A History of Silicon Valley
Chapter 23: The Selfies (2011-18)Table of Contents | Timeline of Silicon Valley | A photographic tour
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"A History of Silicon Valley"
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The Saga of AppleClick here for this section
The Age of the Smartphone AppClick here for this section
GamingClick here for this section
Virtual and Augmented RealityClick here for this section
Wearable ComputingClick here for this section
Ubiquitous ComputingThe 2000s were bringing back the hardware. The biggest revolution of the 2000s may not have been the Internet (which has been hijacked by the likes of Google and Facebook to become an advertising platform) but the sensor revolution. Thanks to progress in micro-electronics, batteries and wireless connectivity, sensors had become orders of magnitude cheaper and thickly networked. Sensors were opening virtually infinite horizons to a new generation of applications. Wearable computing, self-driving cars, embedded nanotechnology, robots and so forth were the "real thing". By comparison, social media were simply entertainment, that are replacing late-night clubs and bars. There was a reason that they were called "social" and not "industrial"...
Bendable GadgetsThe flat panel display was slowly being replaced by the flexible display. In 1974 Xerox PARC had invented the "electronic paper": Nicholas Sheridon produced the "Gyricon", the first flexible e-paper display. But real progress began only after the introduction of the organic light-emitting diode (OLED), invented in 1987 by Hong Kong-born Ching Tang at Eastman Kodak. In 2006 Philips had introduced the first rollable display, and in 2008 Nokia had demonstrated a flexible OLED display for mobile phones (the Morph). Also in 2008 German-based Plastic Logic (founded in 2000 by Henning Sirringhaus at Cambridge University to make plastic electronics) had announced a bendable display, although it was never released. In 2010 Japan's Sony had demonstrated a rollable OLED display. After so many promises, the bendable display became a reality in 2013 when South Korea's Samsung first demonstrated an AMOLED bendable color screen and then introduced the world's first mobile phone with flexible display, the Galaxy Round. Also in 2013 Intel, Plastic Logic and Queen's University in Canada built the tablet computer PaperTab with a plastic flexible display. In 2016 South Korea's LG demonstrated an OLED bendable color screen that could be rolled up like a piece of paper, and Polyera, founded by Phil Inagaki in 2005 at Princeton University to develop flexible transistors, introduced the Wove bendable smartwatch.
3D PrintingClick here for this section
Big DataClick here for this section
Beyond the CloudClick here for this section
BiotechClick here for this section
NeurotechClick here for this section
The Sharing EconomyClick here for this section
Space ExplorationClick here for this section
From Productivity Tools to Entertainment ToolsOne of the fundamental changes in the nature and spirit of Silicon Valley was the transformation from a maker of productivity tools (integrated circuits, microprocessors, personal computers, groupware, database management systems, search engines) to a maker of entertainment platforms (mainly videogames and social media).
Silicon Valley from the 1950s to the 1990s was one of the technological centers that contributed to a rapid and significant increase in industrial productivity. Its customers were the big industrial centers of the world, not only households. There was a direct chain of transmission from the innovation in Silicon Valley to the innovation at the assembly line or in millions of offices.
In the 2010s Silicon Valley innovation (at least the commercially successful one) was mainly in videogames and social media. The impact on productivity of a new Facebook timeline or of a new Zinga game was obviously not as big as the impact that the first microprocessors or the first relational databases or the first personal computers had. After all, the dotcom revolution had failed when it had tried to make money out of productivity tools sold to the usual customers (the industrial and financial powerhouses). The dotcom startups succeeded when they started targeting the spare time of ordinary people and started making money out of advertising products to those masses. The gigantic creation of wealth in Silicon Valley during the 2000s had little to do with increasing productivity.
Among the new social-networking platforms, NextDoor, launched in 2011 in San Francisco by Sarah Leary, Nirav Tolia, Prakash Janakiraman and David Wiesen was a social network for neighborhoods that required users to verify their physical address.
Web-based videoconference was now mature enough. The main players were Skype, Google Hangouts (launched in 2013), Webex (acquired by Cisco in 2007, an evolution of Min Zhu's ActiveTouch of 1997 that was an evolution of his previous Future Labs document-collaboration software launched in 1991), and Zoom, a Webex spinoff started in 2011 in San Jose by a former Cisco executive, Eric Yuan.
