Harold I) converts the Danes to christianity
968: Brian Boru expels the Vikings from Ireland
981: Erik the Red discovers Greenland
986: Vikings land in Canada
995: Olaf I Trygvason conquers most of Norway and converts it to Christianity
1000: the tribes of Sweden unite
1000: Greenland and Iceland are christianized
1001: Leif Eriksson reaches the American coast
1008: Sweden is christianized
1013: the Danish chieftain Svend Forkbeard (Svend I) conquers England
1015: Olaf II Haraldsson is the first king of all Norway
1016: the Danish king Canute (Knut) II defeats the Wessex king Edmund at the battle of Alney and annexes Mercia
1017: Edmund of Wessex dies and Canute annexes Wessex
1017: Canute converts to christianity
1028: Canute, already king of England and Denmark, conquers Norway
1035: Canute dies, leaving Denmark and England to Hardacnut and Norway to Swein
1042: Hardacnut dies suddenly and Edward the Confessor, heir to both Wessex and Mercia, regains the throne of England to the Anglosaxons
1050: Vikings found the city of Oslo in Norway
1060: Svend Estridsen (Svend II) organizes the Danish church
1066: Edward the Confessor dies and Harold II Godwinson succeeds him
1066: Norway's king Harald III Harraade invades northern England and is killed at the battle of Stamford Bridge against Harold Godwinson of England
1066: William I of Normandy (the Conqueror) defeats and kills the English king Harold at the battle of Hastings, thus ending the Anglo-Saxon rule of England and becoming the first Norman king of England
1103: the Danish king Erik Ejegod (Erik I) obtains that Lund become the archiepiscopal see for the whole of Scandinavia
1152: the archbishopric of Norway is founded at Nidaros (Trondheim), where a cathedral is built
1155: the Swedish king Erik conquers Finland during a crusade
1157: Valdemar I becomes king of Denmark
1160: the Sverker and Erik families compete for power in Sweden
1164: Sweden obtains an archbishop
1169: the Danish king Canute VI conquers Arkona
1215: the English king John I Lackland signs the Magna Charta
1203: Philip Augustus II of France conquers Normandy and expels the English
1217: Haakon IV Haakonsson reunites Norway after a civil war
1219: the Danes under Valdemar II conquer Estonia
1241: Valdemar II dies and the Danish kingdom disintegrates
1262: Haakon IV annexes Iceland and Greenland to Norway, and terminates the Althing
1263: Haakon IV dies and is succeeded by Magnus V Lagaboeter, who enacts Norway's code of laws
1280: Sweden's king Magnus Ladulas organizes Swedish society on the feudal model
1286: the Turku cathedral of Finland is founded
1300: Sweden trades with the cities of the Hanseatic Leage (Luebeck)
1340: Valdemar IV Atterdag succeeds to the throne of Denmark
1350: Sweden's king Magnus Eriksson enacts the Swedish law code
1350: the plague reaches Denmark and Scandinavia
1361: the Danes under Valdemar IV is defeated by the Hanseatic league
1363: Valdemar IV's daughter Margrete is married at ten to Haakon VI of Norway
1375: Valdemar IV of Denmark dies and is succeeded by Oluf, the son of Valdemar IV's daughter Margrete and King Hakon VI of Norway
1380: Haakon VI of Norway dies and his wife Margrete becomes regent on behalf of their ten-year old son Olaf
1381: Denmark acquires Iceland
1388: following the death of Olaf, Margrete becomes regent queen of Denmark and Norway
1389: the Danish queen Margrete is elected queen of Sweden, thereby uniting the crowns of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
1397: Denmark, Norway and Sweden agree to unite under the teenager Erik VII of Pomerania with his mother Margrete as regent (Union of Kalmar)
1434: Sweden revolts against Denmark
1442: Christopher III of Denmark becomes king of Norway, thereby installing a Danish dynasty in Norway
1448: Christian I inaugurates the Oldenburg dynasty in Denmark
1460: the Danish King Christian I is elected Duke of Schleswig and Count of Holstein by the nobles of Schleswig-Holstein
1475: the Olavinlinna castle is founded in Finland
1520: Swedish nobles fighting for independence are executed by the Danish union king Kristian II
1521: the Danish king Kristian II is deposed
1523: Gustar Vasa is elected king of Sweden (and Finland) and Sweden leaves the union with Denmark
1529: Sweden adopts Lutheranism as the state religion
1536: Christian III emerges as the winner from the Danish civil war, ruling over Denmark, Norway, the Faroes, Iceland and Greenland
1537: Denmark and Norway adopt Lutheranism as the state religion
1544: Sweden becomes an hereditary monarchy and abandons Catholicism in favor of Protestantism
1563: Erik XIV of Sweden and Frederik II of Denmark get entangled in a seven-year war
1604: Sweden bans Catholicism
1611: Denmark tries to annex again Sweden but fails (Kalmar War)
1625: Sweden under Gustav II Adolf captures Livonia from Poland
1626: the Danish army of Christian IV is defeated in the Thirty Years' War at Lutter am Barenberg
1630: Sweden under Gustav II Adolf allies with Germany in the Thirty Years' War
1632: Gustav II Adolf is killed at the battle of Luetzen but Sweden wins and becomes a European power
1634: Swedish nobility ratifies a new constitution
1634: Finland is incorporated into the kingdom of Sweden
1655: Sweden invades Poland-Lithuania ("First Northern War"), causing the death of millions, while Russia, Denmark, and the Empire side with Poland-Lithuania
1658: Sweden under Charles X seizes Danish provinces, its territory now including Finland, Estonia, Latvia and parts of northern Germany
1660: Denmark becomes a hereditary monarchy under Frederik III
1670: Christian V becomes king of Denmark and introduces administrative reforms
1661: Johan Palmstruch introduces the first European paper money
1676: Ole Roemer discovers that the speed of light is finite
1697: Charles XII becomes king of Sweden
1699: Frederik IV becomes king of Denmark
1700: Denmark, Poland and Russia attack Sweden, but Charles XII's army invades Poland, Saxony and Ukraine
1706: Poland surrenders to Sweden
1707: Sweden, having defeated Poland, invades Russia
1709: Sweden is defeated by Russia at the battle of Poltava
1718: Sweden's king Charles XII is killed in battle
1721: Danish colonists recolonize Greenland
1721: Sweden is defeated by an alliance of Denmark, Poland and Russia and loses most of its territory on the other side of the Baltic Sea (peace of Nystad)
1729: Greenland becomes a Danish province
1772: Gustav III seizes power in Sweden
1773: Denmark enter into an alliance with Russia
1805: Sweden joins a coalition against Napoleon
1807: Britain attacks Denmark and steals the entire Danish fleet, and Denmark allies with Napoleon
1808: Russia invades Sweden's Finland
1809: A new constitution of Sweden grants more powers to the Parliament
1809: Sweden cedes Finland to Russia
1812: Helsinki becomes the capital of the Grand Duchy of Finland
1814: And at the Peace of Kiel, Denmark is forced to cede Norway to Sweden
1814: Christian VIII introduces constitutional monarchy in Norway, a "free kingdom" under Sweden
1818: The first Bernadotte, Jean Baptiste, one of Napoleon's field marshals, is elected king of Sweden
1849: Frederik VII signs Denmark's first constitution, granting civil rights and instituting a parliamentary democracy
1864: Prussia and Austria defeat Denmark and Denmark is forced to cede Schleswig, Holstein and Lauenburg
1867: the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel invents dynamite
1869: A famine kills thousands of people in Sweden
1876: Lars Ericsson founds Ericsson in Sweden
1890: The electrical firm Allmanna Svenska Elektriska Aktiebolaget (ASEA) is founded
1898: Norway introduces universal male suffrage
1899: Russification of Finland
1905: The union between Sweden and Norway is dissolved and prince Carl of Demark becomes king of Norway as Haakon VII
1906: Universal female suffrage in the Grand Duchy of Finland (first region in Europe)
1907: Sweden introduces proportional representation and universal male suffrage