Internet of ThingsClick here for this section
Greentech: Electric VehiclesClick here for this section
Wireless Power TransmissionClick here for this section
E-shoppingClick here for this section
BitcoinClick here for this section
FintechClick here for this section
The Micro-startupWhen in 2015 Microsoft acquired LiveLoop (Powerpoint groupware), Sunrise (calendar app for iPhone) and Accompli (mobile email), it added exactly 42 people to its workforce. Twitter added a grand total of 13 people from acquiring Vine (video sharing) in 2012 and Periscope (video streaming) in 2015. Facebook added 16 from acquiring Instagram in 2012 and Luma (video sharing) in 2013. Google's acquisitions in 2015 of Odysee (photo sharing) and Tilt Brush (painting in virtual reality), among others, hardly changed its headcount. One can go back to 2005, when Google acquired a nine-people startup, Android, that went on to dominate the smartphone market. By comparison YouTube, that Google acquired in 2006 when it already had 65 employees, looks like a ridiculously large deal. The moment something goes viral on the Internet there is a big corporations ready to buy it; but sometimes this happens even before that something has had a chance to go viral; in fact Twitter acquired both Periscope and Vine before they launched. (Vine had just been founded in New York two months earlier by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll) What the corporations are looking for is simple: talent. Google, Twitter, Facebook and Microsoft were founded by talented people and remember how important talent was when they started. They were neither the first in their field nor possibly the best, but they had the talent to succeed where others did not. Silicon Valley attributes this attitude to Google's acquisition of 45-people Applied Semantics in 2003, the deal that coined the term "acqui-hire": that team went on to develop AdSense, a major source of revenues for Google. Seattle, on the other hand, may claim that Microsoft pioneered this model when it acquired Groove in 2005: Microsoft never did much with Groove's peer-to-peer collaboration software, but Groove's founder Ray Ozzie eventually replaced Bill Gates as Microsoft's chief software architect. In other words, Microsoft had acquired Ozzie's talent, not Groove's product. (Silicon Valley can, however, respond that Microsoft acquired Danger and did nothing with it, whereas Google acquired Danger's founder Andy Rubin and its Android technology, and for a much cheaper price than Microsoft paid for Danger).
Exponential OrganizationsA new buzzword was created in 2014 when Salim Ismail, a founding director of Singularity University, co-wrote with Michael Malone and Yuri van Geest "Exponential Organizations" (2014): 3D printing had gotten 400 times cheaper over just 7 years, industrial robots got 23 times cheaper over 5 years, drones got 143-times cheaper in 4 years, and sequencing the human genome got 10,000-times cheaper in 7 years.
SemiconductorsClick here for this section
The Investment Bubble of 2013Click here for this section
Management for Delight
Silicon Valley had always pioneered new forms of management. Fairchild and Intel allowed engineers to behave in a more casual manner than their counterparts on the East Coast, and Xerox PARC made it even more casual. HP pioneered a family-style approach to management. And so forth.
At the beginning of the new century new experiments characterized the biggest success stories. Larry Page debuted as CEO of Google by fighting bureaucracy, to the point that eventually middle management was wiped out; but only to retract and re-hire all those supervisors. However, Larry Page had shifted the emphasis to hiring the right people, even if that meant slowing down the pace of growth, and that principle remained in place even when the hierarchy was reintroduced.
Twitter embraced the principle that "the purpose of hierarchy is to destroy bad bureaucracy" (credited to Chris Fry). So hierarchy is good but bureaucracy is bad. That became a recurring theme. Ask people to obey a boss and they will be happy to be followers; ask them to fill a form and they will quit. So much so that Adobe removed the yearly performance evaluation, one of the most common practices in the USA, and replaced it with a year-long feedback from the boss; basically "guidance" instead of "examination".
A lot of startups also realized that the DIY (do it yourself) model is not always productive and, alas, often alienates engineers, who would rather focus on what they do best. Hence the DIFM (do it for me) model, in which the engineer expects the structure to provide everything that is needed for engineers to focus on their tasks. Even the concept of the "job description" was not always clear. Facebook hired the best and then sent them to a six-week boot camp to figure out the best way for them to contribute to the organization. Slogan: "every job is temporary". Team work was always important in Silicon Valley, but this was the age when most companies, large and small, recognized Richard Hackman's rule of thumb that "no work team should have membership in the double digits". And Bob Sutton at Stanford admonished that "one deadbeat cuts team performance by 30-40%". Combine the two rules of thumb and you get the typical engineering team of the 2010s. As for customer relationships, Intuit's Stephen Gay spoke of "Design for Delight", create an organization that "evokes positive emotion throughout the customer's journey".
Unspoken but widespread was the rule that an organization must be able to steal from others, and morally and legally justify it, while at the same time making sure, on both moral and legal grounds, that others didn't steal from itself. The history of Silicon Valley had often been the history of how a "genius" stole an idea from someone else and turned it into a runaway success (semiconductors, personal computers, database management systems, social media). Terms like "traitors" and lawsuits settled out of court are as much part of the history as the more widely publicized products.
WeChat vs Everybody ElseThe truth is that, despite the ridiculous valuations, the unicorns and the million startups, the Internet world (and the world of so-called "smart" devices in general) had never been so maddeningly complicated, with thousands of "smartphone apps" on dozens of different devices. The crisis was not felt in the USA, where competition was still viewed as beneficial to the investment community (certainly not to the user, who had to use myriad applications during an average day). The crisis was not felt in China either, but for a different reason: Weixin/Wechat had largely solved the problem in just a few years since its founding. Launched in 2011 by Tencent (that originally simply offered a copy of ICQ called QQ), within 5 years Wechat had learned how to combine messaging, voice calling, video conferencing, group chatting, Facebook, Twitter, Paypal, Dropbox, and more into one simple and fast app. The original chat/messaging system designed by Xiaolong Zhang had rapidly become a universal platform for all sorts of online needs. 700 million Chinese were using it, and they were spending on average 35% of their online time on it, with little or no distinction between work and private life. Wechat had turned into a smartphone feature almost every ordinary action. For example, exchanging business cards had been reduced to beaming a QR code from one smartphone to another one. In 2016 the cash-less economy was a reality in China, where even taxi drivers and humble family restaurants accepted payment with smartphones (both Tencent's Wechat and Alibaba's Alipay) when it was still a very confusing rarity in Silicon Valley. The smartphone was a frustrating experience in the USA, where the proliferation of apps, notifications and mandatory updates was rapidly becoming more of a distraction than an attraction; whereas in China the smartphone had indeed become an indispensable limb of the body.
Corporate Venture CapitalCorporate venture capital (CVC) was born in 1914 when Pierre Dupont, the owner of a chemical firm, invested in a startup named General Motors. This would remain the largest CVC for about half a century. Other pioneering CVC programs were launched by 3M (arguably the most successful programs), Alcoa, Boeing, Dow, Ford, General Electric, General Dynamics, Mobil, Monsanto, Ralston Purina, Singer, , Union Carbide, WR Grace, etc. Exxon's CVC was started in 1964 and became the largest CVC investor of the 1970s, overtaking DuPont (although it folded in 1984 amid skyrocketing losses). Two factors had a negative influence on CVC in the 1970s: the USA increased the capital gains tax in 1969, and the IPO market collapsed due to the oil crisis of 1973. By 1978 only 20 CVCs remained in the whole country. The capital gains tax was significantly reduced in 1980, and in 1982 it became legal for firms to buy back their shares. At the same time, the personal computer revolution, that began in earnest with the IBM PC of 1982, created a whole new range of investment opportunities. The 1980s witnessed a boom in venture capital and a boom in CVCs. In some cases CVC represented more than one corporation. For example, in 1982 three giants (AT&T, 3M, and Gulf & Western) formed Edelson Technology Partners. In 1987 the stock market crashed and CVC action came to a standstill again. Nonetheless, it was in 1988 that Xerox started Xerox Technology Ventures ("XTV") to help and commercialize the technology invented at its other research labs, notably at PARC. This turned out to be one of the most successful CVCs of the era. Intel launched Intel Capital in 1991, which by the year 2000 would account for about one third of Intel's total profits. After another recession, in 1992, caused by the Savings & Loan crisis, CVCs entered the age of the dotcom boom after Netscape's 1995 IPO, and this were mostly corporations that wanted a shortcut to Silicon Valley technology by investing in its startups. The up and down continued with the dotcom crash of 2000 that dramatically thinned the field. Despite the Great Recession of 2007, three key events stimulated a new wave of CVCs: in 2007 Microsoft invested in the startup Facebook, in 2008 Google launched Google Ventures that would become one of the most active CVCs in Silicon Valley, and in 2009 Salesforce started a similar CVC. CVCs popped up everywhere because firms located outside Silicon Valley wanted both an observatory on current innovation and a way to prevent being left behind by the next wave of innovation.
Culture and SocietyClick here for this section
The Empire ContinuedClick here for this section
The Virtual Clusters
The Hyper-visionariesClick here for this section
The Boom of all Booms 2014-17Click here for this section