1909: Sweden's Selma Lagerlof becomes the first female writer to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature
1912: Universal female suffrage in Norway
1913: Norway introduces univeral female suffrage
1913: the Danish physicist Niels Bohr explains how the atom works
1916: The Social Democratic Party of Finland becomes the first socialist party in the world to win democratic elections with an absolute majority
1918: Denmark introduces universal suffrage
1919: Finland declares its independence from Russia
Sep 1932: The Socialdemocratic party wins the elections in Sweden and Per-Albin Hansson becomes prime minister with a program of vast social reforms
1934: Ole Kirk Christiansen founds the company Lego in Denmark to make wooden toys
1944: Finland surrenders Karelia to the Soviet Union
1944: Iceland declares independence from Denmark
Jan 1946: Sweden extradites 146 Latvian and Estonian prisoners of war to the Soviet Union
1946: Socialdemocrat Tage Erlander becomes prime minister of Sweden after Hansson died
1953: Greenland becomes part of Denmark
1969: Erlander resigns and Olof Palme becomes prime minister of Sweden
1974: a new Swedish constitution removes any power from the monarchy
1979: Ericsson introduces the first cellular phone
1986: Olof Palme of Sweden is assassinated
1989: Denmark becomes the first nation in the world to legalize same-sex marriage
1995: Sweden and Finland join the European Union
1996: Goeran Persson becomes prime minister of Sweden
2000: a bridge is inaugurated linking Malmo in Sweden and Copenhagen in Denmark
2000: The longest road tunnel in the world opens in Norway, the Laerdal Tunnel
2002: Finland adopts the euro
Sep 2005: The Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten publishes cartoons that satirize the founder of Islam
2006 Muslims riot worldwide because the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten published comic cartoons about Mohammed, the founder of Islam
2006: Fredrik Reinfeldt of the conservative party becomes prime minister of Sweden
Nov 2007: An 18-year-old student (Pekka-Eric Auvinen) goes a gun rampage at his school in Tuusula, killing seven pupils, a teacher and himself ("Jokela school massacre")
2008: An armed student kills nine people at a college in Finland
Oct 2008: Iceland's three main banks collapse and leave the country virtually bankrupt
2009: Iceland elects the first openly gay head of state in the world, Johanna Sigurdardottir
Dec 2009: A 43-year-old man (Ibrahim Shkupolli) goes a gun rampage in the southern city of Espoo, killing five people
Dec 2010: A Muslim dies trying to carry out a suicide attack in Stockholm, Sweden
Dec 2010: Danish authorities prevent a terrorist attack by Muslims who wanted to kill as many people as possible in the building of a newspaper that published cartoons deemed offensive to Islam
Apr 2011: Finland's nationalist, anti-immigration "True Finns" party wins 19% of seats in parliament
Jul 2011: A right-wing anti-Islamic terrorist kills 76 people in Norway
Sep 2011: Helle Thorning-Schmidt becomes Denmark's first female prime minister
May 2013: Riots erupt in the Muslim immigrant suburb of Husby after the Swedish police kill a man
2013: Erna Solberg is elected prime minister of Norway
Sep 2014: The Social Democrats return to power in Sweden after eight years and Stefan Lofven becomes the new prime minister
  • Aug 2018: Swedish 15-year-old Greta Thunberg leads a protest against human-made climate change outside the Swedish Parliament
  • Mar 2019: Finland tops the ranking of the world's happiest countries for the second year in a row
  • Sep 2019: Inspired by Greta Thunberg, worldwide protesters demand climate action
  • Dec 2019: The 34-year-old Sanna Marin is appointed prime minister of Finland, the world's youngest prime minister
  • Oct 2021: A Muslim convert, Espen Andersen Brathen, kills 5 people with bow and arrow in Norway's Kongsberg
  • Nov 2021: Magdalena Andersson becomes the first female prime minister of Sweden

  • World News | Politics | History | Editor
    (Copyright © 1999 Piero Scaruffi)